Prava istorija koja je inspirisala "Ratove zvezda"

Prava istorija koja je inspirisala


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Kada je George Lucas razvio priču za "Ratove zvijezda" i stvorio svoje junake i negativce, uključio se u elemente teologije, mistike i mitologije, kao i u znanje o klasičnim filmovima. Prikladna za priču smještenu “davno”, istorija iz stvarnog života takođe je igrala centralnu ulogu u oblikovanju kosmičke opere.

"Volim historiju, pa iako je psihološka osnova" Ratova zvijezda "mitološka, ​​političke i društvene osnove su historijske", rekao je Lucas za Boston Globe u intervjuu 2005. godine. Zapravo, režiser je toliko ljubitelj istorije da je sarađivao u izdavanju knjige „Ratovi zvijezda i historija“ iz 2013., koju su uredile profesorice historije Nancy R. Reagin i Janice Liedl. Napisano od desetak vodećih povjesničara, pregledano i potvrđeno od strane Lucasa, "Ratovi zvijezda i istorija" identifikuju brojne ličnosti i događaje iz stvarnog života koji su inspirisali naučno-fantastičnu franšizu, uključujući sljedeće:

Nacistička Njemačka
Nema ništa suptilno u ovoj povijesnoj aluziji u "Ratovima zvijezda". Uostalom, elitne jurišne snage fanatično posvećene Galaktičkom Carstvu dijele zajedničko ime s paravojnim borcima koji su branile nacističku stranku - olujne snage. Uniforme carskih oficira, pa čak i kaciga Darth Vadera, nalikuju onima koje su nosili pripadnici njemačke vojske u Drugom svjetskom ratu, a postepeni uspon Palpatina od kancelara do cara odražava sličan politički uspon Adolfa Hitlera od kancelara do diktatora. Međutim, Carstvo nije bila jedina strana u "Ratovima zvijezda" koja je potisnula nacističke slike. Posljednja scena originalnog “Ratova zvijezda” iz 1977. godine u kojoj princeza Leia dodjeljuje medalje pobunjeničkim herojima Luke Skywalkeru i Hanu Solou dok su vojnici stajali u centru pažnje odjeknula je masovnim nacističkim skupovima u Nürnbergu snimljenim u propagandnom filmu Leni Riefenstahl iz 1935. godine “Trijumf volje”. ”

Richard Nixon
Iako postoje paralele između cara Palpatina i diktatora poput Hitlera i Napoleona Bonaparte, izravna inspiracija za zlog antagonista sage zapravo je bio američki predsjednik. Prema J.W. Rinzlerov “The Making of Star Wars: Return of the Jedi”, na pitanje da li je car Palpatine bio Jedi tokom konferencije o pričama 1981., Lucas je odgovorio: “Ne, on je bio političar. Zvao se Richard M. Nixon. Podrivao je senat i konačno preuzeo vlast i postao carski čovjek i bio je zaista zao. Ali pretvarao se da je zaista fin momak. ” U intervjuu objavljenom u Chicago Tribuneu 2005. godine, Lucas je rekao da je prvobitno zamislio "Ratove zvijezda" kao reakciju na Nixonovo predsjedništvo. „Zaista se radilo o Vijetnamskom ratu, a to je bio period u kojem je Nixon pokušavao da se kandiduje za [drugi] mandat, što me navelo na istorijsko razmišljanje o tome kako se demokratije pretvaraju u diktature? Zato što demokratije nisu srušene; oni su poklonjeni. "

Vijetnamski rat
Gerilski rat koji je Pobunjenički savez vodio protiv Galaktičkog carstva preslikao je bitku između pobunjeničkih snaga i globalne velesile koja se odigravala u Vijetnamu dok je Lucas pisao "Ratove zvijezda". Redatelj, koji je prvobitno trebao režirati film o vijetnamskom ratu "Apokalipsa sada" ranih 1970-ih, prije nego što je prešao na "Ratove zvijezda", rekao je u audio komentaru o ponovnom izdanju filma "Povratak Jedija" 2004. godine Viet Cong mu je poslužio kao inspiracija za krznene Ewoke koji su živjeli u šumama i koji su uspjeli pobijediti izuzetno superiornog protivnika unatoč svom primitivnom oružju. Kao što William J. Astore piše u “Ratovima zvijezda i istoriji”, i Viet Cong i Ewoks bili su posluženi svojim “vrhunskim poznavanjem lokalnog terena i sposobnošću da se uklope u taj teren”.

Drevni Rim
Političke institucije "Ratova zvijezda"-poput Senata, Republike i Carstva-i pseudolatinska imena likova poput kancelara Valoruma i Palpatina odjekuju imena starog Rima. Kao što Tony Keen primjećuje u “Ratovima zvijezda i povijesti”, arhitektura na planeti Naboo podsjeća na onu carskog Rima, a trka mahuna u “Fantomskoj prijetnji” parira onoj u utrci rimskih kočija koja se vidi na ekranu u “Ben-Hur. ” Prijelaz iz demokratske Galaktičke Republike u diktatorsko Galaktičko Carstvo tijekom franšize odražava i onaj iz starog Rima. "Jasno je da osnovna struktura Lucasove povijesti potječe od pada Rimske republike i kasnijeg uspostavljanja monarhije", piše Keen.

Vitezovi templari
Dok elitni Džedaji - koji čuvaju mir i pravdu u Galaktičkoj Republici - imaju sličnosti s japanskim samurajima i šaolinskim monasima, oni također odjekuju srednjovjekovni monaški vojni red vitezova templara. Templari, piše Terrance MacMullan u “Ratovima zvijezda i historiji”, “bili su cijenjeni iznad ostalih vitezova zbog svoje strogosti, predanosti i moralne čistoće. Poput Džedaja, oni su prakticirali individualno siromaštvo u okviru vojno-monaškog reda koji je imao velika materijalna sredstva. ” Vijeće starješina od 12 članova na čelu s velikim majstorom upravljalo je i Jedijima i Templarima, a Jedi je odjeću čak nalikovao bijelim haljinama s kapuljačama koje su nosili kršćanski monasi ratnici koji su se zavjetovali na siromaštvo, čistoću i poslušnost. Slično kao i velika Džedajska čistka koju je naredio kancelar Palpatine u "Osveti Sita", francuski kralj Filip IV uništio je vitezove templare nakon što ih je uhapsio stotine 13. oktobra 1307. godine, a zatim ih mučio i pogubio zbog hereze.

Hladni rat
Napeti odnosi između Sjedinjenih Država i Sovjetskog Saveza, s prijetnjom nuklearnog uništenja koji je vrebao u pozadini, teško da su bili povijest kada su "Ratovi zvijezda" premijerno izvedeni 1977. Prijetnja planeti koju predstavlja nuklearno oružje kapsulirana je na ekranu u vrhunsko oružje masovnog uništenja - Zvijezda smrti - koje je uništilo matičnu planetu princeze Leie Alderaan, plavu kuglu koja je jako podsjećala na Zemlju. Sam "Ratovi zvijezda" ušao je u područje istorije hladnog rata nakon što su ga mediji usvojili 1980 -ih kao nadimak za predloženu Stratešku odbrambenu inicijativu predsjednika Ronalda Reagana, koja bi koristila lasere za odbranu Sjedinjenih Država od dolazećih nuklearnih projektila.


Ratovi zvijezda izvori i analozi

The Ratovi zvijezda Priznaje se da je naučnofantastična medijska franšiza inspirirana mnogim izvorima. To uključuje religije južne i istočne Azije, Qigong, filozofiju, klasičnu mitologiju, rimsku povijest, zoroastrizam, dijelove abrahamskih religija, konfucijanizam, shinto i taoizam i bezbroj filmskih prethodnika. Kreator George Lucas izjavio je: "Većina duhovne stvarnosti u filmovima zasnovana je na sintezi svih religija. Sinteza kroz historiju na način na koji je čovjek percipirao nepoznato i veliku misteriju i pokušao se nositi s tim ili se nositi s tim ". [1]

Lucas je također rekao da su viteštvo, viteštvo, paladinizam i srodne institucije u feudalnim društvima inspirirali neke koncepte u Ratovi zvijezda filmovi, a ponajviše Jedi vitezovi. Djelo mitologa Josepha Campbella, posebno njegova knjiga Heroj sa hiljadu lica, direktno utjecao na Lucasa, [2] i to ga je navelo da stvori "moderni mit" o Ratovi zvijezda. Vjeruje se da je prirodni tok energije poznat kao Sila potekao iz koncepta qi/chi/ki, "sveobuhvatna vitalna energija univerzuma".

U čast 30 godina postojanja Ratovi zvijezda, History Channel premijerno je prikazao dvosatni događaj koji pokriva cijeli Ratovi zvijezda saga pod naslovom Ratovi zvijezda: Otkriveno naslijeđe. Sadržavajući intervjue poput Stephena Colberta, Newta Gingricha, Nancy Pelosi, Toma Brokawa, Dana Rathera, Pitera Jacksona, priznatih učenjaka i drugih, program je produbio u koncept herojske epike i utjecaje mitologije i drugih motiva koji su bili važni u pravljenje Ratovi zvijezda. Predmeti uključuju očeve grijehe i otkupljenje oca, punoljetstvo, izlazak iz običnog svijeta i druge.


Dugi put do & aposA Nove nade & apos

Lucas i Kurtz kupili su oko 12 stranica obrade Ratovi zvijezda u razne holivudske studije. United Artists su ih odbili. Isto je uradio i Universal. Međutim, 20th Century Fox, potaknut ranim glasinama iz Grafiti, odlučio je dvojici dati nešto novca za izradu scenarija.

Ali prelazak od grubog plana do konačnog scenarija trajao bi godinama. Zapravo, rani nacrti Ratovi zvijezda ne bi bilo prepoznatljivo čak ni upornim obožavateljima: Luke Skywalker je sivi stari general, Han Solo vanzemaljac nalik na žabu, postoji glavni lik po imenu Kane Starkiller, a tamna strana sile se zove 𠇋ogan. ”  

Lukas se borio da obuzda svoju svemirsku epopeju. Priča je bila previše gusta, tonski neuravnotežena i njene razrađene scene bile bi preskupe za snimanje. Njegov prijatelj i mentor, Francis Ford Coppola, izrazio je sumnju u rane nacrte. Čak je i Lucasov partner Kurtz opisao drugi nacrt kao “gobbledygook. ”

No, sa svakom rundom priča se poboljšavala. U drugom nacrtu, objavljenom 1975., Luke Skywalker je dječak sa farme, a ne stariji general, a Darth Vader je prijeteći čovjek u crnom s kojim smo danas upoznati. Treći nacrt predstavio je Obi-Wan Kenobija i povećao napetost između Leie i Hana Soloa.  Priznajući da je imao problema s pisanjem dijaloga, Lucas je pozvao pomoć pisaca Willarda Huycka i Glorije Katz (iako je redatelj prepravio većinu njihovih promjena) . Za Lukasa, Ratovi zvijezda konačno došao u fokus. 1. januara 1976. završio je četvrti nacrt scenarija, onaj koji je konačno korišten kada je proizvodnja započela u Tunisu 25. marta 1976. godine.

Lucas i Kurtz prvobitno su za film predvidjeli 18 miliona dolara. Fox im je ponudio 7,5 miliona dolara. U želji da počnu snimati, prihvatili su ponudu, a ostalo je prošlost.

Objavljeno 1977. Ratovi zvijezda započeo je novu eru stvaranja filmova sa svojim posebnim efektima, fantastičnom izgradnjom svijeta i zadivljujućom mješavinom mita i bajke. Iako je konačni budžet iznosio 11 miliona dolara, film je zaradio više od 513 miliona dolara širom svijeta tokom svog prvobitnog izlaska, postavljajući pozornicu za franšizu koja će se protezati decenijama i stvarati generacije obožavatelja širom svijeta —sve povezane zajedničkom ljubavlju prema dalekoj galaksiji , daleko.  


Ratovi zvijezda: Pravi, krvoločni samuraj koji je inspirirao Darth Vadera

Pojava i životna priča zloglasnog vojskovođe Date Masamunea dijele mnoge paralele s Darth Vaderom iz Ratova zvijezda.

Poznato je da je inspiraciju crpio George Lucas Ratovi zvijezda iz samurajske kulture feudalnog Japana, ali pokazalo se da je imao u vidu određenu povijesnu ličnost za osnovu Darth Vadera. Najpoznatiji negativac u povijesti kinematografije dijeli mnogo toga zajedničkog s jednim od najpoznatijih i zastrašujućih vojskovođa u japanskoj povijesti, Date Masamune.

Date Masamune bio je inspiracija za stvaranje Darth Vadera ne samo kroz njegov prepoznatljivi crni oklop, već i kroz njegovu životnu priču i kompliciranu reputaciju kao dobrotvornog i osvetoljubivog. Masamune se uzdigao kroz redove feudalnog Japana i postao jedan od najmoćnijih ratnih gospodara u zemlji, slično kao i uspon Vadera na vladara galaksije.

Lucas je bio jako inspiriran samurajskom kulturom i istočnjačkim religijama za svoje duhovne ratnike, Džedaje i zastrašujuće Lordove Sita. Bio je veliki obožavatelj ugledne japanske redateljice, Akire Kurosawe, koja je snimila film tzv Kagemusha, čiji je Lucas bio izvršni producent. Najvažnije, Vaderova kaciga može se pratiti do samurajske opreme, posebno Masamuneovog kultnog crnog oklopa. Masamune je nosio obrubljenu kacigu sa proširenim štitom oko leđa i bočnih strana glave, slično kao što je kaciga po kojoj je Vader poznat. Najranije skice Vadera od Ralpha McQuarriea jezivo podsjećaju na Masamunea u njegovom cijelom oklopu, čineći vezu neporecivom.

Datum, gotovo mitski život Masamunea takođe pruža nekoliko paralela zloglasnom Ratovi zvijezda zlikovac. Masamune je rođen 1576. Najstariji sin feudalnog gospodara nad regijom Tohoku u Japanu, Masamune je kao dijete izgubio vid na desno oko nakon što je obolio od malih boginja, slično kao što je Anakin izgubio mnoge udove i tjelesne sposobnosti u bitci za Mustafar. Masamunea je majka napustila zbog oštećenja vida, što ga je učinilo manje prikladnim nasljednikom porodičnog prijestolja. Anakin je također odrastao sa samo jednim roditeljem, iako je majka ostala ta koja ga je odgajala.

Masamune je rođen u političkoj nestabilnosti u Japanu i sa svojim ocem je od malih nogu učestvovao u vojnim kampanjama. Postao je nemilosrdni ratnik i sposoban vođa svog porodičnog klana, naslijedio je svog oca i zasigurno dokazao inspiraciju za meteoritski uspon Anakina do Jedi Viteza i na kraju Sith Lord. Masamuneova žestina mu je omogućila da dođe na vlast, ali se takođe ticala kolega lordova koji su se bojali njegovih ambicija. Ovaj sukob se vidi i u Anakinovoj priči, budući da su ga Anakinove impresivne sposobnosti učinile velikim džedajem, ali i potaknute duboko ukorijenjenim bijesom koji je zabrinuo Vijeće džedaja.

Masamune je imao impozantnu reputaciju među ostalim feudalnim gospodarima i nije dobro podnosio izdajnike. Jedna grupa pobunjeničkih samuraja otela je Masamuninog oca, što je izazvalo brzu odmazdu Masamuneove vojske. Kada je Masamune sustigao otmičare koji su bježali prije nego što su prešli rijeku u njihovo područje, njegov otac je naredio Masamuninim trupama da pucaju na otmičare. Poslušali su i ugušili pobunu, zajedno sa ubistvom Masamuninog oca. Kao kaznu za ubistvo svog oca, Masamune je ubio člana porodice svih muškaraca uključenih u otmicu. Ovo zvuči strašno poznato kako je Anakin ubio sve Tusken Raiders nakon što su oteli i uzrokovali smrt njegove majke, Shmi.

Masamune je postao najmoćniji vojskovođa u sjevernom Japanu, ali su njegova krvava osvajanja na bojnom polju bila popraćena i dobrotvornim djelima koja je izvršio dok je bio na vlasti. Masamune je izgradio japansku pomorsku infrastrukturu zapadnom tehnologijom koju je oduševljeno prihvatio. On je također olakšao širenje kršćanstva i podržao jednu od jedinih diplomatskih misija u feudalnom Japanu, prvu japansku pomorsku ekspediciju koja je obišla svijet. I Masamune i Vader izgradili su cvjetajuće carstvo zasnovano na tehnološkom napretku i strogom vodstvu koje je nadahnulo poslušnost.

Paralele između Date Masamune i Darth Vadera su začuđujuće. Lukasa nije inspiriralo samo strašno samurajsko ratno odijelo, već i njegov izvanredan i naporan život. Čini se prikladnim da se najstrašniji Sith u galaksiji temelji na jednako impozantnoj figuri u japanskoj povijesti, koja se uzdigla u pop kulturu. Sila je svakako jaka sa Masamuneom.


Nevjerojatne priče, umjetnost i povijest pronađene u ‘Ratovi zvijezda i moć kostima ’

Stajati ispred niza haljina kraljice Amidale kao da virite iza zavjese prije predstave na modnoj pisti. Ručno dimljeni baršun ustupa mjesto sirovim svilenim sifonima od sifona koji se miješaju s finim filigranima i razigranim pernatim ogrtačem. Neki izgledaju pomalo neugodno — jedna haljina zapravo zahtijeva od nosioca da stavi automobilski akumulator kako bi osvijetlio niz globusa na njegovoj krutoj podlozi — dok su drugi jednostavno poželjni, ali svaki od njih ima nepogrešiv zrak.

Ovdje, među ručno odabranom zbirkom filmskih čuda, kustosi iza gostujuće izložbe „Pobunjenik, Jedi, princeza, kraljica: Ratovi zvijezda i moć kostima ”, pričaju priču o kreativnom procesu od eklektičnih inspiracija do fizičkih manifestacija. StarWars.com posjetio je izložbu posljednjih dana u New Yorku, s ciljem da se 13. novembra otvori u Muzeju umjetnosti Denver.

Odjećući stanovnike galaksije daleko, daleko, kostimografi evociraju mitološke heroje i astronaute iz stvarnog života, istočnjačke kraljevske porodice i modele iz doba Rafaelita. Udahnuvši život viziji Georgea Lucasa#8217, koju su osmislili umjetnici poput Ralpha McQuarriea i Iaina McCaiga, a zatim su je osmislili poput Johna Molla i Trishe Biggar, bila su potrebna međunarodna putovanja kako bi se pronašle savršene tkanine.

Ponekad je čak i njihov ručak postao hrana za blistave pokrivače za glavu. Kako se priča, Biggar i njen tim su se jednog dana odmorili radeći na predgovorima i jedući abalone. "Gledaju ove školjke i, nakon što su završili s ručkom, dali su im konobaru da ih stavi u vreću za pse", kaže Saul Sopoci Drake, razvijač izložbi koji stoji iza izložbe. "Te su granate završile u kruni kraljice Jamille."

Jamillina potpuna regalija jedna je od oko 70 komada, uključujući oklopljena tijela lovaca na glave i droide, monaške haljine Jedija i Sitha i kultni izgled klasičnih filmova.

Zanatstvo i umjetnost

Drake iz Službe putujućih izložbi Smithsonian Institution -a i Laela French, direktorica arhive za Muzej narativne umjetnosti Lucas na ranču Skywalker, zajedno su radili na prikupljanju hiljada pomno očuvanih komada kako bi sjajno osvijetlili kreativni poduhvat i zamršenost svakog kostima. . Za vjenčanje Anakina i Padméa, kostimograf Biggar je cijelu noć prije snimanja ostao budan kako bi ovjenčao vjenčanicu, koja je već bila izrađena od antičkog italijanskog čipkanog prekrivača iz 20. stoljeća i ukrašena s više od 300 metara francuske pletene pletenice.

Izložba daje obožavateljima priliku da dođu nadohvat ruke (ali ne previše blizu i bez dodira) kako bi pregledali Biggarove ručne radove. "Kad ih vidite izbliza, zaista ćete moći cijeniti detalje, vještinu i umjetnost", kaže Drake. “Bilo je toliko vremena, truda i detalja. Neka su umjetnička djela. Ostale su modne izjave. ”

Uzmimo, na primjer, ogromnu Amidalinu garderobu, jednake dijelove visoke mode i kulturno poštovanje. Lik je imao toliko promjena kostima u tri filma da su neke haljine bile potrebne za stvaranje mjeseci, ali su bile na ekranu samo nekoliko sekundi. Među Drakeovim favoritima je i senatska haljina koja se može pohvaliti raskošnim ukrasom s inspirisanim Mongolom, koji zajedno sa svim ostalim u emisiji mora putovati u pažljivo upakovanom prilagođenom sanduku. “Na simboličkom nivou, kada pogledate ovaj pokrivač za glavu, ova osoba ne kopa jarke. Ona je kraljica nekih ljudi ", kaže on. Ti neverbalni znakovi, u ovom slučaju nagovještaj tibetanskih kraljevskih kraljevskih regalija na prijelazu stoljeća, prožimaju mnoge likove s jasnom svrhom čim izađu na ekran. "Zaista na simboličkom nivou, ovdje se igraju neke moćne stvari."

‘Konačni zločesti momak ’

Platforme na otvorenom na kojima se nalazi veliki broj kostima poklon je strastvenim kosplanerima. Povremeno je Drake iznio i svoje zahtjeve za znanjem iza scene. Prije nego što je u rujnu pakirao predstavu u New Yorku, imao je zadatak izmjeriti dio haljine Obi-Wan Kenobi Aleca Guinnessa za čovjeka koji je gradio svoju odjeću za Jedija i nije mogao savršeno usavršiti pojas. "To je dokaz vjerodostojnosti baze obožavatelja", kaže Drake. "Imate zaista strastvene obožavatelje koji žive i dišu ove stvari."

Amidala haljine#8217 posebno su zapanjujuće po broju i sjaju. Izblizu se sa pomnjivom preciznošću mogu proučavati raskošni rukavi zvonastih obloga, fini ogrlice izrađene od grozdastih perlica i perje i rozete koje ukrašavaju ansamble. Nasuprot tome, odore Džedaja i Sita izgledaju varljivo jednostavne, poput skromnih zamki redovnika. Ali izbliza se može vidjeti način na koji su slojevi tkanine dopustili tuniku Sith -ovog učenika Darth Maula da se razliježe u koreografiranom sjaju, ili pregledaju fino obrađene kožne rukavice Mirialan Jedi Luminare Unduli.

Drakeu je bilo važno pratiti unatrag kulturne utjecaje koji su se kombinirali kako bi komade učinili poznatim i potpuno jedinstvenim. Vlastita biblioteka Georgea Lucasa#8217 na Skywalker Ranchu obuhvaća ogromnu zbirku referentnog materijala. „Ova biblioteka po dubini i širini parira nekim univerzitetskim bibliotekama“, kaže Drake. „Svi ovi kostimi na ovaj ili onaj način su nam donekle poznati. Vidjeli smo njihove aspekte u kulturnoj i svjetskoj historiji. "


Japanski stilovi kimona su tema koja se ponavlja, u vanjskim školjkama kraljevske odjeće i u donjim odijelima skromnih Jedi haljina. Narandžasti kombinezoni stvarnih astronauta Mercury 7 utjecali su na uniforme pilota pobunjenika, dok Carstvo uzima modne znakove iz nacističke Njemačke. Čak i nezaboravan bikini koji je princeza Leia nosila u palači Jabba svoju inspiraciju duguje drugim robinjama prikazanim na srebrnom platnu.

Iako su manji u broju, komadi iz originalne trilogije ističu se kao kamen temeljac više potcenjene jednostavnosti u poređenju sa velikim budžetom, prequelom. Bijela haljina do poda Carrie Fisher#8217s Princess Leia, sa stezaljkom od srebra, elegantno je jednostavna i iznenađujuće mala. Prsna ploča Darth Vadera izvorno je bila tek nešto više od obojenog drvenog bloka, kaže Drake. "Tako je zanimljivo vidjeti detalje o klasičnim kostimima", dodaje on. "Doslovno su to komadići drveta." Ali na ekranu se filmska magija i simbolika spajaju. "Čak i prije nego što ga čujete kako priča ili diše, znate da je on krajnji loš momak."

Zlostavljanje vojnika

Kako se ispostavilo, Mark Hamill je zapravo bio malo kratak za jurišnika. Njegov oklop morao je biti posebno izrađen kako bi odgovarao njegovom okviru, kaže French, a kaciga koju je nosio bila je katalogizirana u arhivi. No, do drugih autentičnih kostima jurišnih vojnika teže je doći gotovo 40 godina nakon debija originalnog filma.

Drake je uspio osigurati a Povratak Jedija -stari komplet oklopa za predstavu, kompletan sa ogrebotinama, prljavštinom i pukotinama. Formirano je samo 50 jurišnika Nova nada , a mnogi od njih su ponovno korišteni za nastavak. Ali oni su potpuno prepravljeni i revidirani Jedi s višim, mršavijim šljemovima, kaže French. "Moja sumnja je da jednostavno nisu preživjeli zlostavljanje i upotrebu" iz prethodna dva filma.

"U vremenskom periodu dok su snimali neke od ovih filmova nisu razmišljali o tome da ove stvari zadrže za muzejsku izložbu 2016.", kaže Drake. „Iako je oklop napravljen da izgleda i zvuči kao metal, u osnovi je plastičan. Zaista je pretučeno. Možete reći da se glumac valjao po zemlji. On je udubljen, napuknut, cijelih devet metara. To vam zaista daje uvažavanje onoga što arhiva čini da sačuva neke od ovih stvari. ”

Impresivna kolekcija obuhvaća cijelu franšizu od sedam filmova, debitirajući neke komade iz Ratovi zvijezda: Sila se budi prije premijere filma.


Zastupljeni su centralni likovi kostima#8217, uključujući i kultna stvorenja, poput isklesanih stakloplastike, plastike oblikovane usisavačem i aluminijskih droida te kaputa od jaka i mohera Chewbacca#8217, podsjećajući na visokog rasta Petera Mayhewa. Trenje je utrljalo dio sjaja sa zlatnih spojeva C-3PO-a#8217, a na njegovoj furniru su vidljivi neki mrlje i ogrebotine. Jednostavna skica prikazuje kako se Kenny Baker sagnuo u R2-D2, nogu postavljenu sa obje strane kako bi omogućila kretanje, ali Drake voli sam pregledati unutarnji rad droida kada sruši izložbu kako bi je prenio na sljedeću obilazak stanice.

300 dodatnih komada

Nije sve bilo izrađeno posebno za originalne filmove ili nužno zadržano, francuske note. Bela tunika i visoke čizme Luke iz#8217 -ih iz njegovih prvih scena kao jednostavnog dečaka sa farme na Tatooine -u značajan su propust. "Voljeli bismo da ga imamo, ali nemamo", kaže ona. Isto vrijedi i za žutu jaknu koju je obukao tokom dodjele medalja u finalu Nova nada, koji je izgleda došao i vraćen u Bermans & amp Nathans, londonsku prodavnicu kostima.

Kad je došlo vrijeme za snimanje prequel -a, francuski je bio spreman da nadgleda sveobuhvatniji sistem arhiviranja i katalogiziranja. Svaki kostim je sačuvan, kaže ona, kao i drugi dijelovi koji su ušli u kreiranje garderobe.


Oko 300 dodatnih komada iz arhive bit će posebno isporučeno za predstavu#8217 koja se izvodi u Denveru. Svako mjesto izložbe debitiralo je u Seattleu prije nego što je skoro godinu dana provelo u New Yorku — ima priliku stilizirati je kao svoju, kažu Drake i Francuzi. Za publiku muzeja umjetnosti to znači još dublji pogled na proces stvaranja kostima. "Oni ponovo stvaraju taj osjećaj u studiju", kaže French, uključujući uzorke kostima, probne uzorke koje se Biggar igrao sa svilenim ekranom na šifonu, pa čak i na samim ekranima, urezanim Naboo simbolikom. "To je kao kad vidite umjetnički studio i njegovu paletu", kaže French. "Imamo nešto od tog neurednog#8212, ali zaista zanimljivog#8212 procesa i prelijepo je."

Ratovi zvijezda i moć kostima ”bit će izloženi u Denveru od 13. novembra 2016. do 2. aprila 2017. godine, prije nego što nastave na druge lokacije koje će se najaviti širom svijeta. Francuzi napominju da će ovo stajalište biti krajnji zapad koji izložba planira otvoriti u Sjedinjenim Državama.

Kristin Baver je spisateljica i svestrana naučnofantastična štreberka koja uvijek ima samo još jedno pitanje na neiscrpnoj listi zanimljivosti. Ponekad izbaci "To je zamka!" čak i kad nije. Pratite je na Twitteru @KristinBaver.


Prava sila iza ‘Star Wars ’: Kako je George Lucas izgradio carstvo

Roba od 20 milijardi dolara prodata kroz seriju filmova otkriva odjek jednostavne priče o dobru protiv zla-i potezima kreatorima pokreta pokreta.

Alex Ben Block

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Star Wars omaži su svakako imali istoriju. Postoje Seth Green ’ Robot Chicken specijaliteti, nedavna božićna epizoda Glee, epizoda “Blue Harvest ” Porodicni covjek, čak i Mel Brooks ’ 1987 podvala Svemirske loptice. A onda je došlo do ovogodišnjeg Super Bowla na kojem je Volkswagen debitirao s reklamom od 30 sekundi pod naslovom “Pas uzvraća udarac ” s pooch-om inspiriranim novom VW Bubom iz 2012. kako bi došao u formu. Komercijalni rezovi na sceni u Cantini iz originalnih Ratova zvijezda, ispunjeni likovima iz filma — uključujući Darth Vader — koji se svađaju oko toga koji je oglas najbolji. Ovo za uzbunjivačem proizvođača automobila#8217 od sredine januara, “The Bark Side, ” koji je pokazao grupu pasa kako laju Ratovi zvijezda‘ Muzika Imperial March.

Šta Ratovi zvijezda nije sasvim jasno šta ima veze sa prodajom slatkog nemačkog uvoza. No, povezivanje Ratova zvijezda s oglašavanjem Volkswagena je: Oglasi su odmah postali viralni (kao i gotovo svi Ratovi zvijezda), čime se ne samo promovira nova Buba već i objavljivanje Epizoda I: Fantomska prijetnja, u kinima 10. februara u novoj 3D konverziji.

Naravno, Volkswagenova vinjeta samo je jedna kap u priči o najuspješnijoj holivudskoj marketinškoj franšizi u istoriji. Priča duga 35 godina, započela je originalom iz 1977. godine, koji se sada zove Ratovi zvijezda: Epizoda IV — Nova nada. Samo prošle godine franšiza je zaradila 3 milijarde dolara prihoda od licenciranja (sljedeća najprofitabilnija licencirana filmska roba je ona Automobili). Od lakih sablja prodanih u Targetu do više od 1,5 miliona poklonika koji su se pretplatili na igru ​​igranja uloga na mreži Ratovi zvijezda: Stara republika od decembra svakom malom Yodi koji vam se pojavi na Noć vještica, Ratovi zvijezda sveprisutna je kao i uvijek. “Veliko postignuće Ratovi zvijezda htio je uzeti umirući žanr u naučnoj fantastici i vratiti mu popularnost “, kaže Toby Miller, društveni naučnik i predsjednik Odjela za medije i kulturu na UC Riverside. “George Lucas uzeo je žanr koji je izgledao sirast i učinio da izgleda kao film visokog koncepta ulaganjem u nove ideje, tehnologije i ljude. Konačno, priča i slike bile su zvijezde, a ne glumci. ”

Zaista, Ratovi zvijezda‘ Osnovna priča o dobru i zlu postavljena u pozadini disfunkcionalne veze otac-sin sadrži teme koje odjekuju kod gledatelja bilo koje dobi. Pitajte bilo koga s djecom: Šta je nekad bila igra kauboja i IndijanacaRatovi zvijezda igrališta su se u post-Lucasovoj eri pretvorila u moralne bitke u kojima su učestvovali likovi koji se sada lako kupuju. U rasponu od Ratovi zvijezda‘ doživotno, 20 milijardi dolara i računajući licenciranu robu je prodano, ovo povrh 4,4 milijarde dolara u ulaznicama i 3,8 milijardi dolara u proizvodima za kućnu zabavu. Sa bazom obožavalaca koja se stalno obnavlja, Cartoon Network ima ogromnu gledanost u svom animiranom hitu Clone Wars (2,2 miliona gledalaca dnevno), što je iznjedrilo nove likove i igračke (uključujući vanzemaljku Padme Amidala i mladu Obi-Wan). Samo u partnerstvu s Lego -om, Ratovi zvijezda podigla je posrnulu marku igračaka na nove visine i prodala više od 15 miliona jedinica Lego Ratovi zvijezda video igrica.

Ali kako je Lucas, koji je tek postao složenija figura u posljednje dvije decenije, održao ovo najtrajnije i najunosnije zabavno carstvo? Nazovite to pitanjem fokusa — na priči nad stvarima. “I ’m samo sam iz filma. Brendiranje, licenciranje i takve stvari, zabavno je,#kaže Lucas. “Volim to što ima#sjajnih igračaka i smiješnih majica i zaista sjajnih spravica i stvari koje su zabavne. & hellip Ali, istovremeno, moj glavni fokus je samo na snimanju filma. Nisam vidio reklamu za VW, iako sam vidio prvu i pomislio da je izuzetno smiješna. ”

Sve je počelo skromno. Nakon njegovog uspjeha sa Američki grafiti 1973., Lucas je želio napraviti vestern set u svemiru kako bi osvježio žanr. Odbilo ga je nekoliko studija, ali je pronašao šampiona u Alan Ladd Jr., koji je tada vodio 20th Century Fox —, iako se većina ostalih direktora Foxa i upravni odbor kompanije nisu složili. Fox je dopustio Lucasu da plati dodatnih 500.000 dolara za režiju u zamjenu za zadržavanje licenciranja i prava na trgovinu za sebe, što je odluka koja bi studio koštala milijarde dolara.

Počevši s drugom epizodom, 1980. i#8217 Imperija uzvraća udarac, Lucas je preuzeo potpuno vlasništvo i kontrolu. Nikada više neće raditi u holivudskom mainstreamu, odlučujući da se zasnuje dalje od ludila u području zaliva San Francisco, gdje je odrastao.

Lucas je proširio svoje odjeljenje za specijalne efekte na Industrial Light & amp Magic, koji je postao ključni partner filmadžijama kojima su potrebni vrhunski efekti. Njegov Skywalker Sound pružao je niz tehničkih usluga. Godinama je imao kompjuterske odjele (od kojih je jedna izdvojena u Pixaru), otiske knjiga i druge poduhvate, jer je snimao filmove uključujući i hit seriju Indiana Jones.

While the movies have been lucrative, it is the licensing and merchandising that has brought a bonanza. Even Lucas was unprepared for the huge instant success of Ratovi zvijezda in 1977, driven in part by a series of comic books released as a setup to the theatrical experience. Lucas had sold toy-merchandising rights to his movie to Kenner (then a division of cereal maker General Foods) in advance of the opening for a flat fee of $100,000 after another company turned him down. However, Kenner wasn’t ready for the explosion of interest, either.

Unable to meet the demand by Christmas 1977, Kenner sold an “Early Bird Certificate Package,” which included a kind of I.O.U. that could be redeemed later for four Ratovi zvijezda action figures (Luke Skywalker, Princess Leia, Chewbacca and R2-D2), a display stand, stickers and a Ratovi zvijezda fan club membership card. In 1978, Kenner brought out four more action figures from the movie’s Cantina scene, and soon after that the line grew to 20 items. By the end of 1978, Kenner had sold more than 40 million of the figures for gross sales of more than $100 million.

For the release of Empire Strikes Back, Lucasfilm and Kenner were ready, doing mail promotions and adding figures including Boba Fett. That was the beginning of the era of TV-driven marketing tied to a movie, according to Derryl DePriest, vp global brand management for Hasbro, which acquired Kenner in 1991 and later Galoob, another early Ratovi zvijezda toy licensee: “That’s been the lasting legacy of Star Wars. The impact it has had on really big event-style merchandising.”

Danas Ratovi zvijezda is consistently among the top five licensed toy brands, bringing in retail sales of more than $3 billion in 2011. “It truly is incredible for any property to remain a top seller within licensed merchandise for such a long time,” says Anita Frazier, industry analyst for NPD Group, which tracks licensing. In 1999, as part of a drive to relicense Ratovi zvijezda timed to the launch of the second trilogy of movies, Lucas agreed to a construction-toy license with Lego. It was the first time the Danish company had licensed any movie or TV show. “We felt this was something we could re-create for a fantastic Lego experience,” says Jill Wilfert, Lego’s vp global licensing and marketing. “It has wildly exceeded everyone’s expectations.”

Since Howard Roffman became head of licensing in 1986, Lucasfilm has operated with a group of fewer than three dozen employees who do everything from track in exacting detail every story arc and character in the Star Wars universe, to ensuring quality standards are met. Lucas does not get personally involved in that oversight, but the buck still stops with him on every major decision. “We don’t put out anything there is not a consumer demand for,” says Roffman. “George doesn’t want to damage the reputation of Ratovi zvijezda in any way in the retail marketplace.”

Lucas keeps a tight rein on his world but isn’t a micromanager, according to Jim Gianopulos, co-chairman and co-CEO of 20th Century Fox, which has released all six of the Ratovi zvijezda movies in North America, and is distributor for Lucasfilm’s 3D rereleases.

“He gets involved he’s the ultimate arbiter,” says Gianopulos. “Obviously, he has many people he respects and trusts, or they wouldn’t be working for him. But ultimately George has been the creator and custodian of the greatest franchise in movie history. In the end, everything flows back to George. He will just know whether it’s right or wrong when he sees it.”

Steven Ekstract, group publisher of License! Global magazine, credits the merchandising and licensing for keeping fans involved between movies. “It keeps kids engaged between movies and TV seasons,” he says. “Ratovi zvijezda is consistently the number-one-selling boys’ toy in the world, year after year, even when there are no new films.” Naturally, merchandise is part of the promotion of the new Phantom Menace: At AMC theaters, ticket buyers will find a Lego feature area, pod-racer 3D glasses, demonstrations of a new Xbox Kinect game and free Hasbro Ratovi zvijezda Fighter Pods.

After he made the second Ratovi zvijezda trilogy, which ended in 2005 with Episode III — Revenge of the Sith, Lucas swore he was done. But the sale of merchandise and continuing interest showed him there was more to do, this time with a new generation. So he expanded the story back a thousand years to create a prequel that became The Clone Wars. First mentioned in Phantom Menace in 1999, it has grown into a whole new world of Ratovi zvijezda. What started as a theatrical release in 2008 has truly found its place as an animated series on Cartoon Network, where it has been the top-rated show for boys for four years.

Lucas currently is working on a comedic take on Ratovi zvijezda for another animated series and a live-action TV series (though he laments that he has yet to figure out how to do visual effects on a TV-show budget). Still, it sends a chill through the empire when Lucas says he may not be minding the store forever. He is even more central to the face and focus of his business than his friend Steve Jobs was to Apple. But lately Lucas has been bandying about the word “retirement” — or at least his idea of what that means.

With a personal fortune Forbes estimated at $3.2 billion in 2011, Lucas says he is “having a great time. I’ve got one daughter in martial arts, one daughter who is a writer — which is sort of another version of martial arts — and my son is in college. So things are good.”

But first he has to work on the script for Indiana Jones 5, finish the expansion of an animation studio in Singapore, oversee a new season of Clone Wars and ready the 3D rerelease of Episode II for 2013.

Whether anyone else will be able to follow his recipe seems unlikely. “What you are talking about here is the marrying of the genius of the product with the brilliance of the original creative endeavor,” says Jon Dolgen, former chairman and CEO of Viacom Entertainment Group. “You can have hard work, diligence and creative control — but pick another movie and I don’t know that you would end up in the same place.”


‘The Imperial March (Darth Vader’s Theme)’

In the movies: In the original trilogy, this theme follows the villainous Darth Vader in the prequels, it presages the dark fate of Anakin Skywalker. (Spoiler for the few strangers to “Star Wars”: Anakin and Vader are the same person.) The music is always a cue to the audience that evil is afoot.

In classical music: The march’s underlying rhythm recalls another celestial score: Gustav Holst’s “The Planets.” The subjects of Holst’s suite, however, are more mythological than astronomical. “Mars,” which resembles Darth Vader’s march, is subtitled “The Bringer of War.” This wouldn’t be the only time “Mars” inspired a film composer Hans Zimmer nearly quoted it directly in “Gladiator.”


6 The Senate Of Rome

The senate was one of the biggest plot points in the prequel trilogy. It was dominated around the fall of a republic, with Revenge of the Sith in particular showing how Palpatine could bend the senate to his will.

The senate was largely inspired by the Roman Senate, but connections to the German political system in Weimar Republic of the 1920s can also be seen in Palpatine’s rise to power that mirrored Hitler’s, with both dictators even holding the title of ‘chancellor.’


Holograms

When you're trapped in the tractor beam of an Imperial Star Destroyer and facing certain doom, there's no better way of sending a mayday message than via hologram. But while specially designed glasses have been used to create the illusion of 3D images for decades, free-standing holographic videos have been hard to reproduce.

In recent years, an old stage trick invented by John Pepper in the 19th century to give the illusion of a ghostlike apparition on stage has been revived, most notably to seemingly resurrect deceased rapper Tupac Shakur at the Coachella music festival in 2012. The method relies on a superthin sheet of foil hung at a 45-degree angle from the stage that is invisible to the naked eye but reflects images from a projector. The trick gives the illusion of a 3D image but only if you are standing in front of it.

Closer to the mark is the Voxiebox "swept surface volumetric display" made by Voxon, the result of a merger between two groups of Australian and American inventors. 3D models are sliced into hundreds of horizontal cross sections before a superfast projector beams them onto a flat screen that rapidly moves up and down. The human eye blends these projections together to create a 3D image that can move and be viewed from any angle, just like during Princess Leia's message to Obi-Wan Kenobi in "Star Wars: Episode IV - A New Hope."


How the Abandoned ‘Star Wars’ Expanded Universe Inspired ‘Force Awakens’

Meet Jacen Solo, Kyle Katarn and the other characters who paved the way for Kylo Ren, Finn and the new movie heroes.

Graeme McMillan

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[Warning: This story contains plot details from Star Wars: The Force Awakens that could be considered spoilers. Read further at your own risk.]

Fans of the Ratovi zvijezda Expanded Universe &mdash the spinoff novels and comic books that were pushed out of canon last year &mdash might have found Star Wars: The Force Awakens an even more nostalgic experience than the majority of viewers, thanks to a number of “new” concepts in the movie calling back to ideas that were explored in the EU a long time ago.

Those involved in the new movies have previously said that the Expanded Universe is “not off-limits” when it comes to inspiration for the newly established Ratovi zvijezda canon, and here are some ways in which The Force Awakens proved that to be true.

Kylo Ren Is Jacen Solo

The son of Han Solo and Leia Organa who turned to the Dark Side after being trained by Luke Skywalker? That not only describes Adam Driver’s Kylo Ren , but also Jacen Solo, one of three children of Han and Leia in the Expanded Universe chronology. Jacen was at the heart of many EU stories, including the Young Jedi Knights YA prose series &mdash which, as the name suggests, centered around Luke’s class of new Jedi &mdash and the later Legacy of the Force series, which tells the story of his transformation into Darth Caedus , a Sith Lord at odds with his family and ultimately killed by his twin sister, Jaina . (Also worth noting: Kylo Ren’s birth name was Ben, after Ben Kenobi . In the Expanded Universe, Ben is the son of Luke Skywalker.)

Luke Is A Terrible Teacher In Every Timeline

As can be seen above, Luke’s attempts to rebuild the Jedi Order have unfortunate effects in both the canonical Ratovi zvijezda saga and the Expanded Universe. He was, however, far luckier in the EU, where Jacen managed to go rogue without pushing Luke into exile as a result. Indeed, in the EU timeline, Luke did succeed in his mission, with the Jedi once again rising to prominence throughout the galaxy with Luke as its leader. In both new canon and the Expanded Universe, Yavin IV &mdash the moon that was the home for the Rebel Alliance in the original Ratovi zvijezda movie &mdash became the home base for the new Jedi Order it remains to be seen if Luke returns there in Star Wars: Episode VIII to try again.

Starkiller Base Is the Sun Crusher (And Is Also Named After Luke Skywalker)

Starkiller Base &mdash the planet-sized weapon that the First Order control in The Force Awakens &mdash is far from a new concept in Ratovi zvijezda lore it is, after all, a bigger (and more destructive) Death Star at heart. No surprise, then, that something along these lines has popped up in the Expanded Universe. The difference is the Sun Crusher, the threat at the heart of the Jedi Academy prose trilogy, was the size of a regular star fighter … but still contained the capability to destroy star systems, albeit by destroying the sun and leaving the surrounding planets to collapse in the aftermath.

Ime datoteke Force Awakens base is also all over the EU &mdash it’s the codename of Darth Vader’s apprentice in the Force Unleashed video games and tie-in stories, as well as a starship, a (separate, unrelated) destructive weapon and one of Luke’s childhood friends on Tatooine. Why does it appear so often? Because it was an earlier version of Luke Skywalker’s name in one of George Lucas’ first drafts of the Ratovi zvijezda screenplay.

Finn Is a Name I Haven’t Heard In a Long Time

John Boyega’s character might not have had a name before Poe Dameron (Oscar Isaac) gave him one, but the name “Finn” has an almost-Starkiller-like history in Ratovi zvijezda mythology: in the Expanded Universe alone, there was a Sith Master with that name millennia before the events of the prequel trilogy, as well as a soldier who fought an invading force years after the events of Povratak Jedija (u Star Wars Tales i Star Wars: Invasion comic book series, respectively), as well as characters in The Clone Wars animated series.

Similarly, Finn’s backstory parallels the Expanded Universe history for Han Solo, who was an Imperial pilot before becoming a smuggler, as well as Kyle Katarn, the lead character of the Jedi Knight videogame series who was a Stormtrooper before defecting to the Rebellion. (Like Finn, Katarn used a lightsaber at times, going on to become an instructor at the Jedi Academy.)

Povezane priče

A Closer Look at 'Star Wars: The Force Awakens' Character Mystery (Spoilers)

The First Order Is The Nagai

Unsurprisingly, the notion of the remnants of the Empire forming a new opposition to the Republic is an idea that appeared before The Force Awakens. In Expanded Universe mythology, the Empire staggered on for a decade or so after Povratak Jedija before essentially collapsing to in-fighting less than half a century later, but in Marvel’s original 1980s comic books &mdash which continued for two years after the release of Jedi, marking the first time anyone had attempted to tell a “What Happened Next” story in the series &mdash a number of Imperial forces were co-opted by a group of aliens called the Nagai. They also had a Sith Lady amongst their number, pre-dating The Clone Wars‘ Asajj Ventress by decades &mdash to torment the new Republic just as it was coming together.

In the larger Expanded Universe, the position that Supreme Commander Snoke holds in The Force Awakens &mdash that is, the leader of a post-Empire Imperial organization &mdash is taken first by Grand Admiral Thrawn, an Imperial officer with grand ambitions, and later a clone of Emperor Palpatine himself, who managed to temporarily tempt Luke Skywalker to the Dark Side of the Force. Both, as is tradition, were defeated and order was (temporarily) restored to the galaxy.

Chewbacca Is Lucky This Time Around

While Han Solo was sent to the great trash compactor in the sky during the climax of The Force Awakens, it was another Millennium Falcon pilot who died in the Expanded Universe &mdash in fact, Chewbacca was killed in the 1999 novel Vector Prime while saving the life of Han Solo’s son, strangely enough (No, not Jacen it was Anakin, Han and Leia’s youngest). His death was commemorated in a 2000 comic book series called Star Wars: Chewbacca, which told the character’s life story, introducing a new version of his wife and child from the much-maligned Star Wars Holiday Special.

Given that Han canonically had a wife pre-Leia thanks to the current Marvel comic book series, it’ll be interesting to see if Han receives a similarly revelatory comic book tribute after his death, or if that portion of his life remains the purview of future movies &mdash although any movies could easily pull as much inspiration from the character’s Expanded Universe history as The Force Awakens has managed to use for the galaxy at large.


Ratovi zvijezda at 40 | Paul Huston on Making Models and History for Star Wars: A New Hope

This article is part of a special StarWars.com series in honor of Ratovi zvijezda 40th anniversary today, May 25.

Paul Huston has roamed the halls of Industrial Light & Magic for more than 40 years, with the distinction of lending his artistry and leaving his mark on all eight Ratovi zvijezda films so far. Huston started out on the original trilogy as a model maker and storyboard artist, returned for the Special Edition of Star Wars: A New Hope as a digital matte artist, and continued to use those skills throughout the production of the prequels and beyond. But back in August of 1975, he was just a 24-year-old kid one year out of architecture school taking a job to work with his former professor Jamie Shourt. The artist, now “66 and almost a half” recently sat down with StarWars.com to reminisce about the early days of ILM, discuss how the hot-rod aesthetic influenced the saga’s iconic ships, and explain how plastic egg packaging for a line of pantyhose helped shape the rebellion’s Y-wing fleet.

StarWars.com: Your first task was to help storyboard artist Joe Johnston put together the “bidding” storyboards that would help put a cost on the visual effects shots for A New Hope. What was it like working on the original Ratovi zvijezda film in those first weeks and months?

Paul Huston: Well, it was really exciting! It was kind of a revelation to walk into a little warehouse and then have it be full of all of these really interesting drawings and blueprints, [concept artist] Ralph McQuarrie’s drawings, and Joe’s drawings. It was really something that I never imagined that I would ever be able to do. And I was nervous about being able to keep up at the level, to keep up with Joe on storyboards. And I worked really hard to do that. It was a pretty small group at that time. I think there was maybe 10 people in the place. They were just starting to hire people and just starting the model shop going and we had a little room upstairs. The art department was this little plywood-floored room with wooden doors on sawhorses for drawing tables and cinderblock and plywood walls, and it was all really pretty rough. It kind of added to the charm. The most important thing was more the work that was going on there rather than location itself.

StarWars.com: What does your office space look like now compared to, you know, a wooden door on a sawhorse?

Paul Huston: Well yeah… [Smeje se] Now the [Letterman] Digital Arts Center that was built, I think they finished it in about 2005, and it was one of the most prestigious office locations in San Francisco since it opened. It’s right on the edge of the bay. You can look out and see Alcatraz. You can see the Golden Gate Bridge. It’s just a beautiful 180-degree view from the upper floors and it’s almost a park-like setting surrounded by landscaping and the Palace of Fine Arts is just to the north. It’s just spectacular. And really nothing like its beginnings for sure.

StarWars.com: Right, although, I imagine the work that’s going on inside is nothing like its beginnings either.

Paul Huston: Yeah, it’s always really what the business demands. People aren’t that interested in seeing something that they’ve seen over and over again. You can only fool them for so long until you have to change your act. So the bar is constantly being raised and then also, fortunately, so are the tools. Computers are getting faster all the time and the software is being improved constantly and directors keep coming up with incredible ideas of what they want, how they want to impress people with their vision. And it’s been that way since I started. What we were doing in 1975 was pretty advanced for the state of the art in Hollywood at the time. And to the extent that they weren’t really able to hire people from the traditional disciplines to do it. It required a lot of experimentation.

StarWars.com: You couldn’t know then that we’d still be talking about this movie 40 years later. But was there a sense inside ILM that what you were doing was cutting edge?

Paul Huston: Oh yeah. You know, at the time some of the studios had small visual effects or special effects departments, but they were pretty much using traditional, not-as-high-tech approaches in the materials and the machines they used at the time to make miniatures and make props, just partly because of the amount of miniatures that we had to make and the number of versions. For the film industry, it was unusual to use epoxies and resins and silicone castings, and we did a lot of development in that area, trying different kinds of molding techniques and techniques for the way that we would blow up the ships, how we developed the materials for blowing things up, and the materials and the processes that we used to make the exploding models. Up to that point, there had been a lot of blue screen and yellow, sodium screen shooting for matting elements together, but I think at that time just the number of shots that we had to do it was way higher that what had been attempted before. And then also the computer motion control that was kind of the heart of the whole place was really state of the art. I went to Disney and saw their motion control camera system — they had a huge room that was full of those old wheel-type, tape-drive computers to run their track and they had all kinds of stories about how the cameras would get out of control, which never really worked out well. Our system was really compact and effective and efficient and repeatable. And it was all designed and built there and everybody knew the same group of people who were building the motion control system were also building the motion control system for Douglas Trumbull for Close Encounters [of the Third Kind]. So those were the two facilities in L.A. in Hollywood and the world that were doing motion control at the time. And it was that group that did it all, designed it all, and fabricated it all. So yeah, I think it was well known within the company that we were on the edge of things.

StarWars.com: When you were trying to get the shot of blowing something up, like the Death Star, how many models were you making for that and how many times are you able to film it?

Paul Huston: When I started, [special-effects supervisor] John Dykstra’s main emphasis was on getting storyboards for the sequence because a script has a description that can be really general or specific, but it’s not really visual. Once the storyboards are done and the director has signed off on them, those are the shots that he’s going to do, that’s how he’s going to tell the story, and that’s the progression of action.

A storyboard shows you how far the camera is away, how much it’s moving, how much detail you see, how long the shot is, if there’s different moves, all that kind of stuff feeds into the general knowledge of the crew. And they decide, or we would decide, “Well, we need this kind of miniature for this, this could be a matte painting, or this could be two or three different scales of miniature,” if you have a sequence where you’re getting closer and closer and you know you’d have the blue screen.

The blue screen at that time was not that big, what would fit in that stage in that small warehouse, and that was kind of your maximum dimension that you could build anything and shoot it in blue screen. Or some of the sets we would build on the stage and just have black curtains behind them. But the planning was all based on, you know, specifics of the shot and how long it would be and what the camera movement would be, what’s the motion blur, how much you would actually see. What the lighting might be. Whether it’s daytime or nighttime, all of that stuff determines what the technique would be and how it would be approached.

StarWars.com: How were you blowing things up back in those days? What were you using?

Paul Huston: Well, we built the initial models for stage photography and some of them we knew would be one-off models and they could just be assembled from materials and kit parts and they’d be standalone models. But we knew there were a lot where we would need to do a bunch of duplicates and then also that we’d do explosion models. At the time I started, it wasn’t really decided how we’d approach things. I think they were still even thinking if they had to do lots of models, just assemble a bunch of them. As things developed, we started molding them because it was a lot faster than doing individual assemblies, and then just from that it dawned on people that, well, we could make all these so we could cast them and then we could cast the entire model. And from that point it got a lot more complicated.

We did experiments with different kinds of explosives including acetylene gas and powder to find out how fast an explosion that we needed to get and for them to be long enough to be impressive. It turned out that the acetylene went so fast that sometimes you’d not even get one frame at 48 frames-per-second, so that one kind of went out the door. We also tried different ways of putting things together. In the explosion tests we found out the explosions are really not very powerful. It’s a big bang, but it’s not very forceful, so from that we knew that we had to make pretty fragile explosion models. Because of the size of the blue screen, they all had to be pretty small and for the explosions to look very good on a small size they had to be shot high speed with a lot of light, so then we kind of figured that all out from doing different tests. It ended up that we used a lightweight foam that mixed together, put it into a mold, and then it expands and forms a real hard outer surface against the mold surface. It’s full of air bubbles or gas bubbles inside so it’s very light and it has a hard outer skin that can be painted, but it’s very light and it’s fairly fragile. After we cast the parts and put them together we cut them in the way that they would break apart. Different explosions would have different kind of cut patterns to have them break apart in different ways.

We rented another stage that had a dirt floor and it had a different fire clearance, and it was in a different neighborhood so that they could get permission to blow things up. And while they were in the process of preparing the models there right before they’re being blown up, the pyro guy Joe Viskocil would say, “Well, let’s have one where it’s a lot more fragile than that,” or “Cut this area a lot more.” So there’s a lot of customization of it. But that was mainly the TIE fighters and the Y-wings and the X-wings.

StarWars.com: The gritty “used future” feel of the Ratovi zvijezda universe has made it so accessible. Za A New Hope, you were one of many model makers creating the now iconic look of the ships. Can you walk us through the process of taking the sketch of one of these ships and finding the right parts, the right media, and the right feel to create the model for the production?

Paul Huston: First, there would be a drawing, an art department sketch by Joe, and for some of the models Steve Gawley would do a three-view plan with the dimensions. I think most of the spaceship models for A New Hope were done that way. And then Joe would say, “Well, just disregard all that [Smeje se] and make it better.” That was his way. He wanted people to have input and try to make things better. It was fun working that way, too. You couldn’t go wrong at all by just following what he drew, but there was freedom to make things up.

Then there would be a phase of building an armature, which at the time was various kinds of aluminum, either like a machine block of aluminum or an aluminum pipe or something that could be mounted on the blue screen pylon. When that armature was built, then we would start kind of assembling plastic parts around it that were supported by it. So, for example, the Y-wing, the armature would be a pipe from the front to the back of the center engine piece, and then a cross brace of aluminum between the two rocket engines. The engines were plastic kit parts from some rocket kit and then the front part was — remember L’eggs, the hosiery product? So the front egg shape was a L’eggs container. We just bought a bunch of those and stuck them on. That’s part of model making. Half the time you’re just trying to find something that’s already been made that is the shape that you want.

And then there’s a really long phase of adding tiny, little details from kit model parts to make the bigger shapes look like they actually do something or are connected visually to the other pieces. Part of George [Lucas]’s brief on all this stuff was to make it simple and geometric so it could be read easily and he thought those shapes were really more interesting, anyway. You know, that things weren’t too complicated, so a lot of it was basic geometric shapes modified a little bit and with a lot of small details that didn’t really change the shape, but added the feeling that there was some kind of a function that all these parts had. Like an engine would have vents and pipes going into it and the body parts would have panel lines.

StarWars.com: Was it George’s directive that if you put a pipe in it had to go somewhere adding to that authenticity?

Paul Huston: No, there wasn’t any direction. That was just something that was kind of understood. The people that were there doing it, all those guys were kind of closet hot rodders. I call it a hot-rod aesthetic, where it’s really cool to see the exhaust pipes coming out or to have a big hole in the hood so you can see the supercharger. John Dykstra had a Mini — you could eat dinner off the roof of it. To open up the hood and look at the engine, you would see polished bright, brilliant copper fuel lines and a perfectly clean air filter. Just really kind of an appreciation for mechanical art or engineering function and materials. Joe Johnston had motorcycles when he was a teenager and I had raced motorcycles for awhile. And it’s California car culture, anyway. John and Joe and Steve Gawley all went to Long Beach State for industrial design and it’s an industrial design aesthetic as well.

I think the only place I’ve ever really seen that description of how you create a mechanical look was from Syd Mead. He was describing his technique and he said that was how he went about it — you do basic geometric shapes and then add details to make it look like the things had some kind of function. I read that way after we actually did it, but it just makes sense. I think we just came upon the same technique.

And there’s an interesting aspect of it, too, that’s really abstract. Not only do you want to make it look like it has some kind of mechanical function, but you want to break up the space in interesting ways so it’s not too regular and not too chaotic. It’s kind of an abstract sculpture in a way.

StarWars.com: During those earliest phases of production, you and the rest of the art department were really taking George Lucas’ vision and Ralph McQuarrie’s concepts and turning them into something tangible. What was it like working with George and Ralph, who both seemed to have very clear visions working in accordance with each other? How did you fit into the equation and add your own creativity into the mix?

Paul Huston: The guiding vision was Ralph’s paintings and they had photocopies of them there in the model shop. Ralph would, occasionally, especially when he did a new one, bring it by and we would look at it. It would be on illustration board with a tissue cover and he’d roll the tissue cover back over and everyone would crowd around and “ooh” and “aah” at it for awhile. Just these very small, one-foot-wide and incredibly detailed paintings. We’d be looking at storyboards and thinking, you know, what is this part going to look like? And then Ralph would come in with a painting and you’d go, “Oh!” He had a head start on us, but then eventually he was starting to put what we were building into his paintings. I’m thinking specifically about a painting they did of a TIE fighter over the Death Star and he pretty much followed Joe’s drawing that Joe did for making the mold pieces for the Death Star.

I think Ralph did a group of paintings to help get funding, to help give people an idea of what George wanted to achieve and the direction he was going and those had a slightly different look. When were actually building the models, there were a lot of technical restraints that we had to follow that forced some changes. Like some of the concept models had really spindly parts. They were more delicate. And most of the things that we did had to be supported. You know, we’re supporting actual on-set mechanical devices that had a certain weight and size and everything, so things tended to get a bit thicker and more sturdy. Especially the Y-wing. The Y-wing had a really delicate little neck where the cockpit fuselage joined on to the main engine part. It was really thin and we had to beef that up just to make everything more sturdy. And another thing was that John Dykstra was adamant about not having curved or reflective surfaces because he was afraid that you wouldn’t be able to pull good blue screens — the blue would reflect off a curving surface and you’d always have a bad edge or areas that would get blue and then fall out of the matte. So everything became really cubic and flat-surfaced, which kind of made everyone happy anyway because it’s a lot easier to build flat-surface models than to build models with a lot of curves and compound surfaces.

StarWars.com: There had to be a lot of trial and error, especially at the beginning. Can you describe one of the biggest technical disasters of your early days of model making and, conversely, what you feel is your greatest achievement for A New Hope specifically?

Paul Huston: I think that there was just a huge amount of experience there. Even though it was new, John Dykstra worked on Silent Running. Jamie Shourt [of the optical effects unit] worked on Silent Running. [Model maker] Grant [McCune] and [camera and mechanical designer] Bill Shourt worked on Jaws. And, you know, John and Joe went to Long Beach State, where one of the classes they had for industrial designers was that you design some kind of product and then you also design the machines, or whatever the process is, that make that product. And I came from architecture school and knew the building systems and design methodologies. And then also, Jamie and John on Silent Running worked with Doug Trumbull, who had an enormous amount of experience in visual effects from starting with 2001. I think that, you know, the process of design and the process of problem solving was really strong and robust, even at that time.

The thing that stands out most to me for A New Hope was just how starting from nothing in a warehouse, how things got built up over time and also what a long time it took because there weren’t a lot of people and things were just done as they needed to be done and as money was available. Just the way the whole thing came together for me was really amazing. Very few people knew what was going on. The initial group that had come from Silent Running all knew the whole process and what the intended outcome was, but if you walk into a darkened stage with a few lights on and a blue screen, most people would have no idea what was going on.

And model makers would have their focus on model making. They wouldn’t really think about how the model was going to be photographed and we wouldn’t see 50 percent of the detail that was on it, and people in roto were doing roto work and they’d be looking at some tiny little dot of an X-wing and trying to make a matte around it and they’d have a different outlook. Somehow that all came together. And also I was a newbie then, too, and I was learning, so that part of it made a big impression on me.

In the years subsequent it seems like the biggest transition in the business has been the fact that many more people now know all about it. Like a production assistant or a producer knows all about visual effects. And in those days people didn’t really know and everything had to be explained and it just enables a much higher level of aspiration, really just a much higher level of things that you try to do and the things that you have time to do and the number of people that have ability to do a lot of different things.

Paul Huston, furthest left behind the table, with ILM’s army of model makers.

StarWars.com: You have the distinction of working on the original trilogy, the Special Editions, and the prequels, as well as so many other films outside of the franchise. Over that time, you’ve also transitioned from the model shop to digital matte painting. How has your role with ILM changed over the years and what inspired you to leave three-dimensional design for matte artistry?

Paul Huston: I became interested in illustration when I was in architecture school. I started doing storyboards and I just kind of I went from department to department just to keep working, because I wanted to stay there [at ILM] and I wanted to learn, but my initial interests were more in illustration and photography and I was always trying to get into those areas. The matte department kind of combined everything together, plus it was the only department that did everything for a shot, and I thought that was really fun. That was a great way to learn because if you’re only doing a part sometimes you never even know all the changes that things go through to finalize the shot. But in the matte department they did everything, and it also combined painting and photography and I had gotten along really well with the guys in the matte department, so I made an effort to work more and more with them. And then, when digital came along, it was just everything kind of fell into line and all the things that I could do were just all made a lot easier and faster, and my desire to kind of do everything myself — I could suddenly do it. It didn’t require a whole bunch of different people to do something. A single person could do a lot on their own. I just found an area where I could do all the things I was interested in, you know, in one area.

StarWars.com: Considering the technological advancements in the industry, do you ever find yourself nostalgic for those early days of more physical model creation?

Paul Huston: While it is interesting dealing with physical materials and processes and I occasionally miss those activities, in general they were much more difficult, costly, time consuming, unhealthy, and imposed huge limitations on what could be accomplished. The drawbacks far outweigh any nostalgia I might have. I usually refer to that period as “the bad old days.” As an artist, your passion is to realize a vision, and that is much easier these days!

StarWars.com: Looking back, what was your favorite part about working on that first film?

Paul Huston: After the first few months of chaos, and the starting phase of building and detailing the first Millennium Falcon and the hiring of some key model builders, there was a period when the model shop came together as a team and we worked together very efficiently and in harmony. New models just seemed to flow out of the shop. One in particular was the sandcrawler model that I think almost everyone in the shop had some part in building. At that stage there wasn’t much discussion as everyone knew just what to do, it seemed. It was very enjoyable to be a part of that.

StarWars.com: Did you have a favorite model that you built or is there a particular scene that stands out?

Paul Huston: I’m very proud that a model I built with Stuart Ziff was the key model in the first shot that ILM produced. That was the Death Star cannon. I also drew the storyboard for the shot earlier when working on the bidding boards in the art department with Joe Johnston.

StarWars.com: What does A New Hope mean to you 40 years later?

Paul Huston: It is an over used word, but “amazing” is how I consider the impact Ratovi zvijezda has had. Nearly every big tentpole VFX blockbuster follows some part of the framework created by George Lucas with Ratovi zvijezda. Not to mention the impact it had on the videogame and toy industries. It is particularly clear if one experienced the landscape of film entertainment pre-Star Wars.

Tako da kad odem u kino ne mogu pobjeći od te spoznaje i osjećam se vrlo skromno što sam bio dio toga i divim se fantastičnim poboljšanjima koja su napravljena u onome što se sada čini jednostavnim i gotovo grubim originalna realizacija.

Kristin Baver je spisateljica i svestrana naučnofantastična štreberka koja uvijek ima samo još jedno pitanje na neiscrpnoj listi zanimljivosti. Ponekad izbaci "To je zamka!" čak i kad nije. Pratite je na Twitteru @KristinBaver.


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