Vremenska linija Henrika VIII od Engleske

Vremenska linija Henrika VIII od Engleske


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  • 28 juna 1491

    Budući Henrik VIII od Engleske rođen je u Greenwich palači.

  • 2. travnja 1502

    Princ Arthur od Engleske, prvi suprug Katarine Aragonske, umro je od bolesti.

  • Rujna 1502

    Henrik VII od Engleske dogovorio je da se njegov drugi sin Henry (budući Henrik VIII od Engleske) oženi Katarinom Aragonskom na budućem sastanku.

  • 1509 - 1547

  • 11. juna 1509

  • 24. juna 1509

    Krunisanje engleskog Henrika VIII u Westminsterskoj opatiji.

  • c. 1513 - 1529

    Kardinal Thomas Wolsey služi kao lord kancelar engleskog Henrika VIII.

  • 16 avgusta 1513

    Pomorska snaga Henrika VIII od Engleske pobjeđuje u bici kod Spursa protiv Francuza.n

  • 9. rujna 1513

    Henrik VIII od Engleske šalje vojsku u Škotsku i pobjeđuje kod Floddena gdje je ubijen Jakov IV Škotski.

  • 18 februara 1516

  • 1518

    Engleska, Francuska, Španija i Sveto Rimsko Carstvo potpisuju sporazum o međusobnoj odbrani.

  • 1518

    Sir Thomas More je pozvan da se pridruži Vijeću Kinga Henrika VIII od Engleske.

  • 1519

    Henrik VIII od Engleske ima vanbračnog sina, Henryja Fitzroya, vojvodu od Richmonda sa svojom ljubavnicom, Elizabeth Blount.

  • Juna 1520

    Izbor polja polja zlatnog platna održava se neposredno izvan Calaisa za Henrika VIII od Engleske i Franju I od Francuske.

  • 1521

    Papa dodjeljuje engleskom Henriku VIII titulu "Branitelja vjere".

  • 1521

    Sir Thomas More je vitez od engleskog Henrya VIII i postavljen za blagajnika državne blagajne.

  • 1522

    Anne Boleyn stiže na dvor engleskog Henrika VIII.

  • 1525

    Sporazum o više obnavlja prijateljske odnose između Engleske i Francuske.

  • 1525

    Kardinal Thomas Wolsey uvodi nepopularan novi porez, Amicable Grant. Napušten je nakon nekoliko pobuna.

  • 1529 - 1532

  • 1529

    Kardinal Thomas Wolsey smijenjen je iz Tajnog vijeća i kao lord kancelar zbog neuspjeha u engleskoj "Velikoj stvari" Henrika VIII.

  • Juna 1529

    Kardinal Lorenzo Campeggio predsjedava posebnim sudom koji odlučuje o poništenju prvog braka engleskog Henrika VIII. Nikakva odluka nije donesena.

  • 1530

    Kardinal Thomas Wolsey umire od lošeg zdravlja na putu za suđenje zbog izdaje protiv engleskog Henrika VIII.

  • 1530

    Henrik VIII od Engleske imenuje Thomasa Cranmera za ambasadora na dvoru Karla V, cara Svetog Rima.

  • 1531

    Thomas Cranmer služi kao lični kapelan engleskog Henrika VIII.

  • 1532 - 1540

    Thomas Cromwell je glavni ministar engleskog Henrika VIII.

  • 1532

    Sir Thomas More podnosi ostavku na mjesto lorda kancelara zbog planova engleskog Henrika VIII da se ponovo oženi.

  • 1532

    Thomas Cromwell provlači kroz Parlament Zakon o obuzdavanju Annatesa koji ograničava sredstva isplaćena papstvu.

  • Oktobra 1532

    Henrik VIII od Engleske putuje u Francusku sa Anne Boleyn kao svojom službenom suprugom.

  • 1533 - 1555

    Thomas Cranmer služi kao nadbiskup Canterburyja.

  • 1533

    Thomas Cromwell provlači kroz Parlament Zakon o suzdržavanju žalbi koji izjavljuje da je engleski monarh sada najviši autoritet u svim pravnim pitanjima.

  • 25 januara 1533

    Henrik VIII od Engleske, u tajnosti se ženi svojom drugom suprugom Anne Boleyn.

  • 30 marta 1533

    Henrik VIII od Engleske imenuje Thomasa Cranmera za nadbiskupa Canterburyja.

  • 23. maja 1533

    Thomas Cranmer, nadbiskup Canterburyja, formalno poništava brak Engleske Henrika VIII sa Katarinom Aragonskom.

  • 1. juna 1533

    Anne Boleyn, druga supruga engleskog Henrika VIII, okrunjena je za englesku kraljicu.

  • 7. septembra 1533

    Rođenje Elizabete, kćerke Henrika VIII od Engleske i Anne Boleyn. Ona je buduća Elizabeta I od Engleske.

  • 1534

    Thomas Cromwell provlači kroz parlament Zakon o izdaji koji zabranjuje ljudima da govore i kritiziraju svog kralja ili njegovu politiku.

  • 30 aprila 1534

    Parlament usvaja Akt o sukcesiji koji proglašava kćer Henrika VIII od Engleske Marijom (s Katarinom Aragonskom) nelegitimnom.

  • 28 novembra 1534

    Akt nadmoći proglašava Henrika VIII od Engleske poglavarom crkve u Engleskoj, a ne Papom.

  • 1535

    Thomas Cromwell i tim inspektora sastavljaju Valor Ecclesiasticus, zapis o svom bogatstvu i prihodima monaških institucija u Engleskoj i Velsu.

  • Januara 1535

    Thomas Cromwell postaje generalni vikar od engleskog Henrika VIII.

  • 6. jula 1535

    Sir Thomas More je pogubljen zbog odbijanja da prizna Henrika VIII od Engleske za poglavara crkve u Engleskoj.

  • 1536

    Henrik VIII od Engleske i Thomas Cromwell provlače kroz parlament prijedlog zakona kojim se započinje raspad manastira u Engleskoj i Walesu.

  • 1536

    Deset članaka Thomasa Cromwella odbacuje četiri od sedam sakramenata katoličanstva.

  • 1536

    Nemački renesansni slikar Hans Holbein Mlađi postaje dvorski slikar Henrika VIII od Engleske.

  • 9. januara 1536

  • Maja 1536

    Henrik VIII od Engleske ženi se svojom trećom suprugom Jane Seymour.

  • 2. maja 1536

    Anne Boleyn, druga supruga engleskog Henrika VIII, zatvorena je u Londonskom tornju.

  • 17. maja 1536

    Thomas Cranmer, nadbiskup Canterburyja, formalno poništava brak engleskog Henrika VIII s Anne Boleyn.

  • 19. maja 1536

    Anne Boleyn, engleska kraljica i druga supruga engleskog Henrika VIII, pogubljena je u londonskom Toweru.

  • Avgusta 1536

    Thomas Cromwell izdaje The Injunctions, skup preporuka za svećenstvo.

  • Oktobar 1536 - decembar 1536

    Hodočašće milosti, narodni ustanak protiv vjerskih promjena koje je napravio engleski Henrik VIII, maršira na sjeveru Engleske.

  • Juna 1537

    Henrik VIII od Engleske pogubi 178 demonstranata uključenih u Hodočašće milosti.

  • Jula 1537

    Thomas Cromwell izdaje Biskupovu knjigu.

  • 12 oktobra 1537

    Rođenje Edwarda, sina i nasljednika Henrika VIII od Engleske i budućeg Edwarda VI od Engleske.

  • 1538

    Thomas Cromwell izdaje radikalniju verziju The Injunctions.

  • 1539

    Henrik VIII od Engleske odobrava prijevod Biblije na engleski.

  • 1539

    Henrik VIII od Engleske garantuje određene katoličke prakse aktom od šest članova.

  • 1539

    Parlament donosi akt o zatvaranju svih manastira u Engleskoj i Walesu, bez obzira na veličinu.

  • Januara 1540

    Henrik VIII od Engleske ženi se svojom četvrtom suprugom Annom od Cleves.

  • Marta 1540

    Waltham Abbey je posljednji manastir u Engleskoj koji je zatvoren.

  • 10 juna 1540

    Thomas Cromwell je uhapšen pod optužbom za izdaju i herezu.

  • Jula 1540

    Henrik VIII od Engleske ženi se svojom petom ženom, Catherine Howard.

  • 9. jula 1540

    Henrik VIII od Engleske i Ana od Kleva razveli su se sporazumno. n

  • 9. jula 1540

    Henrik VIII od Engleske i Ana od Kleva razveli su se sporazumno. Thomas Cromwell je okrivljen za neusklađenost.

  • 28. jula 1540

    Thomas Cromwell pogubljen je zbog izdaje i hereze.

  • 1541

    Henrik VIII od Engleske sam sebi dodjeljuje titulu „Irskog kralja“.

  • Februara 1542

    Catherine Howard optužena je za preljub i pogubljena u londonskom Toweru.

  • 1543

    Henri VIII Engleski dijeli Wales na 13 okruga.

  • Jula 1543

    Henrik VIII od Engleske ženi se svojom šestom ženom, Catherine Parr.

  • 1544

    Vojska koju je poslao engleski Henrik VIII napada Škotsku i pljačka Edinburg.

  • 1544 - 1545

    Engleske snage opustoše škotsku nizinu, takozvano 'grubo udvaranje'.

  • 1545

    Vojsku engleskog Henrika VIII porazili su Škoti u bitci kod Ancrum Moore.

  • 19 jula 1545

    Potpredsednik Engleske Henry VIII, Mary Rose, tone u Solentu.

  • 1546

    Mirovni sporazum s Francuskom daje Henriku VIII Engleskom kontrolu nad Boulogneom na osam godina.

  • 28 januara 1547

    Henrik VIII od Engleske je preminuo zbog lošeg zdravlja u palači Whitehall.

  • 20 februara 1547

    Krunisanje engleskog Edwarda VI u Westminsterskoj opatiji.


Henrik VIII od Engleske Vremenska linija - Historija

Thomas Wolsey je nagrađen biskupijom u Lincolnu.

Luj XII se oženio princezom Marijom

Thomas Wolsey je s Francuskom pregovarao o mirovnom sporazumu. Jedan od uslova je bio da će se Luj XII od Francuske oženiti princezom Marijom, mlađom sestrom Henrika VIII. Louis je umro samo nekoliko mjeseci kasnije.

Englesko - francuski mirovni ugovor

Wolsey je pregovarao o mirovnom sporazumu između Engleske i Francuske kojim se kralj Louis XII oženio mlađom sestrom Marijom od Henrika VIII i morao platiti Henryju novac od penzije koji mu duguje prema Etaples ugovoru. Mir treba održavati najmanje godinu dana nakon što prvi od njih umre.

Thomas Wolsey postaje nadbiskup Yorka

Thomas Wolsey unapređen je na mjesto nadbiskupa York.

Rođenje Marije

Sva djeca Katarine Aragonske umrla su u djetinjstvu sve dok se princeza Marija nije rodila u februaru 1516. Marija je bila zdrava, a kralj Henry VIII bio je sretan što ima nasljednika. Ali Henry bi bio sretniji da ima sina.

Plague

Londončane je zahvatila široko rasprostranjena bolest koja je prisilila Henrika VIII i njegov dvor da se presele na selo gdje su se osjećali sigurnije.

Predlaže se novi križarski rat

Papa Lav X dao je prijedloge za novi križarski rat i poslao poruku vodećim evropskim zemljama. Henry VIII i Thomas Wolsey nisu bili uvjereni da je to dobra ideja.

Londonski ugovor (Univerzalni mir)

Londonski ugovor ili Univerzalni mir potpisan je u Londonu između velikih evropskih zemalja, Engleske, Francuske, Burgundije i mnogih drugih. Za kardinala Wolseyja ovaj sporazum je bio plan stvaranja miroljubive Europe. U ugovoru je navedeno da se zemlje ne smiju međusobno napadati i da jesu, ostale zemlje će priteći u pomoć onima koji su napadnuti. Unutar ugovora bio je dogovor da se Marija, dvogodišnja kći kralja Henrika VIII, uda za francuskog dofina.

Polje zlatnog platna

Polje zlatnog platna bio je sastanak između kralja Henrika VIII i francuskog kralja Franje I negdje između Guinesa i Ardresa u blizini Calaisa. Sastanak je uključivao niz turnira i takmičenja. Ekstravagantna priroda događaja koja je sastanku dala ime.

Ugovor iz Briža

Brižanski ugovor je u tajnosti vođen u Brižu između kralja Charlesa V, cara Svetog Rima i Thomasa Wolseyja. U skladu s ugovorom, Wolsey je obećao Charlesu da će mu se kralj Henry VIII pridružiti u zajedničkoj kampanji protiv Francuske i Franje I. Sastanak je održan u tajnosti jer je Engleska trebala biti posrednik u sporu između Charlesa i Franje. Zajednički napadi Francuske morali bi čekati do marta ili maja 1523.

Henry je dobio titulu Branitelja vjere

Na ceremoniji u Greenwich Palaceu, kralj Henry VIII je dobio titulu Branitelja vjere. Naslov koji je Papa prenio u znak priznanja za knjigu koju je Henry napisao protiv Luthera.

Emporer postaje vitez podvezice

Emporer Charles V posjetio je Englesku i tokom svog boravka učestvovao na ceremoniji u dvorcu Windsor kako bi postao član Reda podvezica.

Henrik VIII upoznaje Anne Boleyn

Anne Boleyn privukla je pažnju Henrika VIII. Anne je bila doček za kraljicu Catherine i sestru Mary Boleyn koja je u to vrijeme bila ljubavnica Henrika VIII. Anne je opljačkala Henryja.

Wolsey osniva tajni sud

Da bi okončao brak između kralja Henrika VIII i Katarine Aragonske, Thomas Wolsey je osnovao tajni sud na kojem je Henry morao odgovarati na optužbe za nezakonit brak. Sud se držao u tajnosti pa Catherine nije znala. Plan je bio predstaviti činjenice Papi koji će poništiti brak. Problemi su se dogodili kada je Rim napao Katarinin nećak Karlo V, car Svetog Rima, a Papa je zarobljen. Bilo kakva šansa da Papa poništi brak sada je nestala.

Henrik VIII proglašava svoj brak nevažećim

Henrik VIII je rekao Katarini Aragonskoj da je njihov brak nevažeći jer je ranije bila udata za njegovog brata Artura. Anne Boleyn, s kojom je Henry bio opčinjen, htjela je da se Henry razvede od Catherine i oženi je.

Wolseyjeva smrt

Thomas Wolsey umro je u Leicesteru.

Anatesov čin

Parlament je donio zakon koji je spriječio papu da primi Annates. Annates je bio prihod koji je biskup primao prve godine nakon imenovanja. No, dodana je klauzula koja je omogućila kralju da odloži čin koji je bio na snazi. Kralj Henry spriječio je donošenje tog zakona, nadajući se da će to uvjeriti Papu da poništi njegov brak s Katarinom Aragonskom.

Thomas Moor daje ostavku

Thomas Moor podnio je ostavku na mjesto kancelara jer nije mogao prihvatiti da kralj Henry postane vladar Crkve.

Vjenčanje sa Anne Boleyn

Henry VIII se oženio Anne Boleyn u Whitehall palači 25. januara ili oko tog datuma. Anne je očekivala dijete za koje su se Henry i Anne nadali da će biti dječak.

Akt o sukcesiji

Statut koji je Parlament usvojio pod nazivom "Akt sukcesije" proglasio je da je Mary Tudor nezakonita, a ne nasljednica kralja Henrika VIII jer je brak između Henrika i Katarine Aragonske bio ništavan. To je značilo da će djeca Henryja i Anne Boleyn biti pravi nasljednici engleskog prijestolja.

Brak sa Katarinom Aragonskom proglašen je nezakonitim

Thomas Cranmer je izjavio da je brak između Henrika VIII i Catherine Aragonske bio nezakonit i da je poništen. Brak između Henryja i Anne Boleyn tada bi mogao biti formaliziran.

Brak s Anne Boleyn proglašen je legalnim

Thomas Cranmer izjavio je da je brak između Henryja VIII i Anne Boleyn zakonit.

Krunisanje Anne Boleyn

Anne Boleyn je okrunio za englesku kraljicu u Westminster Abbeyu nadbiskup Canterburyja Thomas Cranmer.

Rođenje Elizabete od Anne Boleyn

Anne Boleyn rodila je Elizabeth zdravu djevojčicu u Greenwich palači. Kralj Henrik nadao se da će imati dječaka koji će osigurati nastavak Tjudorove loze.

Princeza Elizabeta preselila se u Hatfield

Princeza Elizabeta preseljena je iz Greenwicha u London u Hatfield gdje se o njoj brinula u kući Lady Bryan.

Akt supremacije

Iako je kraljevsko veličanstvo pravedno i s pravom bilo i trebalo bi biti vrhovni poglavar Engleske crkve, i tako ga priznaje svećenstvo ovog područja u svojim sazivima, ali ipak, radi potkrepljivanja i potvrđivanja toga, te za povećanje vrline u Hristova religija unutar carstva Engleske, i za suzbijanje i istrebljenje svih grešaka, jeresi i drugih zloupotreba koje su se do sada koristile u istoj, bilo da je to donijeto po ovlaštenjima ovog sadašnjeg Parlamenta, da je kralj našeg suverenog gospodara, njegovi nasljednici i nasljednici, kraljevi ovog carstva, bit će uzet, prihvaćen i proglašen jedinim vrhovnim poglavarom engleske crkve na zemlji, zvanim Anglicana Eccesia, koji će imati i uživati, pripojen i ujedinjen s carskim krunom ovog carstva, kao i titulom i krunom tog carstva, kao i sve počasti, preimućstva, nadležnosti, privilegije, ovlaštenja, imuniteti, dobit i roba do spomenutog dostojanstva vrhovnog poglavara iste crkve koja pripada i pripada i rečeni vladar, njegovi nasljednici i nasljednici, kraljevi ovog carstva, imat će punu moć i ovlašćenja s vremena na vrijeme da posjeti, potisne, ispravi, evidentira, naredi, ispravi, prekvalifikuje i izmjeni sve takve greške, jeresi, zloupotrebe, uvrede, preziri i ogromnosti, šta god oni bili, koji bi na bilo koji način duhovnog autoriteta ili jurisdikcije trebali ili se zakonito mogli reformirati, potisnuti, odrediti, ispraviti, ispraviti, obuzdati ili izmijeniti, većinom zadovoljstva Svemogućeg Boga, povećanje vrline u Kristove religije i za očuvanje mira, jedinstva i spokoja ovog carstva, bez obzira na uporabu, strano pravo, strane ovlasti, propise ili bilo što drugo.

Mary se preselila u Hatfield

Po naređenju Henrika VIII, Mary je uklonjena titula princeze i odvedena je u Hatfield da bude sluškinja u domaćinstvu princeze Elizabete, njene mlađe polusestre. Mary je tada imala oko osamnaest godina. Mary nije bila zadovoljna ovim aranžmanom i nije mogla prihvatiti da Elizabeth ima bolje pravo na englesko prijestolje od nje.


Kralj Henrik VIII od Engleske, Walesa i Irske 1491 - 1547

/>Born - 28. juna 1491
Umro - 28. januara 1547
Oče - Kralj Henrik VII (1457 - 1509)
Majko - Elizabeta od Jorka (1466. - 1503.)
Supružnici - m. 1509. - Katarina Aragonska (1485. - 1536.), m. 1533 - Anne Boleyn (1501. - 1536.), m. 1536 - Jane Seymour (1507 - 1537), m. 1540 - Ana od Kleva (1515. - 1557), m. 1540 - Kathryn Howard (1521 - 1542), m. 1543 - Katherine Parr (1512 - 1548)
Djeca - od Catherine of Aragon - Henry (1511), Queen Mary I (1516 - 1558) by Anne Boleyn - Queen Elizabeth I (1533 - 1603) by Jane Seymour - King Edward VI (1537 - 1553) vanbračno od Bessie Blount - Henry Fitzroy (1519 - 1536)
Kralj Engleske - 1509 - 1547
Prethodnik - Henrik VII. - 1485. - 1509.
Nasljednik - Edward VI - 1547 - 1553

1. Transupstancijacija nije bila negirana
2. Trebalo je postojati zajedništvo jedne vrste za laike
3. Pripadnici svećenstva trebali su ostati u celibatu
4. Vjerski zavjeti trebali su biti trajni
5. Trebalo je staviti na raspolaganje privatne mise
6. Trebalo je upotrijebiti aurikularno priznanje

Oni koji odbiju da se pridržavaju nove doktrine suočili bi se sa gubitkom imovine i slobode za prvi prekršaj i smrću za drugi.

Donošenje Šest članaka bilo je trijumf za konzervativnu frakciju i udarac za one koji su se nadali radikalnijoj reformi crkve.

Prvi put objavljeno 2016. ažurirano i ponovno objavljeno 13. maja u 11:03-Ažurirano-15. maja 2021 u 12:42


Henrik VIII

Henry VIII je najpoznatiji po svojih šest žena. Većina britanske školske djece nauči sljedeću rimu kako bi im pomogla da zapamte sudbinu svake žene: “Razveden, obezglavljen, umro: razveden, obezglavljen, preživio ”.

Svi prepoznaju njegov portret: debela, veća od života osoba, koja nosi odjeću s draguljima i ima urednu crvenu bradu. Ovo je Henry u kasnijem životu: u mladosti je bio zgodan i atletski nastrojen, najprikladniji princ u Evropi.

Henry je takođe bio složen čovek: inteligentan, bučan, raskošan, ekstravagantan. Atletski, muzički, pjesnik. Nemilosrdan, arogantan, strastven.

Henrijeva želja za muškim nasljednikom navela ga je da se razvede od dvije supruge i obezglavljuje joj dvije žene: to je dovelo do vjerske revolucije i stvaranja Engleske crkve, raspada manastira i reformacije. Odluke koje je Henry donio tokom svoje vladavine bile su oblikovanje moderne Britanije.

Drugi sin Henrika VII, Henry je imao samo 17 godina kada je postao kralj 1509. Bio je visok 6 stopa i 2 inča, s blijedom kožom i kestenjastom kosom. Bio je atletičar, čovjek od akcije i uživao je u svim vrstama sporta: lovu, jahanju, pravom tenisu, jahanju. Bio je i muzičar koji je svirao flautu, lutnju i orgulje. Pisao je poeziju. Strastveni čitalac, imao je biblioteku od skoro hiljadu knjiga. Napisao je raspravu protiv protestanta Martina Luthera i nagrađen je od pape Lava X koji mu je dao titulu, “Obranilac vjere ”, koju britanski monarh zadržao do danas, iako drugačije vjere! Godine 1546. Henry je osnovao Trinity College u Cambridgeu.

Može se reći da je Henry osnovao modernu englesku naciju. 1536, Akt o uniji između Engleske i Walesa doveo je Wales u uniju s Engleskom. Za vrijeme njegove vladavine postignuto je i ujedinjenje Irske. Henry je povećao ulogu Parlamenta, posebno u pogledu oporezivanja.


Polje zlatnog platna

Bilo je važno da se kralj iz 16. stoljeća pojavi svemoćan, ali to je bilo skupo. Godine 1520. sa francuskim kraljem Franjom I, Henry je bio domaćin legendarnog "Polja od zlatnog platna"#8221, bezobrazno ekstravagantnog događaja u Calaisu. Događaj je trebao pokazati ujedinjeni front između kraljevstava Engleske i Francuske pred carem Svetog Rima. Svaki kralj pokušao je nadmašiti drugog na turnirima, gozbama, odjeći i draguljima tokom proslave koja je trajala sedmicama i koštala cijelo bogatstvo.

Thomas Wolsey bio je Henryjev savjetnik i prijatelj od povjerenja. Wolsey je bio sin mesara iz Ipswicha, vrlo inteligentan čovjek koji je postao bogat i moćan, došavši na mjesto lorda kancelara i kardinala 1515. Henrik VIII nije očekivao da će postati kralj: njegov stariji brat Arthur je umro. Henry je stoga slabo učio o politici i vladi i rado se oslonio na prijatelja Wolseyja koji ga je savjetovao.

U 16. stoljeću Evropom su dominirali stalno mijenjajući savezi među narodima. Henry VIII i Wolsey nastojali su Englesku učiniti značajnom silom kao dvije najveće evropske nacije tog doba, Francuska i Španija. Međutim, vanjska politika nije bila Henrijeva jaka strana. Njegovi ratovi protiv Francuske bili su uglavnom neuspješni i skupi. Pobjeda protiv Škota u bitci kod Floddena poslužila je samo za učvršćivanje saveza između Škota i Francuza.


Catherine of Aragon Anne Boleyn

Poništavanje Henrijevog braka s Catherine Aragonskom bio je prelomni trenutak u prijateljstvu Henryja i Wolseyja. Henry je bio zaljubljen u Anne Bolelyn, jednu od dočekica kraljice, a vjenčanje s Anne će, nadamo se, dati Henryju muškog nasljednika kojeg je silno želio.

Kći ser Thomasa Boleyna, Anne je dio svoje mladosti provela sa svojom sestrom Mary na francuskom dvoru. Mary je 1519. poslana natrag u Englesku (neki kažu sramotno zbog njenog promiskuitetnog ponašanja) i postala je jedna od Catherininih dama na čekanju. Mary je uhvatila Henryjev pogled i nakratko mu postala ljubavnica. Anne se vratila u Englesku 1522. godine i postala popularna ličnost na dvoru. Do 1526. Henry je bio duboko zaljubljen u nju.

Krvavi Ratovi ruža, koji su završili tako što je Henryjev otac Henry VII postao kralj, još uvijek su bili u živom sjećanju. Henry je očajnički tražio nasljednika koji će nastaviti dinastiju Tudor i izbjeći svaki budući građanski rat. Dvadeset godina braka s Catherine rezultiralo je samo jednim preživjelim djetetom, Mary, a sada kad je imala 40 godina, Catherine vjerojatno neće roditi više djece.

Nesposobnost Catherine#8217 da mu da muškog nasljednika mučila je Henryja i počeo se preispitivati ​​je li njihov brak legalan i valjan. Catherine je bila udovica njegovog brata Arthura. Udala se za Arthura 1501. godine, ali je udovica imala samo 16. Bilo je potrebno još sedam godina prije nego što su se Henry i Catherine vjenčali 1509. U vrijeme njihovog vjenčanja, Henry je imao 18 godina i bio je jako zaljubljen u 23 -godišnju Catherine . Dispenzacija za njegov brak s Katarinom od Pape temeljila se na pretpostavci da je Catherine još uvijek djevica nakon smrti svog prvog muža#8217.

Međutim, Henry je sada želio razvod kako bi mogao oženiti Anne. Catherine je insistirala da je bila djevica kada se udala za Henryja i odbila je prihvatiti poništenje braka.

Upleo se Katarinin nećak, car Svetog Rima Karlo V, koji je prijetio Papi ako se poništi brak njegove tetke s Henryjem. Papa Klement VII bio je doveden u težak položaj jer bi svaka njegova odluka naljutila jedno ili drugo. Odlagao je objavljivanje odluke što je duže moguće prije nego što je odbio odobriti razvod. Wolsey nije uspio osigurati razvod Henryju i smijenjen je s dužnosti. Čak ni Wolseyjev poklon Henryju nije dao njegovu veličanstvenu novu palatu u Hampton Courtu: Wolsey je umro prije nego što mu je bilo suđeno zbog izdaje. Thomas More je doveden da zamijeni Wolseyja na mjestu kancelara.

Henry je uzeo stvar u svoje ruke i odvojio se od Rima i Rimokatoličke crkve. Papa je 1533. ekskomunicirao Henrika koji se razveo od Catherine i oženio se s Anom, koja je sada bila trudna.

Catherine, sada princeza od Walesa, bila je prisiljena napustiti dvor. Sljedeće tri godine živjela je povučeno u nizu vlažnih dvoraca i vlastelinstava sa samo nekoliko slugu. 7. siječnja 1536. Catherine je umrla u zamku Kimbolton i sahranjena je u opatiji Peterborough.

Iskorištavajući širenje protestantske doktrine koja je zahvatila sjevernu Evropu i zavidivši na crkvenom bogatstvu, Parlament je 1534. donio Zakon o vrhovništvu kojim je Henry postao vrhovni poglavar engleske crkve. Novom Crkvom je rukovodio nadbiskup Canterburyja Thomas Cranmer (koji je pomogao Henryju pri razvodu od Catherine). Prije raskida s Rimom, stoljećima se misa govorila na latinskom. Cranmer je vjerovao da je važno da ljudi obožavaju na engleskom, pa je bio odgovoran za prvu englesku Bibliju odobrenu za javnu upotrebu koja je distribuirana svakoj crkvi u zemlji.

Pobune protiv nove engleske crkve i nove službe su ugušene. Sir Thomas More, lord kancelar, pogubljen je jer je odbio priznati Henryja za poglavara Crkve. Thomas Cromwell postao je generalni vikar, a kasnije i kancelar i bio je ključan u raspadu manastira od 1536. do 1540. godine.

Ironično, nakon svih ovih prevrata, dugo željeno dijete bila je djevojčica, Elizabeth, a Henry je bio gorko razočaran. Još dvije Anine trudnoće#8217 završile su pobačajem, u ljeto 1534. i u januaru 1536., kada je beba bila dječak. Henry se uvjerio da je brak proklet i Anin arogantan način nije joj pomogao u tome.

Dana 2. maja 1536, Anne je uhapšena. Optužena je za preljub sa svojim bratom i četvoricom običnih ljudi, a svi su suđeni i osuđeni za izdaju od strane Anine ujaka, vojvode od Norfolka. 19. svibnja Anne je odrubljena glava u londonskom Toweru- prvoj engleskoj kraljici koja je javno pogubljena. Henry se oženio ljubavnicom Jane Seymour nešto više od sedmicu dana kasnije.


Ruševine opatije Glastonbury

Jane, predana katolkinja, molila je Henryja da odustane od raspada manastira. Međutim, kada je rodila dugo očekivanog muškog nasljednika, Edwarda 1537. godine, sve je oprošteno i Henry je bio u ekstazi. Nažalost nakon rođenja, Jane je oboljela od porođajne groznice i umrla: Henry je bio izbezumljen.

Raspuštanje manastira započelo je 1536. godine, a završilo 1540. Manastirska zemljišta, umjetnička djela i zgrade su rasprodane. Monasi, opati i drugi koji su se opirali pogubljeni su. Henrijev način života, zajedno s ratovima, doveo je do nedostatka novca tokom njegove vladavine. Porezi i bogatstvo uzeto iz manastira omogućili su mu da osnuje modernu mornaricu. Henrijev vodeći brod Mary Rose i "Veliki Harry"#8217, najveći brod svog vremena sa težinom od 1.000 tona, izgrađeni su. Engleskoj mornarici dodano je 80 brodova i izgrađeno je prvo pristanište u Portsmouthu.


Jane Seymour Anne iz Clevesa

Kromvel je za Henrija ugovorio četvrti brak sa Anom od Kleves, nemačkom protestantskom princezom. Ovo je bila politička utakmica, savez između dvije nekatoličke zemlje. Anin portret naslikao je Hans Holbein, vjerovatno najpoznatiji od dvorskih slikara Tudora, a Henry se složio s tim. Međutim, nakon što je upoznao Anne, odmah joj se nije svidio, zloglasno ju je nazvao ‘Flanders mare ’ i rekao dvorjanima i ambasadorima da ne može obavljati svoje muževne dužnosti zbog Anine pojave. Obje strane bile su sretne što je brak poništen nakon samo 6 mjeseci, a Anne je odobren izdašan prihod i nekoliko domova, uključujući i dvorac Hever. Anne je ostala u Engleskoj i bila je čest gost na Sudu kao počasni gost. Uživala je u neovisnom načinu života, vrlo različitom od Henryjeve druge razvedene supruge Catherine. Cromwellu, međutim, nije oprošteno što je dogovarao katastrofalnu utakmicu i pogubljen je pod lažnom optužbom za izdaju.

Henry sada više nije bio atletičar koji je nekad bio. Katastrofalna nesreća u 44. godini, kada ga je konj prevrnuo na turniru, ostavila ga je sa sakatom nogom. Budući da nije mogao vježbati, Henry je ipak nastavio sa svojim raskošnim načinom života, udebljao se toliko da je do kraja života izmjerio 4,5 stopa oko struka.

Prekomjerne težine i mučen čirevima na nogama, Henry je i dalje čeznuo za drugim muškim nasljednikom kako bi osigurao nasljedstvo. Mlada Catherine Howard, lijepa i sitna, uzela je Henryjevo oko i on se osjeća duboko zaljubljen u nju. Uprkos glasinama o ljubavnim vezama prije nego što je došla na sud, Henry se oženio Catherine 1540.


Catherine Howard Catherine Parr

Catherine je bila članica moćne porodice Howard, a njen otac je bio mlađi brat vojvode od Norfolka. Ona je također bila rođaka Anne Boleyn, a poput Anne, i ona bi umrla na skeli u Tower Greenu.

Henry je bio opčinjen njom, nazivajući je svojom ‘Rozom bez trna ’. Nije poznato što je Catherine mislila o svom ostarjelom, osakaćenom i pretilom mužu, međutim čini se da je nakon vjenčanja pogriješila što je nastavila vezu s bivšim ljubavnikom, Thomasom Culpepperom. Nakon samo sedamnaest mjeseci braka s kraljem, uhapšena je zbog preljuba. Pogubljena je zbog izdaje 13. februara 1542. Henry je bio neutješan: za njega se kaže da je otvoreno plakao.

Pogubljenje Catherine Howard potonulo je kralja u duboku depresiju. Catherine Parr, dva puta udovica, ulazila je u vezu s Thomasom Seymourom, bratom Jane Seymour, Henrijeve treće žene, kada ju je Henry primijetio. Imala je 31 godinu, dobro obrazovana i vrlo inteligentna. Tečno je govorila francuski, učila je italijanski, znala je čitati i pisati na latinskom i bila je kompetentna u grčkom. Catherine je bila reformista i voljela je raspravljati o vjerskim pitanjima. To je skoro dovelo do njenog pada: posebno snažna vjerska rasprava između kralja i kraljice toliko je razljutila Henrika, što je dovelo do toga da je potpisao nalog za uhićenje Catherine#8217 na temelju hereze. Kad je primila nalog, Catherine se isprva uspaničila, ali je onda iskoristila sve svoje rezerve hrabrosti i inteligencije. Naređujući svojim damama da odbace sve zabranjene knjige o religiji, požurila je kralju tvrdeći da se posvađala s njim samo kako bi mu skrenula misli s bolova u ulceriranim nogama.

Catherine je pružila najbliže stabilnom porodičnom životu koje je poznavalo Henryjevo troje djece. Pokazala se kao efikasna medicinska sestra za Henrija VIII, sada oslabljenog curenjem čireva na nogama. Mogla je inteligentno razgovarati s gostujućim ambasadorima i učenjacima. Kao dokaz svoje vjere u nju, Henry ju je imenovao regentom kada je napustio u julu 1544. godine još jednu invaziju na Francusku. To je bila uloga koju je imala samo još jedna od kraljevih žena, Katarina Aragonska.

Henry je umro u Whitehall -u, Engleska, 28. januara 1547. godine, u dobi od 55 godina. Sahranjen je pored svoje treće žene, Jane Seymour, u kapeli St. George's#8217s u dvorcu Windsor.


Henrik VIII

Mnogi smatraju da je Henry bio kralj diletanata, dopuštajući svojim ministrima da vode državu dok je lovio jelena. Istina, bio je aktivno uključen u detalje bilo čega što je smatrao važnim. Henry je zahtijevao da se činjenice svedu na njihovu suštinu. Zatim bi saslušao pitanja i brzo donio odluku, često u vremenu koje mu je trebalo da sjaše sa konja.

Najvažnija odluka njegove vladavine, međutim, godinama se borio. Ali nakon što je odredio svoj kurs, slijedio ga je s naletom odluka koje su zauvijek promijenile njegovu zemlju.

Vremenska linija

Gutenberg proizvodi prvu štampanu Bibliju

Osnivanje španske inkvizicije

Prvi potpuni hebrejski Stari zavjet

Objavljena Knjiga zajedničke molitve

Povoljan početak

Henry je rođen kao drugi sin Henryja VII. Bio je inteligentan, zgodan, fizički moćan, talentovan za muziku, strastveni lovac i sportista. Bio je jedini vladar Engleske i najbogatiji čovjek na svijetu sa 18 godina.

Da bi učvrstio savez Engleske sa Španijom, Henry se oženio tetkom španskog kralja, Catherine od Aragona (takođe udovica njegovog brata). Kad je Henry uzastopno pobijedio Francusku i Škotsku, njegova popularnost je narasla. Tokom sljedeće decenije, Henry je sklopio i prekršio mirovne ugovore, kandidirao se za cara Svetog rimskog carstva, bavio se politikom moći Evrope i usmjerio svoju pažnju na religiju.

Henry je oduvijek bio religiozan čovjek. Slušao je misu pet puta dnevno osim u lovu (tada je mogao čuti samo tri). Takođe su ga duboko zanimali teološki sporovi. In 1521, with Lutheranism infecting the English universities, Henry wrote Defense of the Seven Sacraments against Luther. A beleaguered and grateful pope rewarded him with the title "Defender of the Faith."

Producing an heir

By 1526 Henry began to seek ways to end his marriage with Catherine. The alliance with Spain was restricting his international intrigues, he had fallen in love with 19-year-old Anne Boleyn, and, most importantly, Catherine had failed to give him a male heir (she did give birth to a daughter, Mary). England had recently survived a bloody and costly civil war Henry needed a male heir to insure a peaceful succession upon his death.

Getting an annulment was fairly easy in the sixteenth century&mdashif both parties wanted one. But Catherine was unwilling and sought the support of her nephew, Emperor Charles V. The emperor didn't want to see his aunt disgraced and routed the pope's troops. Pope Clement, seeing the score, had no choice but to refuse Henry the annulment.

When Anne became pregnant in 1532, Henry moved ahead on his own. He had already forced the clergy to submit to his supremacy in all ecclesiastical matters. Now he married Anne in secret, had his new archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer, declare his marriage to Catherine invalid, and crowned Anne queen in 1533. Henry and the church teetered on the brink of schism.

A fight for control

When the pope threatened excommunication, Henry plunged ahead. He passed one act forcing all to recognize the children of his new marriage as heirs to the throne. Then he passed another making him the "supreme head" of the church in England. He dissolved monasteries, redistributing their property to his nobles to reinforce their loyalty. Monks who resisted were executed, and the money from their treasuries went into his coffers.

Still, in an era of Reformation, his church reforms were conservative. He appeared to want a Catholic church&mdashjust one that was always loyal to him and to England. "I do not choose anyone to have it in his power to command me, nor will I ever suffer it," he once said. So while he broke from Rome, he continued to uphold transubstantiation and demanded clerical celibacy.

Meanwhile, Henry tired of Anne because she had only produced a girl&mdashElizabeth. He trumped up charges of infidelity against her, had her beheaded, and then married Jane Seymour. After she gave birth to a son (Edward), she died. Henry married three more times before he died.

Henry's break from Rome was fundamentally over control of the English church. Though he instituted some Protestant measures during his reign (like putting English Bibles in all the churches), and though he always supported his Protestant-leaning archbishop of Canterbury, Cranmer, Henry sided with Rome on key issues of doctrine and practice.

But the events he set in motion would not permit England to return to the past. During the reign of his son, Edward VI (1547&ndash53), England turned staunchly Protestant. After a brief return to Catholicism under Mary I (1553&ndash1558), his daughter Elizabeth I set England on a permanently Protestant course.


Henry VIII of England Timeline - History

Born28 June 1491 Born AtGreenwich Palace, Kent
Died28 January 1547 Buried AtSt. George's Chapel, Windsor
OčeHenry (VII, King of England 1485-1509) MotherElizabeth (of York)
PrethodiHenry (VII, King of England 1485-1509)Succeeded by Edward (VI, King of England 1547-1553)
Kraljevska kuća Tudor Titles include King of England from 1509
enry VIII was the second son of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York. He became heir to the English throne when his elder brother Arthur died in 1502. Henry had excellent schooling learning both French and Latin. He was skilled at music and later wrote pieces of music for his wives one of which was Greensleeves. He was very athletic and enjoyed jousting. Henry VII died in April of 1509 and Henry became king of England. Henry was only seventeen when he became king and, as he had never been brought up expecting to be king, was happy to leave the affairs of the country to several advisers. These included Warham the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Earl of Surrey who was the Lord Treasurer, Bishop Foxe and later Thomas Wolsey. Henry dismissed two advisers from his father's reign that had become unpopular with the English people. The two, Empson and Dudley, were found guilty of treason and were executed. Henry was crowned at Westminster Abbey on the 24th of June, 1509. Shortly before the coronation Henry married Catherine of Aragon, the first of his six wives.

C atherine of Aragon was the wife of Henry's elder brother Arthur. The marriage between Catherine and Arthur was arranged by Arthur's father Henry VII as part of a campaign of securing peace in Europe. As the daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella of Aragon, the marriage would secure trust between the two countries. Catherine arrived in England in 1501 and in the November was married to Arthur then heir to the English throne. Within months Arthur had fallen ill and died. Arrangements were then made to marry Catherine and Henry, now heir to the English throne. Henry and Catherine were married at Greenwich in 1509 a month before they were both crowned at Westminster Abbey. Catherine was five years older than Henry. She gave birth to a baby boy in January of 1511, but unfortunately the child died a few weeks later. Catherine had several more babies but all died in infancy until Mary was born in February of 1516. Mary was healthy and Henry now had an heir to the throne but he really wanted a son. Henry began to believe that the marriage to Catherine was wrong because she was his late brother's wife and this was why they were not having the son that Henry needed. Henry needed the marriage to be declared invalid so he could marry again.

A nne was the daughter of Sir Thomas Boleyn. Her elder sister Mary had become the mistress of Henry VIII. Henry's attentions turned to Anne but she was not happy to be just his mistress, she wanted to be his wife. Henry was still married to Catherine of Aragon but their marriage had broken down because Catherine could not provide the King with a male heir. Henry wanted the Pope to declare that the marriage to Catherine was invalid, mainly because Catherine had been married to his late brother and in the Bible this was seen as a sin. Henry and Anne were married in January of 1533. Anne gave birth to their first child in September of the same year. The child, called Elizabeth, was a girl much to Henry's dismay but the child was healthy and Henry felt sure that Anne would give him the son he needed. Anne then had a series of stillborn births and finally she had a premature birth in January of 1536 when she was informed that Henry had fallen from his horse and was seriously injured. Henry lost interest in Anne and looked for a way to end the marriage. Anne was accused of adultery and was executed for treason. Elizabeth, her daughter, would later become Elizabeth I, Queen of England.

J ane Seymour was the third wife of Henry VIII and mother of Edward VI. She was the daughter of Sir John Seymour a close aid to Henry VIII. Jane worked as a lady-in-waiting to both Catherine of Aragon and Anne Boleyn. Jane appears to have come to Henry's attention in late 1535 or early 1536 and in May of 1536 they were married. Jane was never given a coronation as the plague struck England in the summer and it was decided to postpone the ceremony. By mid 1537 it was confirmed that Jane was pregnant and on the 12th of October 1537 their son Edward VI was born at Hampton Court. The birth had complications and Jane became ill and died on the 24th of October. Jane was buried in St. George's Chapel at Windsor and Henry gave instructions that when he died he should be buried next to her in the chapel. Of all his wives Jane seems to have been Henry's favourite.

A nne was the fourth wife of Henry VIII. It had been two years since the death of Jane Seymour when the marriage to Anne was suggested by Thomas Cromwell. A marriage to the sisters of the Dukes of Cleve would create a strong European political alliance. In order for Henry to see what Anne and her sister Amelia looked like the artist Hans Holbein was sent to paint their portraits. The painting of Anne was flattering and Henry agreed to the marriage. When Henry saw Anne, who arrived in England on the 1st of January 1540, he was disappointed that the she did not not look like her portrait. At first he wanted to cancel the wedding but the organisation had gone too far and so the marriage took place on the 6th of January. The marriage was a marriage in name only and Henry sought the means to have a divorce. He even unkindly called Anne 'The Flander's mare'. Anne understood the situation and accepted the divorce along with a good income and the use of several homes including Hever Castle. Anne died on the 16th or 17th of July 1557.

C atherine Howard was the fifth wife of Henry VIII. Catherine had been a lady-in-waiting to Anne of Cleves and had come to the attention of Henry. She was much younger than Henry who was now almost fifty and had gained a lot of weight. The marriage took place only weeks after Henry's marriage to Anne of Cleves was annulled in July of 1540. Catherine soon tired of the king and began a series of affairs with men nearer her age. Two of these were Thomas Culpeper and Francis Dereham. Word of the adultery finally reached Henry who at first refused to believe the news. Catherine and her lovers were arrested and found guilty of treason. Catherine was executed on the 13th of February 1542.

C atherine Parr was the sixth and final wife of Henry VIII. She had been made a widow twice by former marriages and was in her early thirties. Henry proposed to Catherine and she accepted although she was in love with Thomas Seymour (brother of Jane Seymour?). Henry and Catherine were married on the 12th of July, 1543. Henry's health was poor due to the leg injury he had suffered when he fell from his horse and Catherine took on the role of his nurse. Catherine also became step-mother to his three children Edward, Mary and Elizabeth who she brought together as family. Catherine and Henry had a dispute over religion and Henry ordered Catherine's arrest. The dispute was settled and the arrest order was cancelled. After Henry died Catherine married Thomas Seymour. She died in 1548.


The Mistresses of Henry VIII

W hen we think of Henry VIII as a man the image that generally comes to mind is the overweight and smelly man who was filled with rage. Well, at least in his later years.

In this article we will be looking back at the younger version of that man who was actually considered attractive. Back then, Henry was a romantic – if we look at Anne Boleyn, who was technically his mistress because he was still married to Katherine of Aragon while he was pursuing Anne and trying to get her to sleep with him…we can use his love letters as an example of how passionate he was when he found a woman he wished to possess.

Here is love letter number four, which should give you a great idea of who he was during his push to get Anne into bed:

My Mistress and Friend, my heart and I surrender ourselves into your hands, beseeching you to hold us commended to your favour, and that by absence your affection to us may not be lessened: for it were a great pity to increase our pain, of which absence produces enough and more than I could ever have thought could be felt, reminding us of a point in astronomy which is this: the longer the days are, the more distant is the sun, and nevertheless the hotter so is it with our love, for by absence we are kept a distance from one another, and yet it retains its fervour, at least on my side I hope the like on yours, assuring you that on my part the pain of absence is already too great for me and when I think of the increase of that which I am forced to suffer, it would be almost intolerable, but for the firm hope I have of your unchangeable affection for me: and to remind you of this sometimes, and seeing that I cannot be personally present with you, I now send you the nearest thing I can to that, namely, my picture set in a bracelet, with the whole of the device, which you already know, wishing myself in their place, if it should please you. This is from the hand of your loyal servant and friend,

H.R.

Henry wanted what he wanted and most of the time women did not say no to their king. Anne s own sister did not say no. I m certain she wasn t aware that she could or maybe she was not as cunning as her smart sister.

Anne Hastings

In 1509, not long after becoming king, Henry is said to have had an affair with a noble lady who was married – her name was Anne Hastings. Hastings was a Stafford by birth and her brother was Edward Stafford, Duke of Buckingham.

Here is a little insight on Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham and the scandal of his sister which caused havoc with the relationship of Edward Stafford and King Henry VIII.

A letter was exchanged between two subjects of King Ferdinand II of Aragon that explained what was happening at Tudor court – as you probably recall, this story would be important since Henry s wife, Katherine was the daughter of King Ferdinand.

What lately has happened is that two sisters of the Duke of Buckingham, both married, lived in the palace. The one of them is the favourite of the Queen, and the other, it is said, is much liked by the King, who went after her. Another version is that the love intrigues were not of the King, but of a young man, his favourite, of the name of Compton, who had been the late King s butler. This Compton carried on the love intrigue, as it is said, for the King, and that is the more credible version, as the King has shown great displeasure at what I am going to tell. The favourite of the Queen (Elizabeth Stafford) has been very anxious in this matter of her sister, and has joined herself with the Duke, her brother, with her husband and her sister s husband, in order to consult on what should be done in this case. The consequence of the counsel of all the four of them was that, whilst the Duke was in the private apartment of his sister, who was suspected [of intriguing] with the King, Compton came there to talk with her, saw the Duke, who intercepted him, quarrelled with him, and the end of it was that he was severely reproached in many and very hard words. The King was so offended at this that he reprimanded the Duke angrily. The same night the Duke left the palace, and did not enter or return there for some days. At the same time the husband of that lady went away, carried her off, and placed her in a convent sixty miles from here, that no one may see her. The King having understood that all this proceeded from the sister, who is the favourite of the Queen, the day after the one was gone, turned the other out of the palace, and her husband with her. Afterwards, almost all the court knew that the Queen had been vexed with the King, and the King with her, and thus this storm went on between them. I spoke to the friar about it, and complained that he had not told me this, regretting that the Queen had been annoyed, and saying to him how I thought that the Queen should have acted in this case, and how he, in my opinion, ought to have behaved himself. For in this I think I understand my part, being a married man, and having often treated with married people in similar matters. He contradicted vehemently, which was the same thing as denying what had been officially proclaimed. He told me that those ladies have not gone for anything of the kind, and talked nonsense, and evidently did not believe what he told me. I did not speak more on that subject.

So, the whole matter with Anne Hastings was to be kept quiet it appears – but obviously many new what had happened between the king and Lady Hastings.

Tiennette de la Baum

The next time we hear anything about a mistress is after Henry s war with France in 1513. When Henry left for France he made Katherine of Aragon regent in his place – she in turn went on to defeat the Scots, who believed England to be undefended with the king in France and in turn their king, James IV was killed in battle. Katherine was victorious and Henry had also won his battles in France but was most likely out shined by his queen which would have bruised his ego.

There was great celebrations after winning his battles in France that Henry VIII went to the court of Margaret of Austria (daughter of the Emperor) to celebrate their joined victory – it was there that his apparent love affair with tiennette de la Baume happened.

tiennette de la Baume was a Flemish woman who was a maid of honor at the court of Margaret of Austria, Archduchess of Savoy and Regent of the Netherlands, she enjoyed the attentions of King Henry VIII during his visit to Lille in 1513.

The reason it is believed that tiennette was mistress to the king is because in August 1514, when she was about to marry, she wrote to the Henry VIII, sending him “a bird and some roots of great value” and reminding him that he had promised to give her ten thousand crowns as a wedding present.

It is unclear whether or not Henry sent her the gift or whether is confirmed as his former mistress – some believe her letter is a sign that she was indeed a lover of the king.

Bessie Blount

Also in 1514 is when it appears that the marriage between the king and queen was weakening due to Katherine s lack of a living child. In this year it is believed that Henry may have begun his affair with Bessie Blount, according to authors Kelly Hart and Philippa Jones.

His relationship with Bessie, a maid-of-honor to the queen, was his first big affair – it is believed that he truly loved her. Bessie was considered his ideal woman – young, beautiful, intelligent, musical, a great dancer and an enthusiastic rider…all the things that Henry appreciated the most in a woman. The affair lasted five years and only ended because Bessie became pregnant. Henry then married her off but everyone knew that she was carrying his son. This indeed taught him a lesson – to only sleep with women who were already married as not to cause scandal when they became pregnant. Kada

Bessie gave birth to a son on the 15th of June 1519, the king was ecstatic and acknowledged the boy, who would be called Henry Fitzroy. The son of a king. He would leave Fitzroy on the back-burner, but well raised, in case his wife would not give him a son.

Jane Popincourt

The earliest reference of Jane Popincourt shows up in the Privy Purse expenses of Elizabeth of York in 1498. Kathy Lynn Emerson, creator of “Who’s Who of Tudor Women” states that Jane was a French-speaking lady assigned to teach the language to Henry VII s daughters, Margaret and Mary, through daily conversation. Nothing is known of her background. Some records identify her as French, others as Flemish. Author Philppa Jones of “The Other Tudors” says that Jane was attached to the household of Princess Mary from nearly the time of her birth and her job was to teach Mary, and there is no mention of Margaret.

In 1512 was a member of Katherine of Aragon’s household.

She became notorious during the stay of Louis d Orl ans, 2nd duc de Longueville at the English court as a prisoner of war. Longueville was captured at the Battle of the Spurs and sent to England as a prisoner of war to wait for his ransom (100,000 crowns) to be paid. While in England he took Jane as a mistress.

When Queen Anne of France died, Longueville took an active role in negotiating the marriage of Louis XII of France and Henry VIII s sister, Mary, and served as proxy bridegroom at the wedding at Greenwich Palace. The following day, his ransom having been paid, he left for France.

Jane had expected to journey to France as an attendant to Princess Mary. It is believed that she hoped to be reunited with her lover there, but her name was struck off the list at the last moment by King Louis XII – he had supposedly discovered that Jane had been the mistress of Longueville, whose wife was at the French court.

Jane stayed in England for a time after and is said to have had a brief affair with Henry VIII until King Louis XII died in January 1515. When the French king died Henry gave her a gift of 100 and Jane returned to France to be with Longueville who then unfortunately died in 1516.

Mistress Parker

It is believed that before Henry found Mary Boleyn that there was a lady by the name of Mistress Parker who had a short tryst with the king. It is unknown exactly who this woman was but there are some thoughts on the matter: Author Kelly Hart writes, it has been suggested that this was Arabella Parker, a merchant s wife, or Margery Parker, a member of Princess Mary s household. It could also refer to Jane Parker who later married George Boleyn.

Author Philippa Jones also makes the same suggestions but seems to lean a little more toward Margery Parker since she was in his daughter s household and this would have given him easy access to her. However, since Jane Parker was also the same masque as Anne Boleyn in 1522, it is possible that he noticed her there as well.

Mary Boleyn

Around the same time or shortly after Mistress Parker Henry took on Mary Boleyn as a mistress – Historian, Susan Abernethy states:

While we don t know the exact date of the commencement of King Henry s affair with Mary, it is likely to have begun about 1522. Mary participated in a pageant during a celebration for the Spanish ambassador in March of that year and may have caught the eye of King Henry with her dancing.

It is possible that Mary did not go the King s bed willingly, wanting to honor her marriage vows. Whatever happened, Mary and Henry began an affair which may have lasted until 1525.

The affair between King Henry VIII and Mary Boleyn was conducted so secretively the few people probably knew about it and the evidence for the affair is scarce. There is no doubt there was an affair, even if we don t know the exact dates or details. During Mary s marriage to William Carey she was to have two children: Katherine, born in March or April of 1524, and Henry, born c. March 1525. There is evidence indicating a strong probability that Katherine was Henry VIII s child although he didn t acknowledge her as his daughter. Because Mary was married at the time of the births of her children, they were legally considered William Carey s children.

Very Handsome Young Lady

On the 27th of September 1534, Chapuys had reported that Henry had

Renewed and increased the love he formerly bore to another very handsome young lady of the court and whereas the royal mistress (Anne Boleyn) hearing of it, attempted to dismiss the damsel from her service, the king has been very sad and sent her a message to this effect: that she ought to be satisfied with what he had done for her, for, were he to commence again, he would certainly not do as much she ought to consider where she from and many other things of the same kind. Yet no great stress is to be laid on such words .Anne knows perfectly well how to deal with him.

Kathy Lynn Emerson of Who s Who of Tudor Women believes this lady may have been Elizabeth Hervey/Harvey who was referred to as Bess. Henry would have turned to Bess during Anne s pregnancy in 1534. It is known that the lady was a friend of Lady Mary (Henry s daughter). Queen Anne attempted to remove her competition with the help of her sister-in-law, Lady Rochford but their mission failed and Rochford was instead dismissed from court for a time.

David Starkey s Six Wives recounts that Bess Hervey/Harvey was in service to Anne Boleyn and on friendly terms with Sir Francis Bryan. She was sent away from court in 1536, although she claimed she did not know why. If she was the “handsome young lady,” she had lost the king’s interest by then.

According to Carolly Erickson in Bloody Mary , an Elizabeth Harvey was one of Catherine of Aragon’s women in 1536. After Catherine died she asked to be placed in Mary’s service and was refused. In 1539, however, she was part of a group of court ladies who visited Portsmouth to tour the king’s ships, at Henry VIII’s special invitation. She was also among the ladies in Anne of Cleves s household, as Elsabeth Harvy.

She was not appointed to Catherine Howard s household, but during Catherine’s tenure as queen, Catherine gave Bess the gift of a gown.

Starkey also suggests Bess was Thomas Culpepper s paramour.

Mary Shelton

Some have believed that Anne Boleyn herself had convinced her cousin, Mary Shelton to become a mistress of the king. If his mistress was a family member then Anne would certainly remain secure on her throne.

The love affair merely lasted six months and then it was over – Anne Boleyn s plot had been foiled.

After Mary Shelton and before the execution of Anne Boleyn, Henry was courting Jane Seymour.

There were other ladies who were rumored to be the king s mistresses: Mary Berkeley, Jane Pollard, Joanna Dingley, Anne Bassett and Elizabeth Cobham – but we ll leave those ladies stories for another day.

Becoming a mistress to the king meant that favor was brought to you and usually your family. To be chosen may have been flattering to some and a curse to others. For Anne Boleyn it made her a queen, for her sister, well, she did not have the fantastic life her sister had but she did find true love and she did outlive all of her siblings. That s has to account for something, right?

WANT TO LISTEN T O THIS EPISODE OF MY PODCAST?

**If you’re interested in my post on “Illegitimate Children of Henry VIII“, please click HERE**

Hart, Kelly The Mistresses of Henry VIII

Jones, Philippa The Other Tudors – Henry VIII’s Mistresses and Bastards


Henry VIII is one of England’s most divisive monarchs. He is most famous for his six marriages, which caused two wives to be executed. He is sometimes called a monster for this and for executing more leading men than any other English monarch on alleged charges of treason. He was aided by some of the greatest minds of his day, but he turned against them. He was arrogant and egotistical. He is both attacked and praised for being the architect of England’s Reformation, which brought the church under crown control but also caused dissension which would lead to further bloodshed. Having increased the holdings of the crown by dissolving the monasteries, he then wasted resources on failed campaigning in France.

Henry VIII's reign was the height of direct monarchical power in England. However, in practice, Cromwell’s policies enlarged Henry’s power but also bound him tighter to Parliament. Henry tried throughout his reign to enhance the image of the throne, making war partly to increase his stature and building up the English navy to do so. He was a fondly-remembered king among many of his subjects. Historian G. R. Elton concluded that Henry was not a great king, for, while a born leader, he had no foresight for where he was taking the nation. But he was not a monster, either, taking no pleasure in casting down former allies.


Henry – from Prince to King

Henry was created Prince of Wales after the death of his older brother Arthur, Prince of Wales. A dispensation from Pope Julius II was necessary in order to allow him to marry his brother's widow Catherine of Aragon, and this was obtained on the basis of non-consummation. They contracted a marriage on June 11, 1509. Following difficulties with Rome over his divorce from Catherine (which was not sanctioned by the Pope, who was under pressure from Catherine's nephew, Charles V at the time), Henry split from the Roman Catholic Church, seized many of the Church's assets, and formed the Church of England. This became final with the passing of the Act of Supremacy 1536.

Henry VIII greatly improved English seapower and instituted an efficient navy. Throughout his life he was an avid gambler playing at dice, tables and cards. The other major achievement of Henry's reign was the Act of Union of 1536, which effectively brought Wales under English government, with the result that the first Welsh members of parliament were elected in 1542. Henry was proud of his own Welsh blood. In 1533 Henry introduced the first legislation against homosexuals with the Buggery Act, making “buggery” punishable by hanging, a penalty not finally lifted until 1861.


Henry VIII’s Death

On January 28, 1547, at the age of 55, King Henry VIII of England died. As a middle-aged man, Henry became covered with pus-filled boils and possibly suffered from gout. A jousting accident opened a violent wound in his leg which ulcerated and left him unable to play sports. His eventual obesity required that he be moved with mechanical inventions. His habit of binge-eating highly fatty meats was perhaps a symptom of stress. A recent and credible theory suggests that he suffered from untreated type II diabetes.

Henry VIII was interred in St. George&aposs Chapel in Windsor Castle alongside his deceased third wife, Jane Seymour. Henry&aposs only surviving son, Edward, inherited the throne, becoming Edward VI. Princesses Elizabeth and Mary waited in succession.


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Komentari:

  1. Rodell

    I believe that you are mistaken.

  2. Re-Harakhty

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  3. Mervin

    Write smoothly, well done, but I still can't do that, the text somehow comes out clumsily from the pen :) I think this will be corrected over time.

  4. Leyti

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  5. Jiri

    Na zabavan način :)



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