Kapetan mornarice postaje prvi čovjek koji je izveo svemirsko hodanje bez veze

Kapetan mornarice postaje prvi čovjek koji je izveo svemirsko hodanje bez veze



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Dok je u orbiti 170 milja iznad Zemlje, kapetan mornarice Bruce McCandless II postaje prvo ljudsko biće koje izvodi neograničeno svemirsko hodanje, kada izlazi iz američkog svemirskog šatla Challenger i slobodno manevrira, koristeći glomazni paket bijelih raketa vlastitog dizajna. McCandless je kružio oko Zemlje u tangenti sa šatlom brzinama većim od 17.500 milja na sat - brzinom kojom sateliti normalno kruže oko Zemlje - i odletio do 320 stopa od Challenger. Nakon sat i pol testiranja, letenja ruksakom na mlazni pogon i divljenja Zemlji, McCandless je sigurno ponovo ušao u šatl.

Kasnije tog dana, potpukovnik vojske Robert Stewart isprobao je raketni paket, uređaj koji se smatrao važnim korakom u budućim operacijama popravljanja i servisiranja satelita u orbiti, te sastavljanja i održavanja velikih svemirskih stanica. To je bila četvrta orbitalna misija svemirskog šatla Challenger.

PROČITAJTE JOŠ: Istraživanje svemira: vremenska linija i tehnologije


Wally Schirra

Walter Marty Schirra Jr. ( / ʃ ɜːr ˈ ɑː /, 12. mart 1923. - 3. maj 2007.) bio je američki mornarički avijatičar, probni pilot i NASA -in astronaut. Godine 1959. postao je jedan od prvih sedam astronauta odabranih za Projekt Merkur, koji je bio prvi pokušaj Sjedinjenih Država da stave ljudska bića u svemir. 3. oktobra 1962. letio je na šest orbita, devetosatnoj misiji Mercury-Atlas 8, u svemirskoj letjelici koju je dobio nadimak Sigma 7. U vrijeme svoje misije u Sigma 7, Schirra je postala peti Amerikanac i deveti čovjek koji je putovao u svemir. U programu za dva čoveka Blizanci postigao je prvi svemirski sastanak, držeći stanicu svoju svemirsku letelicu Gemini 6A na udaljenosti od 30 metara od sestrinske svemirske letelice Gemini 7 u decembru 1965. U oktobru 1968. komandovao je Apolom 7, jedinicom 11. -dnevni test protresanja niske orbite na Zemlji tropojasnog komandnog/servisnog modula Apollo i prvo lansiranje sa posadom za program Apollo.

Bio je prvi astronaut koji je tri puta poletio u svemir, i jedini astronaut koji je letio u programima Merkur, Blizanci i Apollo. [1] Schirra je ukupno provela 295 sati i 15 minuta u svemiru. Nakon Apolla 7, povukao se kao kapetan iz američke mornarice, kao i iz NASA -e, nakon čega je postao savjetnik CBS News -a u izvještavanju mreže o letovima Apolla. Schirra se pridružio Walteru Cronkiteu kao suradnik za svih sedam NASA-inih misija slijetanja na Mjesec.


Povezani članci

McCandless je diplomirao elektrotehniku ​​na Univerzitetu Stanford 1965. i magistrirao poslovnu administraciju na Univerzitetu Houston u Clear Lakeu 1987. godine.

MMU uređaj koji je McCandless koristio za neograničeno hodanje u svemir dizajnirao je, izgradio i testirao Lockheed Martin u svom objektu Waterton Canyon i NASA -inom svemirskom centru Johnson u Houstonu.

Nakon što se povukao iz svemirskog programa, McCandless je postao glavni naučnik Lockheed -ovog programa Advanced Space Systems u Koloradu. Povukao se iz Lockheeda 2006. McCandless je bio stanovnik područja četinara od sredine 1990-ih. U januaru 2014. godine, 53-godišnja supruga McCandless, Bernice, umrla je u 76.

Njegovi preživjeli su njegova supruga, Ellen Shields McCandless, iz Conifer -a, njegov sin, Bruce McCandless III, iz Austina, Texas, njegova kći, Tracy McCandless, iz Islamorade, Florida i dvije unuke.


NASA istorija

Edward Higgins White, II rođen je 14. novembra 1930. u San Antoniju u Teksasu. Njegov otac je bio diplomac West Pointa koji je služio u američkim vazduhoplovnim snagama. Postao je poznat kao pionir u vazduhoplovstvu, započevši svoju vojnu karijeru leteći balonima američke vojske. Kako su godine prolazile i sve veći naglasak stavljao na letenje na motorni pogon, prešao je na leteće avione. Kad se povukao iz vazduhoplovstva, Vajtov otac je stekao čin general -majora.

Vajtovi roditelji su sinu usadili različite lične kvalitete. Učili su ga vrijednosti samodiscipline, upornosti i predanosti. Takođe su mu modelovali važnost začinjavanja tako visoko fokusiranog života dobrom dozom smeha i zabave. White je dobro naučio lekcije i uspješno je koristio te kvalitete tokom svog ličnog i profesionalnog života.

Kada je imao dvanaest godina, kada je većina drugih dječaka upravljala avionima na modelima, Ed je sa ocem otišao u stari trener T-6. Bilo je to iskustvo koje će dugo pamtiti. Iako je "quothe" imao jedva dovoljno godina da stavi padobran "(2), otac mu je dopustio da preuzme kontrolu nad avionom. Ed se prisjetio da se "quotit osjećao kao najprirodnija stvar na svijetu koju je potrebno učiniti." (3) Umjesto da osjeća strašni osjećaj straha, dvanaestogodišnji dječak je pokazivao osjećaj smirenog samopouzdanja koji je bio rezultat glavne lekcije njegovih roditelja naučio ga je: Postavite cilj, vjerujte u svom srcu i duši da ga možete postići, a zatim radite na njegovom ostvarenju.

Budući da je Edov otac bio karijerni vojni časnik, porodica se mnogo puta selila u različite baze vazduhoplovnih snaga širom zemlje. Kao rezultat toga, Ed se naučio prilagođavati novim situacijama, ljudima i mjestima. Ed se smatrao vrlo dobrim učenikom i odličnim sportistom u bilo kojoj školi koju je pohađao. U stvari, stalno premještanje s jedne zračne postaje na drugu nije Whiteu stvaralo velike poteškoće sve dok se nije upisao u zapadnu srednju školu u Washingtonu, DC Nakon što je počeo istraživati ​​politiku upisa na fakultetu po svom izboru, nedostatak stalni boravak predstavljao je prepreku.

Porodica White je imala dugu i ponosnu istoriju službe u različitim granama vojske. Osim očeve karijere u vazduhoplovstvu, dva Edova ujaka imala su solidnu karijeru u vojsci i marincima. West Point je diplomirao dva člana porodice White i kvota i nije se činilo da postoji pitanje da li ću i ja otići tamo. Ali većina vojnih porodica nema stalno prebivalište pa nismo imali kongresmena koji bi me imenovao na Akademiju. & Quot (4)

White je znao da će ga trebati sponzorirati kao velikog kandidata ako će krenuti očevim i ujakovim stopama i pohađati West Point. Kako bi dobio željeno imenovanje, Ed bi "kucao gore -dolje po hodnicima Kongresa kucajući na vrata. [i] konačno su pokucali na dovoljno vrata da zakažu termin & quot. (5) Nakon njegove srednje škole, Vojna akademija Sjedinjenih Država u West Pointu otvorila je vrata Edwardu H. Whiteu, II, najnovijem članu bijelog klana koji je prošetao njegovim svetim dvoranama.

Dok je pohađao West Point, White je nastavio nastupati i u akademskim krugovima i u atletici. U fudbalskom timu je igrao kao bek. Napravio je tim za stazu kao prepreka i postavio rekord West Pointa na 400 metara s preponama. Jedva je propustio mjesto u olimpijskom timu Sjedinjenih Država 1952. godine. Posvetio se ustaljenom dnevnom režimu održavanja tjelesne kondicije koji je držao njegov okvir od pet stopa jedanaest inča u izvrsnom stanju.

Ed je također odvojio vrijeme i za druge aktivnosti osim učenja i treninga za atletska takmičenja. Dok je bio na fudbalskom vikendu u West Pointu, upoznao je Patriciu Eileen Finegan. Vremenom je Pat, sitna plavuša iz Washingtona, postala gospođa Edward White, II.

Godine 1952. White je diplomirao West Point sa diplomom nauka i upisao se u američko vazduhoplovstvo. Nakon što je dobio upute za let, zaradio je svoja krila. Ubrzo nakon toga prebačen je u Njemačku. Dok je služio u inostranstvu, White se etablirao kao uspješan pilot koji je upravljao letećim avionima F-86 Sabre, kao i novijim borbenim avionima F-100. Osim toga, White je uspješno završio Školu preživljavanja zračnih snaga u Bad Tolzu u Njemačkoj.

Zatim je 1957. Ed White pročitao članak koji opisuje ulogu budućih astronauta. & quotČlanak je napisan jezikom u obrazu, ali nešto mi je reklo: to je to - ovo je vrsta stvari za koju ste izrezani. Otada se činilo da me sve što sam radio pripremalo za let u svemir. & Quot (6) Činjenica je bila da je u tom trenutku Ed White odlučio da mu je postati astronaut najnoviji cilj i pažljivo je planirao svoje buduće aktivnosti u kako bi se postigao taj cilj.

Nakon što je tri i po godine službovao u Njemačkoj, White se vratio u Sjedinjene Države sa suprugom i dvoje djece, Edwardom i Bonnie Lynn. Do tada, Ed je bio uvjeren da će mu viša diploma dati prednost nad drugim ljudima protiv kojih će se boriti za mjesto na popisu astronauta. Stoga je upisao postdiplomski studij na Univerzitetu u Michiganu. Magistrirao je aeronautičko inženjerstvo 1959. godine.

Iste godine NASA je odabrala svojih sedam astronauta za projekt Mercury, prvi svemirski program s ljudskom posadom. Njihovim odabirom postalo je jasno da će vjerodajnice testnih pilota biti preduvjet za one koji žele postati dio korpusa astronauta. U skladu s tim, White je upisao školu pilota za testiranje vazdušnih snaga u kalifornijskom Edwards AFB -u. On je 1959. godine dobio akreditive za probnog pilota i prebačen je u Wright-Patterson AFB u Ohaju, gdje je dodijeljen kao eksperimentalni pilot-pilot u Odjeljenju za aeronautičke sisteme. Dok su bili u Wright-Pattersonu, White & quotmade letački testovi za istraživanje i razvoj sistema naoružanja, napisali su izvještaje o tehničkom inženjeringu i dali preporuke za poboljšanje dizajna i konstrukcije aviona & quot. (7)

Do vremena kada je White služio kao pilot pilot u Ohaju, sedam astronauta projekta Mercury bilo je uronjeno u obuku. Jedna od najvažnijih vježbi za obuku osmišljena je kako bi ih pripremila za bestežinsko stanje koje bi iskusili tokom svemirskih letova. Tri aviona su korištena da astronautima pruže kratke periode bestežinskog stanja: Vazdušne snage C-131, C-135 i F-100F. Ed White je upravljao nekoliko ovih letova. & quot; Letio sam velikim teretnim avionima Vazdušnih snaga kroz bestežinske manevre kako bih testirao šta se dešava pilotu u nultoj gravitaciji. Dva moja putnika bili su John Glenn i Deke Slayton, koji su vježbali letenje u bestežinskom stanju za Project Mercury. Druga dva moja putnika bili su Ham i Enos, čimpanze koje su se popele prije astronauta. & Quot (8)

Kako se projekt Mercury bližio uspješnom završetku i projekt Gemini počeo se pojavljivati, postalo je jasno da će biti potrebna dodatna grupa astronauta kako bi ispunili ciljeve srednjeg svemirskog programa. U travnju 1962. NASA je počela regrutirati. Većina osnovnih zahtjeva ostala je ista. NASA je tražila muške pilote -probe koji su imali veliko iskustvo leta u mlaznim avionima. Kandidati su morali imati najmanje diplomu inženjera ili neku od fizičkih nauka. Međutim, maksimalna dobna granica smanjena je sa četrdeset na trideset pet, a maksimalna visina sa pet stopa, jedanaest inča na šest stopa. Osim toga, civilni probni piloti mogli bi se prijaviti. Kao i kod projekta Mercury, kandidati su završili brojne fizičke i psihološke testove. U rujnu 1962. napravljen je konačni odabir i NASA je dodala svoje najnovije članove u popis astronauta. Kapetan zračnih snaga Edward H. White, II, "koji je volio postavljati visoke ciljeve, a zatim voziti prema njima" (9) je postigao svoj cilj izbacivši preko dvije stotine drugih kandidata za osvajanje titule astronauta. Osam drugih pilot pilota također je zaslužilo mjesto na konačnoj NASA -inoj listi:

G. Neil A. Armstrong
Major Frank Borman, američko vazduhoplovstvo
Poručnik Charles Conrad, američka mornarica
Zapovjednik poručnika James A. Lovell, Jr., američka mornarica
Kapetan James A. McDivitt, američko vazduhoplovstvo
G. Elliot See, Jr.
Kapetan Thomas P. Stafford, američko vazduhoplovstvo
Zapovjednik poručnika John W. Young, američka mornarica

Nakon što su izabrani u drugu grupu astronauta, Ed White i njegova porodica slijedili su trend i preselili se u Teksas kako bi bili u blizini budućeg svemirskog centra sa posadom. Ed je odabrao dom u predgrađu Houstona El Lago. White je vidio uzbudljive parade i medijske bljeskavice koje su okruživale astronaute projekta Mercury i njihove porodice, ali nije bio spreman za pažnju koju će on i njegov prijatelj Jim McDivitt dobiti po njihovom dolasku u Houston. Dok je donosio konačne aranžmane za kupovinu svoje kuće, djeca iz susjedstva su se počela okupljati u blizini. Mladići su pitali da li je astronaut. Čim su dobili potvrdan odgovor, "djeca su trčala gore -dolje po ulici vičući:" Astronauti su u kući! " Kad su White i McDivitt izašli, djeca su tražila autograme. Nakon uljudnog, oboje su izrazili iznenađenje. da bi bilo ko htio njihov autogram, jer nisu ništa učinili & quot. (10) White je sebe posmatrao kao člana tima. kao inženjerski zupčanik u velikom tehničkom programu & quot (11), a ne heroj kojeg treba pratiti. Osim toga, on je jedva izabran. Činilo se da autogrami i pažnja nisu na mjestu i da su preuranjeni.

Nakon što su formalno bili dio programa, devet novih ljudi prilično je brzo procijenjeno od njihovih sedam prethodnika. Svi članovi druge grupe ocijenjeni su kao visoko vješti piloti. Također je bilo evidentno da je druga grupa u prosjeku imala veći nivo formalnog obrazovanja od originalnih astronauta Merkura. Ipak, čak i među grupom uspješnih, Ed White se istakao među gomilom. Viđen je kao čovjek s kvotom koji će, na inteligentno pitanje, odgovoriti promišljeno i točno, ali rijetko će dobrovoljno dati informacije & quot. (12) Ruke & quotold iz projekta Mercury izabrale su ga za tipa za gledanje & quot. (13)

Budući da je već bio duboko uključen u program Blizanaca u septembru 1962., Gus Grissom je bio zadužen da nadzire nove regrute. Grissom je pripisao zasluge u ocjeni pridošlica: & quotSvi su talentovani. U stvari, kad jedan od njih dođe do novog odgovora na neki problem, mislim da su mnogo pametniji od naše izvorne grupe od sedam članova & quot. (14) Međutim, od prvog dana postalo je kristalno jasno da, budući da nitko iz druge grupe nije trenirao posebno za let u svemir, a kamoli da je stvarno letio u svemiru, oni su nova djeca u bloku. & "Jednom prilikom, Grissom je oštro savjetovao jednog mladića: Ne osjećajte se tako pametno. Ti si samo pripravnik astronaut. & Quot (15)

Podstaknuti informacijama i iskustvom stečenim u projektu Mercury, NASA je usvojila novi program obuke koji je bio mnogo napredniji, profinjeniji i rigorozniji od prethodnih priprema za let u svemir. Ed White i njegovi kolege pripravnici uskoro su se našli u raznim vježbama osmišljenim kako bi predvidjeli Projekt Blizanci, sljedeću fazu američkog svemirskog leta s ljudskom posadom.

Obuka je započela upoznavanjem novih članova korpusa astronauta sa detaljima prikupljenim iz projekta Merkur. Stekli su iskustvo u radu sa sistemima i hardverom svemirskih letelica Merkur. Učili su o letačkim operacijama i povezanim zadacima na letu. Obišli su objekte na rtu Kennedy, uključujući sisteme za praćenje i područja lansiranja. Titan, Atlas, Agena i Saturn postali su dio njihovog rječnika kada su se upoznali s raznim pojačivačima povezanim sa svemirskim programom.

Formalna nastava u učionici bila je sastavni dio obuke za Blizance, tako da su astronauti bili u mogućnosti "izvršavati naučne zadatke i inteligentno razgovarati sa doktorima nauka u svim oblastima". (16) Tako su astronauti između ostalog sudjelovali u intenzivnoj obuci iz područja fizike, geologije, anatomije i fiziologije, astronomije, meteorologije, aerodinamike, mehanike letenja, navođenja i navigacije, matematike i komunikacija. Obrazovna komponenta pokazala se oporezujućom čak i za grupu muškaraca čiji je IQ u prosjeku iznosio približno 135.

Nakon što su završili potrebnu nastavu u učionici, svakom od astronauta Blizanaca dodijeljeno je da se specijalizira za određeni aspekt svemirskih letova. To je omogućilo svakom astronautu da bude direktno uključen u sastavni dio inženjerskog razvoja. Osim toga, zbog velikog broja zadataka povezanih s programom Blizanci, ova je specijalizacija potaknula izvrsne prakse upravljanja vremenom. Delegiranjem područja odgovornosti u cijelom korpusu astronauta, agencija je uspjela drastično smanjiti vrijeme potrebno za adekvatno pokrivanje cijelog operativnog sistema. Efikasnim korištenjem brifinga, sastanaka osoblja i konferencija, svi članovi tima mogli bi biti dobro informirani o svim područjima rada programa i sistema, bez obzira na njihovu oblast specijalizacije. Čak i uz efikasno delegiranje zadataka, Ed je smatrao da "dan" jednostavno nije dovoljno dug da obavim sve što bih želio ". (17)

Ed White je dobio zadatak da se specijalizira za projektovanje i razvoj sistema za upravljanje letovima svemirskih letjelica i srodne opreme. (18) White je potpuno uživao u svojoj specijalnoj oblasti & quot; jer to uključuje pilotov dodir - ljudsku vezu sa svemirskim brodom i način na koji njime upravlja & quot. (19) Takozvani "dodir pilota pilota" bio je izuzetno važan za Ed Whitea kao probnog pilota. Jasno je shvatio da je brak između čovjeka i mašine apsolutno neophodan kako bi se postigao cilj dostizanja Mjeseca. Međutim, bio je jednako uvjeren da je "važno ono što je čovjek - a ne automatska mašina - primarni sistem u svemirskim letovima". (20) Ipak, za Whitea je dodir "quotpilota" nadišao matice svemirskog putovanja i dosegao do srži njegovog bića. & quotMnogi od nas ovdje na zemlji postaju prilično znatiželjni o tome od čega je Mjesec sačinjen, a nikada nećete zadovoljiti čovjekovu znatiželju ako čovjek sam ne ode. & quot (21)

Jedna od najvećih frustracija s kojom se Ed susreo tokom treninga, međutim, uključivala je mehanički aspekt dodira & quotpilota & quot. Svaki od simulatora bio je opremljen različitom vrstom ručnog upravljačkog štapa. Kao rezultat toga, Ed je otkrio da su astronauti morali posvetiti dijelove svog vremena treninga jednostavno kako bi se prilagodili svakom kontrolnom štapiću i stekli osjećaj. White je ocijenio da je ovo zloupotreba dragocjenog vremena i započeo je kampanju za kontroler koji je u osnovi sličan za sva vozila u programu. Činilo mi se nezamislivim da će, kao što su neki ljudi sugerirali, astronaut letjeti prema Mjesecu u Apolu koristeći jednu vrstu štapa, zatim se popeti na LEM, naš Mjesečev desantni brod, i koristiti drugu vrstu kontrolera da ga spusti na Mjesecu & quot. (22) Whiteova upornost se isplatila stvaranjem & quota tipa kontrolera za koji vjerujem da ga možemo koristiti u svim vozilima. Osjećat će se isto, a kad ga pomaknemo, u osnovi će dati isti odgovor & quot. (23)

Obuka za preživljavanje takođe je igrala važnu ulogu u programu obuke Blizanaca. Astronauti su izbušeni u rješavanju potencijalnih kriza na kopnu i na moru. Naučili su kako napustiti kapsulu koja tone i uspješno koristiti splav za spašavanje u slučaju da naiđu na hitnu situaciju nakon prskanja. Osim toga, postali su vješti u tehnikama koje bi im pomogle da prežive u nevjerojatnom slučaju da je njihova letjelica sletjela na zemlju umjesto u ocean. Ed White i njegove kolege naučili su kako od padobrana oblikovati odjeću koja će ih zaštititi od velike vrućine pustinje Nevade. Izbačeni su u parovima iz helikoptera u dubine sparne panamske kišne šume gdje su kuhana iguana, pečena boa i srca palmi bili svakodnevni specijaliteti za ručak.

Održavanje odličnog fizičkog stanja bio je glavni prioritet i za astronaute Blizance. Ovaj fokus samo je ojačao cjeloživotnu predanost Eda Whitea za očuvanje njegovog fizičkog zdravlja i snage. Uprkos gustom rasporedu treninga, Ed je nastavio da učestvuje u plivanju, rukometu, odbojci, skvošu i golfu. Dan je započeo trčanjem od najmanje jedne milje. Umjesto da se vozi od svoje kuće do svemirskog centra sa posadom u Houstonu, White se često odlučio voziti biciklom na dionici od tri milje. Dok je trčao, White je volio stisnuti tvrdu gumenu loptu kako bi povećao snagu u šakama i rukama. Instalirao je konopac za penjanje od 40 stopa u dvorištu svoje kuće i redovno ga se hvatao u koštac. & quotOn je mogao odbaciti pedeset trbušnjaka i pedeset sklekova bez cviljenja. & quot (24) Bez sumnje, Ed White je smatran fizički najsposobnijim od svih astronauta u korpusu.

Manje očigledno područje obuke astronauta bili su odnosi s javnošću. Mnogi od muškaraca osjećali su se vrlo neugodno govoreći u javnosti. Međutim, i u određenim slučajevima, često bez upozorenja, [astronauti bi] bili zamoljeni da razgovaraju na okupljanjima zaposlenih, često u improvizovanim poslovima koji su se vodili na proizvodnoj traci & quot. (25) Znajući da se javni govor smatra dijelom posla, Ed White pridružio se Toastmasters International kako bi poboljšao svoje komunikacijske vještine. U jednom trenutku Ed je bio potpredsjednik - sekretar organizacije.

Nakon višemjesečne obuke, objavljen je raspored letova Blizanaca. James McDivitt je izabran za komandnog pilota za predstojeći let Gemini 4, a Ed White je bio pilot. Frank Borman i James Lovell, Jr. bili su rezervne kopije za let. White i McDivitt bili su dobro usklađeni, a njihov lični i profesionalni život često su imali čudne paralele. Oboje su bili u braku sa ženama po imenu Pat. Obojica su bili kapetani u vazduhoplovstvu. Obojica su 1959. godine stekli diplomu vazduhoplovnog inženjerstva na Univerzitetu u Michiganu. Dok je Ed pohađao master studije, Jim je studirao za zvanje prvostupnika. Obojica su završili obuku za probne pilote u Edwards AFB -u. Iako je White ukupno imao više sati leta, McDivitt -ovih dvije hiljade sati u mlaznim avionima bilo je gotovo identično White -ovih 1.950 sati u mlaznjacima. Obojica su se odazvali NASA -inom pozivu za dodatnim astronautima 1962. godine i obojica su u septembru iste godine odabrani kao dio druge grupe astronauta. Prisjećajući se kako su im se putevi u više navrata ukrstili, White je rekao da, & quotJim i ja slijedimo ih zajedno. Čini se da smo svaki put kad smo se okupljali polazili na nekakve preglede. & Quot (26)

Uspjeh leta Grissoma i Younga Gemini 3 otvorio je put za dugotrajne svemirske letove. Najduži američki svemirski let do sada bio je tridesetčetvoročasovni let Merkura Gordona Coopera. Sovjeti su, međutim, imali četiri duga leta u zaslugu, u rasponu od sedamdeset do sto devetnaest sati. McDivitt i White odabrani su za let na prvom dugotrajnom letu za program Blizanci.

Originalni plan leta Geminija 4 bio je prilično konzervativan. Primarni cilj bio je utvrditi kako će se svemirska letjelica i posada ponašati tokom četverodnevnog leta. Osim toga, trinaest naučnih eksperimenata dotaklo je plan. Međutim, početkom marta 1965. NASA je revidirala plan leta i dodala dvije dodatne komponente. Jedan od novih ciljeva bio je pokušaj održavanja fiksne udaljenosti od druge faze lansirnog vozila svemirske letjelice Titan II. Ovaj zadatak, koji bi pomogao u budućim misijama susreta, pao je na komandnog pilota Jima McDivitta. Predviđeno je da Ed White izvede dramatičnu aktivnost izvan vozila (EVA). Dana 18. marta 1965. godine, ruski kosmonaut Alexi Leonov postao je prvi čovjek koji je izašao izvan relativne sigurnosti svoje svemirske letjelice koja je lebdjela u svemiru deset minuta dok je bila pričvršćena za Voskhod II pomoću priveza od 10 stopa. White je trebao koristiti novorazvijeno odijelo i posebnu ručnu jedinicu koja bi omogućila astronautu da se pokreće tokom izvođenja manevara izvan svemirske letjelice. Kada je predstavljen originalni plan leta, Whiteovo odijelo i jedinica za sopstveni pogon još su bili na tabli za crtanje. Zapravo, oprema nije bila certificirana za upotrebu u svemiru tek deset dana prije lansiranja Geminija 4, a sama EVA je službeno potvrđena tek tjedan dana prije planiranog lansiranja. Bez obzira na to, White je proveo bezbroj sati vježbajući u tlačnoj komori McDonnell kako bi se pripremio za izvođenje svemirske šetnje. Iako je Rus prvi plutao u svemiru, Ed White je bio odlučan u namjeri da prvi upotrebi mlazni pogon za stvarno manevriranje u svemiru.

Iako je GT-4 trebao biti njegov prvi svemirski let, Ed je izjavio, "Osjećam se potpuno sigurno u svemirskoj letjelici". (27) S tim osjećajem samopouzdanja, White je dao znak palca sa zaštitnim znakom gomili koja se okupila 3. juna 1965. i ukrcala se u Gemini 4 sa zapovjednikom Jimom McDivittom. Poleteli su sa Pad 19 u 10:16. Ed, pobožni metodist, donio je tri posebna predmeta koja je sa sobom trebao ponijeti za vrijeme planirane EVA: medalju sv. Kristofora, zlatni križ i Davidovu zvijezdu. & quot; Imao sam veliku vjeru u sebe, a posebno u Jima, a isto tako mislim da sam imao veliku vjeru u svog Boga. Dakle, razlog zašto sam uzeo te simbole je taj što mislim da je to najvažnija stvar koju sam htio za sebe, i osjećao sam da, iako ne mogu uzeti jednu za svaku religiju u zemlji, mogu uzeti tri koje su mi bile najpoznatije sa. & quot (28)

Ubrzo nakon poletanja postalo je jasno da će McDivittov plan održavanja fiksne udaljenosti od izbačene druge faze lansirnog vozila Titan II morati biti napušten jer se pozornica tako ozbiljno prevrnula da se njena orbita pogoršala u odnosu na orbitu letjelice. Kako bi jurio cilj, McDivitt bi potrošio previše goriva. S ovim izbrisanim ciljem, posada je skrenula pažnju na EVA Eda Whitea, koja je trebala biti održana krajem druge revolucije.

Kako je Gemini 4 započeo svoju drugu revoluciju, Jim i Ed počeli su prolaziti kroz kontrolnu listu za različitu EVA opremu. U tijesnim okvirima svemirske letjelice raspakirali su Whiteov hitni paket s kisikom, njegove posebno dizajnirane termičke rukavice i glomaznu pupčanu vrpcu s primarnim kisikom i privezak. Manevarska jedinica od sedam i po kilograma uklonjena je i provjerena. Sastavljena je oprema za kameru koja bi zabilježila Whiteovu povijesnu šetnju. Željeli su biti vrlo pedantni u pripremama za EVA jer je "quotit" bio naš prvi korak u svemir. [i] htjeli smo biti sigurni da su postupci obavljeni temeljito i ispravno & quot. (29) Kako se vrijeme EVA -e približavalo, posada je shvatila da počinju žuriti kroz kontrolnu listu. McDivitt je uputio poziv da odloži EVA -u do treće revolucije kako bi im dao dovoljno vremena da pravilno provjere i obuku opremu. Razočarani Ed White na kraju se složio. & quotOdlučili smo da ponovo krenemo s početka kontrolne liste. Sve smo započeli ispočetka. Ovaj put smo mogli odvojiti sve vrijeme koje smo htjeli. & Quot (30)

Tijekom treće revolucije posada je dobila odobrenje za dekompresiju i EVA. U skladu s tim, atmosfera svemirske letjelice svedena je na vakuum i otvorio se Whiteov otvor. Dok je Ed stajao na svom mjestu, pripremajući se za izlazak, tri puta je provjeravao opremu za kameru. & "Htio sam biti siguran da nisam ostavio poklopac objektiva uključen. Znao sam da se i ne bih mogao vratiti ako to učinim. & Quot (31)

U 14:45, dok je Blizanci 4 prolazio iza Havaja, Ed White je izašao kroz otvor. & quotKada sam napustio svemirski brod, nije bilo nikakvog potiskivanja sa svemirske letjelice. Pištolj mi je zapravo dao impuls da napustim svemirsku letjelicu. & Quot (32) Kad je započeo svemirsko hodanje, Ed je bio potpuno svjestan da sve njegove VOX prijenose čuju milioni ljudi koji su bili zalijepljeni za svoje radije i televizore . & quot; Pomislio sam: 'Šta kažeš na 194 miliona ljudi kad ih gledaš odozgo iz svemira?' Tada mi je rješenje postalo vrlo očigledno. 'Ne žele da razgovaram s njima. Žele čuti što radimo ovdje gore. ' . Dakle, ono što ste čuli bila su dva probna pilota koji su izvršili svoju misiju na najbolji mogući način. & Quot (33)

Ed je rekao da nije doživio nikakvu dezorijentaciju ili osjećaj da pada. Uprkos činjenici da je Gemini 4 šibao svemirom pri brzinama većim od 17.500 km / h, White je osjetio vrlo mali osjećaj brzine. Izvijestio je da je & quot; manevarska jedinica dobra. Jedini problem koji imam je što nemam dovoljno goriva & quot. (34) S iscrpljenim gorivom u ručnoj jedinici, White se morao osloniti na privezak od 25 stopa da bi sam manevrirao. Ubrzo je otkrio da pištolj pruža mnogo bolju kontrolu od trake i da je kretanje bez njega mnogo teže i neugodnije.

Ed, zaljubljenik u fotografiju, zatim je skrenuo pažnju na snimanje spektakularnih pogleda kojima je svjedočio na filmu. & "Radit ću na snimanju slika. Mogu sjediti ovdje i vidjeti cijelu kalifornijsku obalu, primijetio je (35). Dok se White odvojio sa svojim fotoaparatom od 35 mm, Jim McDivitt je napravio nekoliko Edovih fotografija kad je ušao u puni pogled na prozor. Dok je manevrisao, Ed je slučajno naletio na svemirsku letjelicu, ostavljajući trag na McDivittovom prozoru. Svijet je bio oduševljen što je čuo zafrkanciju između dva prijatelja kako je Jim rekao: "Zamazao si mi vjetrobransko staklo, prljavi psu. Vidite li kako je sve gore razmazano? & Quot (36)

Belo odelo dobro se držalo, a poseban štitnik za kacigu pružao je neophodnu zaštitu od sunca. White je primijetio da, "Sunce u svemiru nije zasljepljujuće, ali je prilično lijepo." (37) Cijela svemirska šetnja napredovala je izuzetno dobro. Bilo je jasno da White uživa dok je bučno radio, "veoma sam zahvalan što imam iskustvo da budem prvi. Ovo je zabavno! & Quot (38)

Edov posljednji pogled tokom svemirske šetnje bio je na državu Floridu. & quot; Mogao sam vidjeti cijeli donji dio države, ostrvski lanac Kube i Portorika. & quot (39) Prerano, direktor leta naredio je Whiteu da se vrati u Blizance 4 i prva američka šetnja svemirom se završila. Niko nije bio tužniji kad je vidio kraj kao Ed White. & quotTo je najtužniji trenutak u mom životu, & quot (40) komentirao je dok je polako manevrirao pri povratku. Bez koristi od jedinice za samopogon, Edu je trebalo dodatno vrijeme da se vrati u otvor. Neki su tvrdili da je kašnjenje pokazatelj da je patio od neke vrste duboke narkoze ili euforije. Međutim, Ed je insistirao da to nije slučaj. & quot; Mogu iskreno i iskreno reći da sam jako uživao u EVA -i, i bilo mi je žao što se bliži kraju, i zaista sam oklijevao da uđem. Ali kad se čulo da je EVA faza završena, ja sam znao sam da je vrijeme da uđem i to sam učinio. Nije bilo euforije, ali povratak u kabinu trajao je jednako koliko i izlazak, morao sam učiniti iste stvari, samo obrnutim redoslijedom, predajući svoju opremu Jimu i tako dalje. & Quot (41) White je postigao njegov cilj je da postane prvi čovek koji se progurao u svemir. Osim toga, njegovo svemirsko hodanje trajalo je dvostruko duže od Leonovljevog desetominutnog izleta. Ed had felt many things during those twenty minutes, but "the biggest thing was a feeling of accomplishment". (42)

Gemini 4 made sixty two orbits around the earth, flying a grand total of 1,609,700 miles before splashing down in the Atlantic. Skeptics had predicted that astronauts would suffer horrendous physical side effects from a long duration flight and that the recovery crews would find either dead bodies or unconscious astronauts hovering on the brink of death once they opened the hatches. However, the recovery helicopter pilot saw a totally different sight. "They were like a couple of kids playing on the beach, splashing in the salt water." (43) Ed White was doing some kind of exercise that resembled deep knee bends. Both astronauts appeared to be in fine shape, aside from a slight case of seasickness on Ed's part and being in desperate need of a shower and shave. Commenting on their distinct aroma after the flight Ed quipped, "I thought we smelled fine. It was all those people on the carrier that smelled strange." (44) On board the recovery carrier Wasp , Ed stated, "I felt so good I didn't know whether to hop, skip, jump or walk on my hands!" (40) His spirits were so high that he danced a jig on the way to the crew quarters.

In spite of their good mood, the astronauts had experienced some practical concerns during their flight. They found the work/rest cycles to be inadequate. Thoughts about running out of water had caused the crew to be overly conservative in their water intake, putting them at risk for dehydration. In addition, "White noted that about four or five hours after eating, he began to feel as if his energy level was going downhill in a more pronounced manner than it did on earth. Each time he ate, he noted definitely that his energy level bounced up." (45) Those who knew Ed White were not at all surprised to learn that hunger pangs were his biggest discomfort during the flight. He was known to have the most voracious appetite in the entire astronaut corps. "Although space doctors failed to find an ounce of fat on his 170 pound frame, White could put away two full course dinners at one sitting and then ask for dessert with a straight face." (46) Needless to say, it did not take Ed long to gain back the eight pounds he had lost during his flight.

Upon returning to Houston, White and McDivitt received a grand welcome home. President Lyndon Johnson took the opportunity to promote both men to the rank of lieutenant colonel and presented each of them with a NASA Exceptional Service medal. Chicago played host to an enormous ticker tape parade. The University of Michigan awarded the newly created honorary doctorate degree of astronautical science to both alumni. After receiving the degree, White, who still was trying to adjust to his new military title joked, "I can hardly get used to people calling me 'Colonel'. I know in a million years I'll never get used to people calling me 'Doctor'." (47) Finally, White and McDivitt, along with their families, were asked to represent the United States and strut their stuff at the Paris Air Show. In spite of the presence of Russia's pride and joy, Yuri Gagarin, the U.S. Gemini space twins captured a great deal of media attention and put the U.S. manned space program back on the map.

Based in part on the quality and strength of his EVA performance, Ed White was selected as Senior Pilot for the first Apollo flight. He was joined by Command Pilot Virgil "Gus" Grissom and Pilot Roger Chaffee. Grissom expressed a great deal of satisfaction with White saying, "Ed's a real hard driver. I don't care what kind of job you give Ed, he's going to get it done he's going to get it finished." (48) Ed valued Grissom's experience and was pleased to discover that he and his commander tended to think along the same lines about many things.

As the crew prepared for the flight, they encountered numerous glitches and setbacks with the Apollo spacecraft. The crew stayed focused and dealt with the problems as they came up. In spite of the frustrations and delays, they never failed to keep their sense of humor intact. Well aware of Ed White's tremendous appetite, Grissom joked that during the Apollo I flight, he planned to keep his personal food supply under lock and key to discourage Ed from sneaking samples from his meals. Shortly before the final series of spacecraft testing began, the crew was asked to pose for pictures wearing their space suits. As photographers attempted to get the perfect shot of the first Apollo crew, Grissom reached over and tugged at a cord on White's space suit, causing its bright orange Mae Wests to suddenly balloon to life.

As the crew entered the Apollo I command module for the plugs out test on January 27, 1967, Ed White took the center seat. Toward the end of the test, they would be practicing emergency egress procedures and Ed would be responsible for opening the hatch by removing the bolts which sealed it shut. It was a difficult maneuver because Ed needed to reach over his head to loosen the bolts with a ratchet. The inner hatch was extremely heavy, but Ed, who was known for his great strength, had become accustomed to handling it by repeatedly practicing the opening procedure. Although the well-trained crew had practiced the egress drill numerous times, they never had managed to perform the duty within the ninety second recommended time frame. The entire plugs out test had been riddled with various problems from the time the crew entered the spacecraft shortly after 1:00 P.M., especially in the area of communications. As darkness began to fall, the crew still needed to perform the emergency egress procedure before ending the test and heading home for the weekend. A ninety second time frame was the goal for completing the hatch removal. Ed White had no idea that he and the crew soon would be in an emergency situation and that their lives would depend upon the crew opening the hatch in less than twenty seconds. Napomene:

1. Life . June 18, 1965, p. 38.

2. Time . February 3, 1967, p. 16.

3. Newsweek . June 14, 1965, p. 32.

7. Erik Bergaust, editor, Illustrated Space Encyclopedia ( New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1965), p. 146.

9. Newsweek , February 6, 1967, p. 29.

10. Henry Dethloff, Suddenly Tomorrow Came. A History of the Johnson Space Center (Houston: Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1993), p. 44.

11. The New York Times , January 28, 1967, p. 1L.

13. Life , February 10, 1967, p. 22.

14. Betty Grissom and Henry Still, Starfall (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1974), p. 144.

16. Virgil Grissom, Gemini: A Personal Account of Man's Venture Into Space (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1968), p. 74.

17. Life , June 18, 1965, p. 39.

18. Ralph O. Shankle, The Twins of Space: The Story of the Gemini Project (New York: J.B. Lippincott Company, 1964), p. 160.

24. Life , February 10, 1967, p. 22.

26. United Press International, editors, Gemini: America's Historic Walk In Space (United Press International, Inc., 1965), p. 13.


Bruce McCandless, 1st to fly untethered in space, dies

1 of 6 In a photo provided by Nasa, Bruce McCandless uses a nitrogen-propelled thruster unit to perform the first-ever untethered spacewalk, on Feb. 7, 1984. McCandless, a highly-decorated astronaut for more than two decades, died on Dec. 21, 2017. He was 80. (NASA via The New York Times) -- FOR EDITORIAL USE ONLY -- NASA/NYT Show More Show Less

2 of 6 In a photo provided by Nasa, Bruce McCandless aboard the Discovery space shuttle on April 29, 1990. McCandless, who on a 1984 mission became the first astronaut to fly untethered from his spacecraft, died on Dec. 21, 2017. He was 80. (NASA via The New York Times) -- FOR EDITORIAL USE ONLY -- NASA/NYT Show More Show Less

4 of 6 Former astronaut and retired U.S. Navy captain Bruce McCandless II died Thursday in California at age 80. He was the first to fly untethered in space, where he logged more than 312 hours. HOGP Show More Show Less

5 of 6 Mission Specialist Bruce McCandless II uses a Manned Maneuvering Unit to "free-fly" 320 feet away from the orbiter. Photo credit: NASA Show More Show Less

HOUSTON &mdash NASA astronaut Bruce McCandless, the first person to fly freely and untethered in space, has died. He was 80.

He was famously photographed in 1984 flying with a hefty spacewalker&rsquos jetpack, alone in the cosmic blackness above a blue Earth. He traveled more than 300 feet away from the space shuttle Challenger during the spacewalk.

&ldquoThe iconic photo of Bruce soaring effortlessly in space has inspired generations of Americans to believe that there is no limit to the human potential,&rdquo Sen. John McCain said in a statement. The Arizona Republican and McCandless were classmates at the U.S. Naval Academy.

NASA&rsquos Johnson Space Center said Friday that McCandless died Thursday in California. No cause of death was given.

ALSO: Historic SpaceX launch lights up Southern California skies (story continues below)

McCandless said he wasn&rsquot nervous about the historic spacewalk.

&ldquoI was grossly over-trained. I was just anxious to get out there and fly. I felt very comfortable . It got so cold my teeth were chattering and I was shivering, but that was a very minor thing,&rdquo he told the Daily Camera in Boulder, Colorado, in 2006.

During that flight, McCandless and fellow astronaut Robert L. Stewart pioneered the use of NASA&rsquos backpack device that allowed astronauts walking in space to propel themselves from the shuttle. Stewart became the second person to fly untethered two hours after McCandless.

&ldquoI&rsquod been told of the quiet vacuum you experience in space, but with three radio links saying, &ldquoHow&rsquos your oxygen holding out?&rdquo &lsquo&rsquoStay away from the engines!&rdquo &lsquo&rsquoWhen&rsquos my turn?&rdquo it wasn&rsquot that peaceful,&rsquo McCandless wrote in the Guardian in 2015.

But he also wrote: &ldquoIt was a wonderful feeling, a mix of personal elation and professional pride: it had taken many years to get to that point.&rdquo


Council Era - War and Rebellion (1 CE - 900 CE)

The Rachni Wars continue. The salarians make first contact with and uplift the primitive krogan, manipulating them into acting as soldiers for the Citadel Council. The krogan prove able to survive the harsh environments of the rachni worlds and pursue the rachni into their nests, systematically eradicating queens and eggs.

The rachni are declared extinct. In gratitude for their aid during the Rachni Wars, the Council rewards the krogan a new homeworld. Free of the harsh environment of Tuchanka, the krogan population explodes.

The krogan begin to expand exponentially, colonizing many new worlds. Growing concerns about their expansion lead to the founding of the Special Tactics and Reconnaissance branch of the Citadel.

Beelo Gurji, a salarian operative, is appointed the first Spectre by the Citadel Council.

700 CE: The Krogan Rebellions

Nakmor Drack is born. Krogan warlords leverage veterans of the Rachni Wars to annex territory from other races in Citadel space. Eventually the Council demands withdrawal from the asari colony of Lusia, but the krogan refuse. A preemptive strike is made on krogan infrastructures by the Spectres. The Krogan Rebellions begin. The Citadel Council makes first contact with the turians around this time and persuades them to aid in the war. After the krogan respond to the initial turian offensive by devastating turian colonies with weapons of mass destruction, the turians vow to stop the krogan from ever becoming a threat again. Sometime after the turians join the galactic community, the volus are accepted as a client race of the Turian Hierarchy.

Realizing that the krogan will never give in as long as they can replenish their fighters, the turians unleash a salarian-engineered bio-weapon known as the genophage on the krogan. The krogan population starts its decline.

The Krogan Rebellions end, though scattered krogan insurgent actions continue for decades. The turians fill the military and peacekeeping niche left by the decimated krogan. The Citadel Conventions are drawn up in the wake of the conflict.


New wearable authentication more than a ‘token’ gesture

Posted On April 29, 2020 15:53:29

The Army Futures Command, or AFC, is developing wearable identity authentication and authorization technologies that will enable soldiers to securely access network-based capabilities while operating on the move in contested, threat-based environments.

Since 2001, the Common Access Card, or CAC, has served as the de facto, government-wide standard for network and system security access control. However, CAC cards are not operationally suited for use in every environment.

Moreover, the Army lacks a standard way for soldiers at every echelon to prove their identity when operating systems, devices, and applications on Army networks.

With this in mind, AFC’s major subordinate command, the U.S. Army Combat Capabilities Development Command, or CCDC, is researching and developing authentication technologies that will provide soldiers with secure and simple ways to identify, authenticate and be authorized access to Army networks, operating systems, servers, laptops, applications, web services, radios, weapon systems, and handheld devices.

CCDC’s Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Cyber, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance, or C5ISR, Center is designing wearable identity tokens for soldiers to use to log on to mission command systems, networks and tactical platforms. The tokens are wireless, lightweight, flexible, and rugged, and they can be inserted in a soldier’s pocket, attached to a sleeve or integrated into a wrist band like a Fitbit.

Conceptually, soldiers wearing these tokens could simply approach a system to login, be recognized by that system, which would then prompt the soldier to enter a PIN or use a biometric as a second factor, and be automatically logged out when they walk out of the system’s range.

The CCDC C5ISR Center is developing wearable authentication tokens that will enable soldiers at every echelon to prove their identity when operating systems, devices and applications on the Army tactical network.

(Photo by Spc. Dustin D. Biven, 22nd Mobile Public Affairs Detachment)

“The Army is driving towards a simpler and intuitive tactical network, so we’re aligning our Science and Technology resources to explore the challenges associated with this mission space, inform senior decision makers of the lessons learned and deliver capabilities that support Army Modernization and address the soldier’s needs — now and in the future,” said Brian Dempsey, Tactical Network Protection chief for the C5ISR Center’s Space and Terrestrial Communications Directorate, or STCD.

The wearable identity tokens combine the security of a public key-based credential — similar to the credential on the CAC — with cutting-edge advances in the commercial wireless payment industry and flexible hybrid electronics, explained Ogedi Okwudishu, project lead for the Tactical Identity and Access Management, or TIDAM, program.

“As part of the Army Futures Command, we’re looking to move at the speed of the information age. We want to be able to research, test, proof the concepts and integrate emerging IT capabilities from industry as they become available. There’s no point re-inventing the wheel,” Okwudishu said.

Under the current paradigm, tactical platforms would need to be retrofitted with specialized equipment in order to read new identity authentication technologies. Such deployments and retrofitting can be very costly. Wearable tokens, however, leverage already existing communication and protocol capabilities, Okwudishu pointed out.

“Soldiers should not have to take out a smartcard, insert it into a card reader and then remember to remove the card from the reader when they are done,” said Okwudishu. “Contactless identity tokens are not only easy to use, they provide a significant cost savings for the Army. You can continue to add authentication capabilities without needing to redesign, or deploy new, tactical hardware to every laptop, server, handheld device or weapon system in the field.”

The tokens are lightweight, flexible and rugged, and they can be inserted in a soldier’s pocket, attached to a sleeve or integrated into a wrist band like a Fitbit.

Since beginning the TIDAM program in 2017, the C5ISR Center has worked closely with soldiers and Program Executive Offices, or PEOs, soldier and Command, Control Communications-Tactical, or C3T, to validate, demonstrate and mature the technology.

The center’s STCD is working with Project Manager Integrated Visual Augmentation System, or IVAS, to finalize a transition agreement with PEO soldier for wearable authenticator infrastructure technologies. In the meantime, the directorate is developing a wearable authenticator software provisioner that will enable the secure placement of credentials on the wearable tokens and the ability to do this “locally” at the brigade level and below.

STCD is also working from a roadmap it jointly developed with PEO soldier to integrate the capability with various systems from PEO soldier and PEO C3T. Currently, the goal for fielding the tokens is in FY 22.

“I think this is a really great idea,” said Sgt. 1st Class David Worthington, senior enlisted advisor for the C5ISR Center. “Nobody has done anything like this yet. If done properly, it will make the authentication process a lot easier and a lot faster. More important, it provides more reciprocity at the tactical level for log-ins, so you can track what people are doing on the network.”

This article originally appeared on United States Army. Follow @USArmy on Twitter.


The F-35 can make China’s carrier killer missiles ‘irrelevant’

Posted On April 10, 2018 03:08:36

As China builds out its network of militarized islands in the South China Sea and expands a sphere of influence designed to keep the U.S. out, the U.S. Marine Corps is putting the finishing touches on a weapon to burst its bubble: the F-35B.

China’s People’s Liberation Army Rocket Force has turned out a massive number of so-called carrier-killer missiles, ballistic missiles that can target ships up to about 800 miles out at sea, even testing them against models of U.S. aircraft carriers.

With the U.S. Navy’s longest-range platform — aircraft carriers — maxing out at a range of about 550 miles, this means China could theoretically use the missiles to shut the U.S. out of a battle for the South China Sea.

But theories and lines drawn on paper won’t beat the U.S. military in a battle.

A U.S. Marine Corps F-35B Lightning II with Marine Fighter Attack Squadron (VMFA) 121, conducts a vertical landing at Marine Corps Air Station Iwakuni, Japan, Nov. 15 2017. (U.S. Marine Corps photo by Cpl. Carlos Jimenez)

In pursuing the strategy of anti-access/area denial, known as A2AD, China assumes that the U.S. must launch aircraft from bases or aircraft carriers. But the F-35B, the U.S. Marine Corps’ variant of the most expensive weapons system of all time, doesn’t work that way.

“You can fly the F-35B literally anywhere,” David Berke, a retired U.S. Marine Corps lieutenant colonel, told Business Insider. “If your traditional places of operation are unavailable” — perhaps because Chinese missile fire cratered them, a likely tactic in a war — “the F-35B can be there.”

By taking off in just a few hundred feet or so and landing from a vertical drop, the F-35B frees up the Marine Corps from worrying about large, obvious bases.


Jetpack Reality

On April 20th, 1961, a little more than a week after Yuri Gagarin became the first human to breach outer space, Harold Graham propelled himself to the incredible height of four-feet above the Earth. The secret flight lasted 14 seconds, covering a distance of less than 35 feet at a speed of about 6mph. It marks the very first successful outdoor test of a jetpack in free flight (no tethers). Fittingly, the flight took place in Niagara Falls, New York, otherwise, known as "the capital city of Earth" to Buck Rogers fans. The Rocket Belt used was developed by Wendell F. Moore for Bell Aerospace under contract with the US Army's Small Rocket Lift Device (SRLD) program.

Moore's dream of rocket flight started in 1953 when the aeronautical engineer began doodling jetpack designs at his kitchen table. Naturally, he tested the Rocket Belt himself even breaking his knee in an accident after his fuel tank snagging a support line in an early tethered flight. The Bell design pushed five US gallons (19 liters) of 90 percent liquid hydrogen peroxide through tiny nitrate-coated silver screen catalysts — enough fuel for about 20 seconds of flight. Hydrogen peroxide fuel was chosen for its power-to-weight ratio, capable of creating about 300 pounds of thrust as super-heated jets of steam escape a pair of nozzles. In other words, it produced a lot of noisy hot air.

On June 8, 1961, Harold Graham demonstrated Bell's "portable Army rocket" for the first time to an incredulous public. The flight saw Graham fly over a truck at a height of 15 feet landing 150 feet away after 14 seconds of air time. Nevertheless, the "ear-splitting" flight was described by the New York Times as "short but spectacular." By December 1961 Bell's 100-pound rocket belt would carry a man as high as 35 feet or a distance of 368 feet when barely skimming the ground.

By 1962, Moore's design was considered "perfected" with a top speed of 60mph, a top altitude of 60 feet, and 21 seconds of operation. Unfortunately, it also created 130 decibels of deafening noise — that's about as loud as a jet taking off from 200 feet away. Moore died in 1969 but variations of his original Rocket Belt design would be demonstrated around the world many years after his death. To this day, when you hear the word "jetpack," you're probably imagining Moore's Bell Rocket Belt design just before your sense of jilted entitlement sets in.

By November of 1962, four years after NASA was established, we get our first look at the "human spaceship." This 10-nozzel pack developed for the Air Force by Chance-Vought, was designed to use nitrogen-pressurized hydrogen peroxide jets to propel future spacemen away from their craft for up to four hours at a time at a distance of a few miles. The SMU (Self-Maneuvering Unit) pictured ultimately lead to the more aptly named (but bulkier) AMU (Astronaut Maneuvering Unit), MMU (Manned Maneuvering Unit), and SAFER (Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue) packs used on actual NASA flights. Ovo Popular Science article also marks one of the first uses of "jet pack" in popular media.

Unlike the fabled Greek myth, the 1964 project ICARUS died without ever getting off the ground.

In 1965, Bell created a "rocket chair" ejection seat concept using a regular chair from the Bell cafeteria. Moore and Bell also experimented with a two-man Pogo as a method of moving Apollo astronauts around on the moon. No, seriously.

In 1965 the jetpack became a mainstream phenomena when Sean Connery strapped on a Hollywood mock-up of the Bell Rocketbelt in Thunderball. He wears another, unnamed pack, for an underwater battle. In short, 007 does it everywhere with the smug confidence of a man who knows that fewer people would fly a jetpack than be shot into space.

Bill Suitor and Gordon Yeager (not Sean Connery) were the actual pilots of the Bell Rocketbelt in Thunderball. Bill, a jetpack legend, approached his neighbor for a job in 1963 — he was just 19 years old. Bill's neighbor, Wendell F. Moore, just happened to be the inventor of the Bell Rocketbelt. Suitor would spend the next 30 years demonstrating the Bell jetpack more than a 1,000 times in over 40 countries across the globe.

It was Suitor who flew the jetpack during the opening ceremony of the 1984 Olympic Games in Los Angeles seen by an estimated 2.5 billion people. 2.5 billion very disappointed people.

From 1965 to 1968, Lost in Space television viewers could marvel at professor John Robinson's use of a Bell Rocket Belt and tin-foil clothing — Oh Daddy, is right! The series was set in the impossibly far-off future of 1997. Sounds magical.

The June 1966 edition of Popular Science publishes word of a patent for a new, as of yet unseen, "jet belt" from Bell using a turbojet engine and conventional jet fuel. Note that the co-inventor is none other than Wendell F. Moore.

1968: Buck Rogers flying belt "a large hop closer today"

On June 27th, 1968, a New York Times article proclaimed that the Buck Rogers flying belt was "a large hop closer today" when Bell Aerosystems revealed its successor to Wendell Moore's Jet Belt design. The new jetpack was powered by the world's smallest (for its day) turbojet engine (about one foot wide and two feet long) built by Williams Research to burn standard kerosene-type jet fuel (stored in clear plastic tanks) with a range measured in minutes and miles, not seconds and feet. Or so they claimed.

Alas, it was also heavier than the original and just as loud. The article mistakenly says that the Bell Rocket Belt was "flown more than 3,000 times without injury or accident since the first test on April 27, 1960." Although the Rocket Belts safety record was indeed impressive (especially since it flew beneath parachute level), by his own admission, Wendell Moore broke his knee during an early test flight on February 17th, 1961. Unfortunately, it would be just one of many jetpack-related lies to come.

On April 7 1969, pilot Robert Couter of Bell (now Textron Bell Aerosystems) flew the first successful free flight of the "Jet Belt" or "Jet Flying Belt." He flew a distance of more than 300 feet at about 20 feet off the ground. The Popular Science article proposes that "maybe someday your 'second car' will be a flying belt garaged in the hall closet." Yeah, someday, but not 42 years later.

Unfortunately, the 70s and 80s provide a near dearth in terrestrial jetpack innovation. There was simply too much Pabst to drink after the scientists finished feathering each other's hair.

In 1984 NASA used its version of the jetpack, the 24-nozzel nitrogen-powered Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU), on three space shuttle missions. After an uneventful first test, the MMU nearly caused a satellite to careen out of control during an improvised recovery mission. The MMU performed better in its third mission, helping astronauts capture two satellites and return them to the orbiter payload.

After the Challenger disaster, the MMU system was determined too risky and replaced by SAFER (Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue). SAFER, developed by the Robotics Division of NASA at the Johnson Space Center, was first flown in 1994. It functioned as an emergency, self-rescue apparatus in case an astronaut became separated from his tethers during a space walk. In 2000, two astronauts used the nitrogen-powered SAFER to perform a "gentle 50-foot flight" while tethered to the shuttle.

It's 1992 — just a year after the theatrical release of The Rocketeer — are you really surprised that the man from Neverland would own a jetpack? See if you can spot the switch.

Stanley then brought Barker to court receiving a $10 million reward from the judge. Barker refused to pay and found himself stuffed in a box, locked from the outside. After eight days Barker managed to escape. Police arrested Stanley and in 2002 he was sentenced to life in prison, since reduced to eight years.

The motivation? Fame and an expected payday of $25,000 per flight a jetpack operator could expect for advertising, movie stunts, and events. Oh, and stupidity.

The RB-2000 was never found.

Think Jetpack Jacko was an oddity, try this one on. In 1992, Brad Barker set off to built the Rocketbelt-2000 with two partners: Joe Wright and Larry Stanley. By 1994 they had a working prototype of the original Wendell Moore design, modified with lighter components and an increased fuel stock. On June 12th, 1995, our old friend Bill Suitor flew the RB-2000 for 30 seconds (9 seconds longer than the previous record of the Moore design).

A disagreement between Stanley, who fronted most of the money, and Barker resulted in Barker bludgeoning Stanley with a hammer. Barker was convicted of assault. Stanley subsequently wins a court order giving him ownership of the RB-2000. When Stanley goes to Wright's auto shop to collect the RB-2000, it was gone, and so was Barker. So, Stanley goes to Joe Wright for answers who turns up dead, so badly beaten that Wright's body had to be identified from his dental records.

Today's hydrogen peroxide rocket belts still mimics Moore's original design only with an increased operating capacity of 34 seconds thanks to advances in materials and larger 10 gallon fuel tanks. Unfortunately, the noise, costs, piloting difficulties, and short flight duration continues to limit the packs to roles in advertising, movies and entertainment. Still, a handful of enthusiasts like TAM, Go Fast!, Thunderbolt Aerosystems (Bill Suitor's new employer), Ky Michaelson, and Dan Schlund have kept the dream alive.

2006: Isabel Lozano becomes first 'rocket woman'

One man in particular, TAM's Juan Manuel Lozano Gallegos, is particularly obsessed with jetpacks — any form of rocket propelled travel, really, including rocket cars, bikes, and even helicopters. The self-taught engineer has single-handedly built eight rocket belts (Bell Aerosystems only built four) at a cost of about $35,000 each — his first prototype cost about $500,000 to develop. And since you can't purchase 90 percent concentrated hydrogen peroxide anymore (pharmacies only sell a 3 percent concentration), Juan built a machine to create his own 90 percent solution. Juan is so obsessed with jetpacks that he convinced his daughter — Isabel Lozano — to become the world's first "rocket woman" on August 11th, 2006.

After decades of nothingness in terms of true jetpack innovation, in steps Yves Rossy, aka, "Jet Man," who in November 2006 strapped four, Kerosine-fueld Jet-Cat P200 jet engines to a pair of semi-rigid carbon-fiber wings and rocketed himself Superman-like for a proper six minutes and nine seconds.

In 2008, he hit a descent speed of 189mph over the Alps and in 2010 he dropped from a hot air balloon at 7,900 feet and proceeded to fly for a total of 18 minutes before landing by parachute, wings folded. Oh, and he flew his powered wing over the Grand Canyon. This guy is a hero a mad, mad hero.


That time Sen. Mitch McConnell was fooled by ‘Duffel Blog’

Posted On April 10, 2018 19:46:40

You might think that, somewhere along the way, someone in the staff of a senior senator from Kentucky would have figured out what Duffel Blog really was. Instead, in 2012, a concerned constituent actually had the Senator’s office send a formal letter to the Pentagon concerning Duffel Blog’s report of the VA extending benefits to Guantanamo Bay detainees.

Šta Duffel Blog is, on its face, is a satirical news website that covers the military. At the very least, we all laugh. We laugh at the brave Airman who sent his steak back at the DFAC and the Army wife who re-enlisted her husband indefinitely using a general power of attorney. We laugh because the stories’ absurdities are grounded in the reality of military culture.

Duffel Blog and its writers are more than brilliant. What it does at its best is play the role of court jester – delivering hard truths hidden inside jokes. In the case of Senator McConnell’s office sending a letter of concern to the Pentagon over a Duffel Blog piece, the site was hammering the VA, equating using its services to punishing accused terrorists in one of the most notorious prisons in the world.

We laugh, but they’re talking about the VA we all use – and we laugh because there’s truth to the premise.

Paul Szoldra is the founder and Editor-in-Chief of Duffel Blog, former Military and Defense Editor at Business Insider, and was instrumental in the creation of We Are The Mighty. He’s now a columnist at Task & Purpose.

Szoldra speaks the the Got Your 6 Storytellers event in Los Angeles, Calif. (Television Academy)

Speaking truth to power is not difficult for Szoldra, even when the power he speaks to is one that is so revered by the American people that it’s nearly untouchable by most other media. We live in an age where criticizing politicians is the order of the day, but criticizing the military can be a career-ending endeavor. You don’t have to be a veteran to criticize military leadership, but it helps.

“If you go back on the timeline far enough, you’ll find a lot of bullsh*t,” Szoldra says, referring specifically to comments made by generals about the now 17-year-old war in Afghanistan. “And I have no problem calling it out, highlighting it where need be.”

Szoldra doesn’t like that the top leadership of the U.S. military exists in what he calls a “bubble” and can get away with a lot because of American support for its fighting men and women — those fighting the war on the ground. Szoldra, who left the Marine Corps as a sergeant in 2010, was one of those lower-enlisted who fought the war. When he writes, he writes from that perspective.

Szoldra as a Marine in Afghanistan (Paul Szoldra)

“If we’re talking about sending troops into Syria… I wonder what does that feel like to the grunt on the ground,” Szoldra says. “I don’t really care too much about the general and how he’s going to deal with the strategy, I wonder about the 20-something lance corporal that I used to be trying to find IEDs with their feet.”

His work is thoughtful and, at times, intense, but always well-founded. Szoldra also does a semi-regular podcast with Terminal Lance creator, Max Uriarte, where they have honest discussion about similar topics. Those discussions often take more of a cultural turn and it feels more like you’re listening to Marine grunts wax on about the way things are changing – because that’s exactly what it is, with just as much honesty as you’d come to expect from Paul Szoldra and his ongoing body of work.

Szoldra and Max Uriarte record their podcast. (After Action with Max and Paul)

If you liked Szoldra on the show, read his work on Task & Purpose, give After Action with Max and Paul a listen, and get the latest from Duffel Blog. If you aren’t interested in the latest and just want the greatest, pick up Mission Accomplished: The Very Best of Duffel Blog, Volume One at Amazon.

And for a (potentially) limited time, you can get the Duffel Blog party game “WTF, Over? The Duffel Box” by donating to the game’s Kickstarter campaign.


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