Fairey Swordfish I br. 820 eskadrile nad HMS Ark Royal

Fairey Swordfish I br. 820 eskadrile nad HMS Ark Royal


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Fairey Swordfish I br. 820 eskadrile nad HMS Ark Royal

Let Fairey Swordfish I iz eskadrile No.820 leti iznad HMS -a Ark Royal


Fairey Swordfish – fluke victor?

Jedan poznanik koji nema malo znanja o vojnim pitanjima nedavno mi je rekao sledeće:

„Svi imamo različite perspektive i iskustva, a moje me navodi na ovo da kažem:

„Pretpostavljam da imate više poštovanja prema Mačevima nego što je opravdano. Zasigurno su uspjesi na Bismarcku i u Tarantu očigledni.

„Ali iz druge ruke poznavanje protivavionskog naoružanja prisutnog na Bismarcku objavljuje da su zrakoplovi bili prespori da bi se mogli pravilno pratiti, pa su obrambeni obrasci bili neučinkoviti protiv posada FAA-e.

„U velikoj mjeri tehnički superiorni zrakoplovi (B5N i TBD) pretrpjeli su strašne gubitke u sličnim napadima. Stoga vam tvrdim da se uspjesi prema vrsti, iako nisu potpuno posredni, moraju pregledati i filtrirati taktičkim angažmanima.

„Bristolski lovački lovac, sa oznakom torpednog bombardera, dok je dvomotorni, a ne na nosaču, postigao je veliki uspjeh u medonosnim lakom čuvanim teretnim brodovima zbog odlične taktike. Ipak, superiorni Martin B26 i Mitsubishi G4M bili su izbačeni s neba u Pacifiku kao torpedni jurišni avioni jer su bili upotrijebljeni protiv sistema naoružanja koji je dizajniran za njihovo suočavanje.

„Ju88 zaposlen u Norveškoj, iako se nije nosio s nosačem, postigao je velike uspjehe slične Beaufighterima iz Mediterana.

„Moje je zapažanje i zaključak da je taktičko zapošljavanje bilo odlučujući faktor za ovo unatoč uspješnim uspjesima Vile sablje. Jednostavno je bilo presporo za obaranje. '


Historijski let Kraljevske mornarice i#8216s Swordfish LF326 koji lete na Dan zraka u Yeoviltonu 2011.

Istina je, imam veliko poštovanje prema Sabljarci. Volim misliti da se veliki dio toga ne zasniva samo na sentimentalnosti. Nijedan komad vojnog hardvera ne može se posmatrati odvojeno - svi su oni dio paketa koji uključuje osoblje, obuku, taktiku, dostupnost, servisnost itd., Pa čak i šire aspekte poput strategije i lanca snabdijevanja. Istina je da postoji mnogo mitova o Mačevima, od kojih je najvažniji da je nadmašila svog nasljednika, Albacore. Ovo nije strogo točno – da, Swordfish je ostao u prvoj liniji službe duže od Albacore -a, ali nije u svojoj primarnoj ulozi torpednog bombardera flote. (U nekim slučajevima Sabljarka je trajala dovoljno dugo da je zamijeni nasljednik Albacorea, Barracuda). Dugovječnost Swordfish -a, poput onog Hawker Hurricana, prvenstveno je nastala zbog njegove vjerojatno slučajne podobnosti za alternativne uloge nakon što je zastarjela u svojoj dizajniranoj ulozi.

Trebao bih dalje okvalificirati da u idealnom svijetu vazdušno oružje flote nikada ne bi krenulo u rat 1939. sa Sabljarkom, barem ne u svojoj primarnoj ulozi. Moj blog "Recept za zastarjelost" ističe zbrkano i samozadovoljno razmišljanje koje je ostavilo vazdušno oružje flote sa tako zastarjelim konceptom kada su se druga velika pomorska zračna oružja opremala modernim monoplanima sa stresom. To ne umanjuje moje mišljenje o kvalitetama aviona ili posade, niti vrijednosti njegovog doprinosa ratnim naporima - samo bi bilo daleko bolje započeti rat s nečim poput Fairey Barracude.

Može se tvrditi da je Sabljarka bila potpuno zastarjela na početku rata, vjerovatno čak i do trenutka kada je prvi put opremila eskadrile Fleet Air Arm. Dvokrilni avion prekriven tkaninom u eri monoplana sa stresnom kožom. Najveća brzina nešto brža od Prvog svjetskog rata SE5a. Kako je to uopće moglo doprinijeti ratnim naporima? Kako je mogao preživjeti u borbenom okruženju? Kako je mogao srušiti najmoćniji bojni brod i izbaciti polovinu italijanske flote iz rata bez gotovo smiješne mjere sreće? Slučajnost, drugim riječima.


Mač iz 810 eskadrile, jedne od onih koje su napale Bismarck, u relativno rijetkoj nesreći pri slijetanju

Mogu razumjeti tvrdnju da je Sabljarka jednostavno bila prespora da bi se nosili sa modernim sistemima naoružanja. To je atraktivno gledište. Najmoderniji torpedni bombarderi na nosačima u službi u vrijeme posljednje bitke na Bismarcku bili su sposobni postići sve između 60 i 100 milja na sat, dok su kopneni torpedni bombarderi poput Bristola Beauforta bili još brži.

Moje je mišljenje, međutim, da se uspjesi Fleet Air Arm -a u Tarantu i protiv Bismarcka mogu svesti na više od sreće, pa čak i na više od sreće i dobre taktike (iako su oba igrala ulogu). Štaviše, barem dio uspjeha može se pripisati kvaliteti aviona, pa čak i dobrom dizajnu.

Zašto Bismarck nije oborio nijednu sabljarku?

Bismarck je dva puta napadnut od strane Mačeve nakon potonuća HMS -a. Jednom avionom 825 eskadrile, vazduhoplovne grupe HMS Victorious, a jednom avionima 818 eskadrile, 810 eskadrile i 820 eskadrile, vazdušne grupe HMS Ark Royal.

Prvi udar, iz Victoriousa, rezultirao je jednim torpednim pogotkom zbog gubitka aviona. Torpedo je pogodilo Bismarckov glavni oklopni pojas - izvještaji se razlikuju po veličini štete koju su nanijeli, neki izvori sugeriraju da je udarac pomjerio oklop, olabavio prostirke za sudar i pogoršao poplave uzrokovane udarcem Princa od Walesa, smanjujući tako brzina plovila. Drugi izvještaji sugeriraju da je pogodak torpeda nanio samo manju štetu, a nasilje manevriranja olabavilo je prostirke za sudar. U svakom slučaju, smanjenje brzine omogućilo je jurnjavi Ark Royal da se približi unutar dometa njenog aviona.

Udarcem Ark Royala uspjela su još tri pogotka, jedan na krmi koji je nanio toliko oštećenja sklopu kormila da Bismarck u biti nije mogao manevrirati, a mogli su ga uloviti jurišni kapitalni brodovi i krstarice.

Postoji niz razloga zašto Bismarck nije uspio oboriti nijednu od sabljarki. Neki od njih odnose se na Bismarckov protuzračni sistem. U nekim pogledima izgleda da je zaista bio 'previše moderan'. Nisam stručnjak za protivavionsko naoružanje, ali se često navodi da su Bismarckovi direktori flakova zaista dizajnirani za brže avione od Sabljarke. Nije jasno koliki je to problem predstavljao. Teško je reći zašto je Bismarckova protuzračna obrana uspostavljena s ovim očitim nedostatkom, jer kada je brod bio u izgradnji i pušten u pogon, Swordfish je ostao glavni britanski torpedni bombarder, a njegova planirana zamjena jedini-neznatno brži Albacore. Jedini vjerojatni francuski torpedni bombarder bio je još sporiji Levasseur PL.7, koji je bio u službi od 1930.

Neadekvatna protivvazdušna odbrana

Bismarckovi direktori koji imaju poteškoća u praćenju ciljeva male brzine bili bi umanjeni malim skretanjem približavanja Sabljarke. Što je manji otklon, manji je značaj sposobnosti direktora da predvidi tok aviona koji se približava. Otklon pri približavanju Sabljarki, barem dok su bili na svom torpedu, bio bi gotovo nula. Sabljarka (za razliku od kasnijih zrakoplova) nije imala torpedni nišan koji je izračunavao 'otpuštanje', što je značilo da moraju ciljati točnu količinu ispred plovila kako bi omogućili kretanje prema naprijed. Pilot koji je letio sa sabljarkom sa 810 eskadrile opisao mi je ovo:

“Nišan torpeda bio je vodoravna šipka na nivou s linijom oka pilota#8217s. U njemu je bilo dvanaest sijalica sa jednakim razmakom. Rastojanje između dve sijalice predstavljalo je 5 čvorova na 1.000 metara. Dakle, ako je meta putovala sa 20 čvorova i nije se okretala prema zrakoplovu, otpuštanje je bilo 4 sijalice. Nije bilo pomagala pilotu u procjeni dometa od cilja ili visine aviona - samo iskustvo pilota. Neprestano smo vježbali na prijateljskim ‘ciljevima’ i imali smo kameru koja je snimala naše ronjenje i koja je stala kad bismo bacili torpedo. ”


The ‘office ’ of Swordfish. Avion je bio rudimentaran po standardima Drugog svjetskog rata

Pilot je opisao kako bi zrakoplov pokušao navesti zapovjednika napadnutog plovila da se okrene prije nego što su lansirali torpeda, kako bi mogli bolje procijeniti gdje će se brod nalaziti nego da je skretanje izvršeno nakon lansiranja torpeda. Skretanje je prijatelj aviona kada je u pitanju izbjegavanje protivavionske vatre.

U izvještaju Mornaričkog zračnog odjela Admiraliteta u travnju 1944. uspoređene su tri metode napada. Oni su se približavali i bježali paralelno s kursom ciljnog broda, tradicionalnom metodom izravnog približavanja, otprilike okomito na kurs broda, a zatim su se okrenuli i izravno prišli i pobjegli preletjevši ciljni brod. U izvještaju je naznačeno da je paralelni napad zapravo bio sigurniji u gotovo svim okolnostima jer je zrakoplov gotovo uvijek predstavljao veći cilj skretanja. U stvari, u najtipičnijem slučaju, utvrđeno je da je paralelni napad otprilike osam puta sigurniji od konvencionalnog napada „direktnim napadom“ jer je otklon bio najveći. (ADM 44/122)

Nadalje, čini se da su se Bismarckovi teški nosači s flak -trakama presporo pratili da bi se angažirali zrakoplovi koji su bili bliže od oko 3.000 metara, pa bi pitanje da je mač prespor bio možda akademski.

U svakom slučaju, brzina aviona koji se približavao, to je bio samo jedan od problema koji je utjecao na veliku masu. Sustav je opremljen s dvije različite vrste montaže zbog nedostatka željenog tipa u dovoljnom broju, a koje nisu međusobno sinhronizirane. Štaviše, teška letelica nije adekvatno ispitana, a posade nisu u potpunosti obučene. Da bi povećali probleme s brodom, neki su topovi bili loše postavljeni i imali su ograničene lukove vatre.

Bismarck nije imao radarske topove, iako je, da budemo pošteni, prvi od njih tek ugrađivani na kapitalne brodove. Direktorima je, međutim, nedostajala bilo kakva stabilizacija koja bi im mogla pomoći u teškim uslovima.

Topovi SK C/30 od 3,7 cm montirani na Bismarcku bili su poluautomatski. Runde su se morale ručno puniti, a to je bilo sporo streljačko oružje za protuzračnu obranu. Ovi pištolji su imali stabilizaciju, ali nikada nisu radili baš najbolje i bili su oslobođeni u kasnijim izvedbama.

Ukratko, iako je mač bila zastarjela predratna konstrukcija, ista optužba mogla bi se izreći i Bismarckovoj protuzračnoj obrani. To će se popraviti na Tirpicu dok se gradio, i na drugim teškim jedinicama njemačke mornarice.

Također je vrijedno napomenuti da je Bismarck bio na akcijskim stanicama već duže vrijeme. Posade su bile umorne, pod stresom i nesumnjivo više nisu radile na vrhuncu efikasnosti.

Rekavši to, nije da protuavionska vatra nije uspjela pogoditi nijedan avion. Zapravo, zrakoplovi sa svakog od prvih pet podleta u napadu Ark Royal-a dobili su neke hitove iz topovskih granata i cijevi granata-jedan avion je perforiran 175 puta, a dva člana njegove posade od tri ranjena. Sabljarka je izvijestila da je letjela u tešku i naizgled točnu leluku čim su probili oblak. Do trenutka kada je šesti podlet mogao biti u poziciji za napad, baraž je bio toliko težak da se dva aviona nisu mogla dovoljno približiti za napad, a jedan je lansirao svoje torpedo s otprilike dvostruko veće preporučene udaljenosti od 1.000 jardi.

Drugi faktor koji je Bismarcku znatno otežavao život bili su uslovi. To je utjecalo na nekoliko načina. Prva je bila vidljivost. Niski oblak značio je da se Sabljarka može približiti Bismarcku dok su sakrivene sve dok ne budu relativno blizu, skraćujući vrijeme koje će pahuljica morati zahvatiti. Štaviše, gusti oblak omogućio je nekim avionima da se premjeste radi povoljnijeg napada kada su ustanovili da nisu na optimalnom položaju, jednostavnim odlaskom natrag u oblak.

Drugo, stanje mora bilo je izuzetno visoko, a pokret nagiba i kotrljanja koji je to prenijelo Bismarcku bio je značajan, dodajući dodatne značajne poteškoće u zadatak topnika.

Treće, napadi su izvedeni noću ili u dubokom sumraku - zrakoplov Victoriousa napadnut je u ponoć, Ark Royal sljedećeg dana 2047. godine.

Konačno, Bismarck je teško manevrirao kako bi odbacio pilote Mačeve sa njihovog cilja - što je imalo isti učinak na vlastite topnike.

Posada i taktika

Ranoratne posade Kraljevske mornarice TBR (torpedno-bombardersko-izviđačko) posade bile su općenito vrlo dobro obučene. Zračni napad torpedom bio je glavno oružje flote Air Arm, i vježbao se neprestano, a manevri flote omogućavali su realniju obuku i procjenu taktike. Obuka se prvo izvodila pri niskim letovima, zatim s betonskim lažnim torpedima, zatim s vježbenim torpedima koja su bila identična stvarnoj, osim nedostatka bojeve glave (postavljen je dimni plovak koji je omogućio oporavak torpeda po završetku izvođenja ), i na kraju vježbanjem torpeda protiv razarača dajući sve od sebe da izbjegne napad. (Bili bi postavljeni da trče dublje od vježbenog broda). Ova obuka će se odvijati u operativnim eskadrilama. Iako je 825 eskadrila navodno bila neiskusna, budući da je bila nova jedinica i nije imala opsežne obuke zajedno, pojedinačne posade bile bi dobro pripremljene.

Ovo je u potpunoj suprotnosti sa eskadrilama torpeda u američkoj mornarici, koje rijetko kad vježbaju s torpedima, jednostavno prave lažne trke i bacaju dimne bombe kako bi označile mjesto oslobađanja. Prema Nepoznatoj bitci na Midwayu Alvina Kernana, mnoge posade iz eskadrila torpeda nikada nisu ispuštale torpedo na treningu.

Standardni prijeratni torpedni napad sastojao se od nekoliko pod-letova koji su napadali iz različitih smjerova. To je učinjeno kako bi se podijelila protuzračna obrana i kako bi se umanjilo obrambeno manevriranje ciljnog plovila-drugim riječima, ako je kapetan pokušao 'pročešljati' jedan napad torpedom okrećući se u njega (tjerajući torpedo da prođe ispred broda) , avioni na drugom položaju bi bili bolje postavljeni. Tome je doprinijela loša vidljivost i niska baza oblaka, što znači da bi avioni mogli raditi u povoljnijem položaju izvan vidokruga Bismarckovih topnika.


Poslovni kraj RNHF -ove Swordfish LF326, s pouzdanim motorom Pegasus i lažnim torpedom 18 ″

Potencijalne koristi noćnog napada tada su bile dobro shvaćene u vazdušnom naoružanju flote, posebno s obzirom na ranjivost njegovih aviona pri dnevnom svjetlu. Napad na Taranto uveliko je pokazao mogućnosti. Ova vrsta napada nije mogla biti razmatrana pri dnevnom svjetlu i dobroj vidljivosti od strane vazdušnog naoružanja flote 1940-41, dok je modernija i moćnija mornarička vazdušna ruka, poput japanske, mogla. Iskreno rečeno, tim modernijim zračnim oružjem bilo bi teže izvesti noćni ili loš vremenski napad.

Avion

S obzirom na prirodu ovog eseja, bilo bi pošteno uzeti u obzir kvalitete koje je sama Mač mogla pridonijeti. Prije svega, uspjela je poletjeti, locirati Bismarck (osim jednog slučaja pogrešnog identiteta sa HMS Sheffieldom), izvršiti napad, locirati svog nosača (uglavnom) i ponovo sletjeti, u užasnim vremenskim uvjetima, po noći. Uopće nije jasno da bi to mogli učiniti drugi, moderniji zrakoplovi-za vrijeme napada Marshall-Gilbert u siječnju 1942., TBD-i iz USS Yorktowna odletjeli su po lošem vremenu, a četiri su se otkopala ili srušila u more. Pokušaj noćnog slijetanja drugom prilikom imao je slično loše rezultate.

Leteće karakteristike Swordfish -a nesumnjivo su doprinijele sposobnosti aviona da radi u nemirnom moru, jakom vjetru i slaboj vidljivosti.

Osim toga, manevarska sposobnost mača, čak i kad je natovarena torpedom, omogućila je pilotima da zatrepere i tkaju dok se približavaju, što otežava pogodak na metu. Snažnije opterećeni monoplani nisu mogli poduzeti tako nasilne izbjegavajuće radnje dok su se približavali cilju.

Neki od mačeva su bili opremljeni ASV radarom, što im je nesumnjivo dalo prednost u lociranju cilja i domaćih nosača nakon napada. Zapravo, to je Ribi Mač dalo izrazito područje superiornosti nad njenim rivalima u drugim zračnim snagama, iako ono koje je bilo mnogo prikladnije po lošem vremenu i vidljivosti Sjevernog mora i Atlantika od Pacifika.

Konačno, pokazalo se da mač ima odličnu 'preživljavanje'. Imao je samozaptivajuće spremnike za gorivo, a konstrukcija koja je značila topovske granate uglavnom je prolazila kroz strukturu bez ikakvih oštećenja. U isto vrijeme, njegova konstrukcija od čeličnih cijevi bila je neizmjerno jaka-zrakoplov je bio naprezan na 9G kako bi pružio dovoljan faktor sigurnosti pri teškom slijetanju ili manevriranju.


Stražnji trup Swordfish LF326 sa uklonjenim okretnim pločama pokazuje snažnu, ali otvorenu čeličnu konstrukciju

Drugi primjeri

Moj ispitivač ukazuje na druge primjere u kojima su moderniji avioni prošli lošije od Mača u napadu na Bismarck. Dva citirana aviona su američki Douglas TBD Devastator i japanski Nakajima B5N 'Kate'.

TBD je uglavnom poznat po svojoj ulozi u bitci za Midway, od 3. do 7. juna 1942. Dana 4. juna tri eskadrile napale su japansku flotu, VT-8 iz Horneta, VT-6 iz Enterprisea i VT-3 iz Yorktowna. Petnaest aviona VT-8 je oboreno, 14 prije nego što su lansirali svoja torpeda. VT-6 i VT-3 su izgubili deset aviona, od kojih su četiri i dva aviona pobjegla. Nije postignut nijedan pogodak torpeda.


Douglas TBD Devastator

B5N je bio najuspješniji torpedni bombarder u prvoj polovici rata. Međutim, iako je prema standardima svojih konkurenata bio brz (235 km / h) i nosio je najefikasnije torpedno zrakoplovstvo bilo koje veće mornarice, ‘Kate’ nije bila neranjiva. Uprkos gotovo potpunom nedostatku upozorenja prije napada na Pearl Harbor, protivavionska odbrana oborila je pet osoba. Tokom napada na Yorktown i Lexington u bitci za Koraljno more, devet 'Kates' uspješno je došlo do položaja za lansiranje svojih torpeda, od kojih su tri oborena protivavionskom vatrom, a drugi avion je oboren koji nije pustio oružje. Kako je rat odmicao, 'Kate' je sve teže preživljavala napade na neprijateljske brodove. Tokom američkog napada na Marshallova ostrva u decembru 1943., radnu grupu je napalo sedam B5N -ova upravo u trenutku kada je Yorktown započeo udar. Sve Kates su oborene. Samo je jedan lansirao svoje torpedo, a taj je promašio.

U svakom slučaju, radilo se o udarnim snagama koje su, barem površno, bile tehnički daleko superiornije od snaga Mača koje su napale Bismarck i talijansku flotu u Tarantu.

Ove su situacije samo površno slične. TBD -ove na Midwayu uglavnom su, ako ne i sve, oborili lovci Combat Air Patrol (CAP) koji su štitili flotu, a koji nisu bili dostupni Bismarcku. Tokom bitke za Koralno more, TBD -i su prošli mnogo bolje kada su pratili borce ili napali cilj koji nema lovačku zaštitu, poput nosača Shōhō koji su potopili TBD -i i SBD -i. Izvještaji preživjelih pilota na Midwayu opisuju požar AA kao "vrlo nedjelotvoran" i sugeriraju da je većina granata pukla znatno iznad dometa. Nadalje, iako su TBD -i tehnički imali mnogo veću najveću brzinu od Mača, njihova brzina prilaza bila je gotovo potpuno ista. Razlog za to bilo je torpedo koje je koristila TBD, Bliss-Leavitt Mk.XIII, koje je bilo vrlo problematično početkom rata. Bio je krhak i sklon kvarovima, pa su ga piloti tretirali dječjim rukavicama. Prema Kernanu, (str. 48), zapovjednik John C Waldron, koji je zapovijedao VT-8, naložio je eskadrili da leti 'vrlo sporo, 80-100 čvorova, vrlo ravno i ravno'. U izvještaju nakon bitke za bitku na Koralnom moru koji je dao kapetan USS Yorktown-a istaknuto je da su "naši avioni prisiljeni spuštati se nisko i polako", pozivajući na hitnu zamjenu TBD-a sa "torpednim avionima sposobnim za velike brzine" , velikog dometa, sposobnosti ronjenja i dovoljne snage topa za vlastitu odbranu ', te je insistirao na tome da bi napadi torpeda bez pratnje vjerojatno bili izuzetno skupi.

TBD je imao nešto oklopa, ali nije imao samozaptivajuće rezervoare za gorivo.

Od aviona ‘Kate’ koji su napali grupu nosača u Marshallima, tri su oborili Lexingtonovi protivavionski topovi, a ostale su uništili razarači. Ali do 1943. godine, glavni brodovi imali su mnogo teže protivavionsko naoružanje nego što je to bilo uobičajeno 1941. godine, a oni iz Lexingtona bili su postavljeni radarima. Grupa nosača također je imala koristi od ekrana razarača i krstarica koji su dodali svoje topove protivavionskoj baraži.


Nakajima B5N iznad Pearl Harbora

Postoje i drugi slučajevi u kojima sabljarka i slični avioni sigurno nisu bili prespori za obaranje. Tokom Channel Dash-a (operacija Cerberus, kada su se bojne krstarice Scharnhorst i Gneisenau probile iz Atlantika u Njemačku), oboren je let od šest mačeva, tri tri lovcem, a druga tri protivavionskim topovima na Scharnhorstu/ Gneisenau i njihova pratnja.

Drugom prilikom, dva aviona Albacores (koji su bili samo neznatno brži od Swordfsiha) oboreni su protivavionskim baterijama na Tirpitzu tokom pokušaja torpednog napada. Tokom bitke kod rta Matapan, jedna je sabljarka koja je pogodila bojni brod Vittorio Veneto oborena svojim protivavionskim topovima.

Vjerujem da je potrebno odvojiti kvalitativne aspekte aviona od njihove relativne modernosti. Neke povoljne osobine aviona imaju tendenciju da se povećavaju sa modernošću-performanse „vani-out“, na primjer, uključujući brzinu, brzinu uspona i plafon. Drugi nemaju, poput dometa, radijusa okretanja i pouzdanosti. Druge povoljne karakteristike mogu se smanjiti modernošću, poput brzine slijetanja, poslušnosti i jednostavnosti. U drugim slučajevima, zrakoplov se može učiniti manje ili više vrijednim zbog drugih faktora, poput raspoložive opreme i naoružanja, efikasnosti posade i primijenjene taktike.

Bilo je i drugih prilika u kojima su se znatno zastarjeli avioni pokazali efikasnim u borbi-u ekstremnom slučaju, dvokrilni avioni Polikarpov Po-2 'Bedcheck Charlie' koji su izvršili noćne napade na američke zračne baze tokom Korejskog rata. Napravili su značajnu štetu i pokazalo se da ih je bilo teško oboriti. To je dijelom bilo zato što su leteli presporo da bi ih noćni lovci presreli, a to nije bio ništa više od uspjeha Mača u uspjesima 1940-41.

TBD je, generalno, bio loš dizajn koji nije u potpunosti iskoristio svoje moderne karakteristike. Žrtvovao je mnoge kvalitete koje su uspješnom torpednom bombarderu bile potrebne, kao što je sposobnost strmog zarona u ciljnu zonu kako bi se izbjeglo da se predugo provodi u dometu protivavionske vatre i povećala brzina u "opasnoj zoni" '. Žrtvovao se u dometu, sposobnosti nošenja oružja i spornoj aerodinamičnosti kako bi nosio Norden bombu za nivelisanje bombardovanja, ulogu koju avion nikada nije morao da izvrši. Štoviše, loše kvalitete TBD -a pogoršale su neučinkovito torpedo Mk.XIII i loša obučenost posade. Možda je bio tehnički napredniji od Sabljarke, ali nije bio superiorniji.

B5N je u mnogo čemu bio vrlo dobar dizajn. Iskoristio je svoje moderne karakteristike, povećavajući brzinu, ali ne gubeći većinu kvaliteta koje zahtijeva dobar torpedni bombarder. Mogao se približiti cilju na nadmorskoj visini, i iako nije mogao roniti gotovo okomito poput Sabljarke, mogao je lako kliziti na 30 stupnjeva, a svoje je torpedo mogao lansirati velikom brzinom. Bio je to čak i efikasan bombarder bez ugrožavanja svoje primarne uloge. Međutim, "Kate" nije imala samozaptivajuće rezervoare za gorivo i, poput većine japanskih vojnih aviona tog doba, bila je lagano izgrađena. To je pomoglo u brzini, upravljivosti i dometu, ali je značilo da su pogoci protivavionske vatre bili manje preživljivi. 1941. nedostajao je radar. Bio je superiorniji od Sabljarke u mnogim aspektima (i nesumnjivo bolji dizajn za Pacifik), ali joj je ipak nedostajalo nekih kvaliteta koje su omogućile Mačevi da pritisne dom efikasnim napadom na Bismarck i Taranto.

Sve ove stvari uzete u rundi, Swordfish je bio efikasan frontalni torpedni bombarder 1940-41 u uslovima u kojima se koristio. Bio je tvrd, upravljiv i mogao se koristiti u ekstremnim vremenskim uvjetima i noću. Mogao je biti opremljen radarom, a njegovo je torpedo bilo teško i pouzdano, ako je bilo malo sporo. Njegove posade bile su dobro obučene i sposobne da iskoriste snagu aviona i njegovog naoružanja. Malo je vjerojatno da bi moderniji zrakoplovi uspjeli tamo gdje je to uspjelo Sabljarci, ali to ima više veze sa uvjetima u kojima je letjelica bila sposobna za rad, sposobnostima posade i dostupnošću radara u zrakoplovu te sjenčarenjem brodovi.

Dizajn Bismarckovih direktora nije uspio omogućiti zrakoplove da lete tako sporo koliko je i Mač mogao ometati brodske protivavionske topnike, ali nikako nije jasno koliki je to učinak imao, a u svakom slučaju bilo je mnogo drugi faktori u igri. Bismarckova protuzračna obrana bila je neodgovarajuća u mnogim aspektima, ali čak i tako uspjeli su učiniti napadački zrakoplov vrlo neugodnim. U drugim epizodama slični protivavionski sustavi uspjeli su oboriti barem neke napadače Mačeve i Albacoresa, pa se čini da ovo nije nepremostivo pitanje.

Sve u svemu, ne vjerujem da se uspjeh Sabljarki u razdoblju 1940-41 može smatrati srećom-i štaviše, postignuća aviona 1941-45 kao protupodmorničke letjelice koja štiti atlantske konvoje, opet djelujući u uvjetima u kojima je malo drugih tipovi bi mogli, vrijedni su značajnog razmatranja čak i ako se Bismarck i Taranto uklone iz jednadžbe.

Podijelite ovo:

Volim ovo:

Povezano


Drugi svjetski rat

Prvi zadatak eskadrile pri njenom formiranju bio je izvršavanje zadaća izviđanja za nosač aviona HMS Hrabro. Kasnije su ponovo opremljeni Fairey Seals i Blackburn Sharks, da bi na kraju u jesen 1937. dobili Fairey Swordfish. [2] Eskadrila je preraspoređena u novembru sljedeće godine na novi nosač aviona HMS Ark Royal. Eskadrila je naredne tri godine djelovala iz Ark Royala, u početku na zadacima protiv podmornica, ali kasnije kao površinski avion za traženje i napad torpedima. Eskadrila je pošla sa Ark Royal do Atlantika, a do aprila 1940. podržavali su savezničke operacije tokom norveške kampanje, gdje su bombardovali aerodrom Vaernes. Nakon povlačenja iz Norveške, Ark Royal a eskadrila se u junu preselila na Mediteran. Zrakoplovi iz eskadrile 820 bili su uključeni u napad na francusku flotu u Mers-el-Kébiru, a kasnije u bitku za Dakar, kao i u napade na Cagliari. Takođe su bili aktivni tokom bitke kod rta Spartivento, kao i pokrivajući konvoje na Maltu.

Sljedeći veliki angažman eskadrile 820 bio je lov na njemački bojni brod Bismarck. Zrakoplovi iz eskadrile uspjeli su onemogućiti BismarckUpravljač s udarcem torpeda, omogućavajući Bismarck biti angažiran i potopljen. [2] U junu 1941. eskadrila je otišla Ark Royal, a u novembru te godine vratio se na Island na brodu HMS Victorious. Mač je tada zamijenjena Fairey Albacores. 820 eskadrila se zatim ukrcala na HMS Strašno februara 1942. i otplovio sa Strašno služiti u Indijskom okeanu. Eskadrila je tada bila aktivna u bitci za Madagaskar, nakon čega je uslijedila operacija Torch, iskrcavanje saveznika u sjevernoj Africi. Tokom ovih operacija, avioni iz eskadrile potopili su njemački podmornicu U-331 |, koji je ranije potopio bojni brod HMS Barham. Strašno a eskadrila je ostala na Mediteranu kako bi pružila podršku savezničkim iskrcavanjima na Siciliji i Salernu. [2]

Eskadrila se zatim vratila u Veliku Britaniju u novembru 1943. godine i raspala se u RNAS -u Donibristle. Eskadrila je međutim brzo reformirana i opremljena sa 12 Fairey Barracudas prvobitno je bila bazirana u RNAS Lee-on-Solent kao eskadrila torpednih bombardera/izviđača. Oni su raspoređeni u HMS Neumorno juna 1944. i vidjeli akcije u sklopu operacije Maskota 17. jula i operacije Goodwood u kolovozu, pokušaja da se potopi njemački bojni brod Tirpitz u Kaa Fjordu, Alta, Norveška. [2] Operacije nisu uspjele uzrokovati značajnu štetu na Tirpitz. Eskadrila je ponovo opremljena sa 21 Grumman Avengers-om u septembru 1944. godine i plovila je sa Neumorno novembra na Daleki istok. Doplovili su do Cejlona gdje se 820 eskadrila pridružila drugom udarnom krilu, koje se također sastojalo od 849 eskadrila. Wing je napao rafinerije nafte u Palembangu na Sumatri u siječnju 1945. u sklopu operacije Meridian, nakon čega su uslijedili kasniji napadi na ostrva Sakashima Gunto. Kako se rat na Pacifiku približavao Japanu, 820 eskadrila je dodijeljena 7. Carrier Air Group i izvela je niz napada na Tokio prije Dana VJ. Nakon završetka rata, Neumorno ostao je neko vrijeme na Pacifiku, konačno se vratio u Veliku Britaniju u ožujku 1946. 820 eskadrila je tada ponovo raspuštena. [2]

Poslije rata

Eskadrila je ponovo formirana pet godina kasnije, u julu 1951. godine, ovaj put leteći na Fairey Firefly. Eskadrila je naizmjenično ukrcana na nosače HMS Neukrotiv i HMS Tezej tokom 1952. i 1953. godine, većinu vremena provodeći na vježbama na Mediteranu. [2] Eskadrila je upravljala Grumman Avenger -om, a zatim Fairey Gannet -om tokom 1954. i 1956. godine, na brodu HMS -a Kentaur i HMS Bedem, prije nego što je donesena odluka o pretvaranju 820 eskadrile u eskadrilu helikoptera. [2] 820 se rasformiralo 2. decembra 1957., ali su istog dana odmah ponovo formirane u HMS-u Vernon, opremljen Westland Whirlwind MK VII. [2] Oni su dodijeljeni HMS -u Hermes maja 1958. kao snaga za podršku podmornicama i komandosima, ostala na brodu Hermes do oktobra 1960. godine, kada je eskadrila ponovo rasformirana. [2]

Eskadrila je ponovo formirana 1964. godine i opremljena Westland Wessex HAS.1, s kojom su služili kao eskadrila protiv podmornica na brodu HMS orao. [2] Oni su nadograđeni na Westland Wessex HAS.3 u maju 1969., kada su prebačeni u Tiger klasa helikopterska krstarica HMS Blake. Ostali su na brodu Blake do njenog raspolaganja 1979. godine, eskadrila je tada dodijeljena HMS Hermesu za prvo tromjesečje 1980. Zrakoplovi eskadrila bili su nadograđeni sa Westland Sea King HAS.1 u prosincu 1972., nakon čega je uslijedila verzija HAS.2, a zatim HS .Mk.5 u decembru 1980. [2] Zatim je dodijeljen HMS -u Nepobjediv početkom 1981., 6. marta 1981. eskadrila je pretrpjela tragediju kada su dva njena aviona imala sudar u zraku, pet od osam članova posade je poginulo.

In April 1982 the squadron remained embarked for the Falklands War. During the conflict the squadron flew over 4700 hours, with Nepobjediv spending 166 days continuously at sea, setting a world record for continuous carrier operations. [2] The squadron transferred to HMS Ark Royal in late 1985. They were re-equipped in February 1990 with the Sea King MK6 and on board Ark Royal were dispatched to the Eastern Mediterranean on Jan 10 1991, with the intention of transiting the Suez Canal, so they would be in the Red Sea for Operation Granby - UK name for Desert Storm. However, the war started before they could transit the Suez Canal, and instead, Ark Royal, remained in the Eastern Mediterranean for the duration of the War. In January 1993, 820 were dispatched aboard RFA Olwen and RFA Fort Grange to support the British forces in Bosnia as part of Operation Grapple. There the squadron was used to ferry men and supplies. 820 Squadron returned to Bosnia in 1994, this time aboard HMS Ark Royal. With the later decommissioning of Ark Royal, the squadron joined HMS Slavno and by 1996 was in the eastern Atlantic, followed by a round the world deployment in 1997. [2]

With Slavno in refit from 1998, 820 Squadron operated out of Operation Palliser in Sierra Leone. [2] Further training periods followed, as well as a Search and Rescue effort in October 2004 to aid the stricken Canadian submarine HMCS Chicoutimi, which had been disabled after suffering a fire and flooding off the west coast of Ireland. [2]


Fairey Swordfish I Of 820 Squadron Over Hms Ark Royal 1939 OLD AVIATION PHOTO

Prodavac: russtysilver ✉️ (16,656) 98.2% , Lokacija: 5016 , Dostavlja se: Worldwide, Stavka: 154472896263 Fairey Swordfish I Of 820 Squadron Over Hms Ark Royal 1939 OLD AVIATION PHOTO. HAVE A LOOK IN MY STORE FOR MANY OTHER GREAT ITEMS USE THE SEARCH BAR TO LOOK BY NAME, TOPIC, LOCATION & SUBJECT You are bidding on a large photo, the photo is in excellent condition, it is sized 8x11 inches and has been professionally produced, Click on the image to see the photo enlarged, A great collectors piece. Postage can be combined for multiple orders. Stanje: New , Return shipping will be paid by: Buyer , Prihvaćeni povrati: Returns Accepted , Item must be returned within: 30 Days , Era: 1900s , Brand: Unbranded , MPN: Does Not Apply See More


[edit] Armament and aircraft

Ark Royal’s armament was designed with anti-aircraft warfare in mind, as aircraft were expected to be the main threat ships and submarines could be outrun or dealt with by escorts. [ 14 ] [ 15 ] Her main armament was sixteen quick-firing 4.5 inch anti-aircraft guns in eight double turrets, four on each side of the hull. [ 2 ] The original design placed the turrets low on the hull, but was later altered to locate them just below the flight deck, which increased each turret's field of fire. [ 2 ] Four 8-barrelled 2 pounder (1.5 in) pom-poms were located on the flight deck, in front of and behind the superstructure island, while eight 4-barrelled .50 calibre (12.7 mm) machine guns were installed on small projecting platforms to the front and rear of the flight deck. [16]

Sixteen Fleet Air Arm squadrons were posted aboard Ark Royal during her career an average of five squadrons at any time. On entering service, most of Ark Royal’s squadrons were equipped with either Blackburn Skuas, used as fighters and dive bombers, or Fairey Swordfishes, for reconnaissance and torpedo bombing. From April 1940, squadrons equipped with Skuas were upgraded to Fairey Fulmars like their predecessors, these were used as fighters and bombers. On occasion, the carrier operated Blackburn Roc fighter-bombers (from April 1939 to October 1940) and Fairey Albacore torpedo bombers (during October 1941) these were replacement aircraft used to boost squadron numbers. [ 17 ] In June 1940, Ark Royal was host to 701 Naval Air Squadron, a training squadron which operated Supermarine Walrus reconnaissance amphibians.

Squadrons embarked aboard HMS Ark Royal
[show] Squadron Aircraft operated Embarked (from - to) Napomene
800 Blackburn Skua Mk. II January 1939 - April 1941 Transferred to HMS Victorious
810 Fairey Swordfish Mk. I January 1939 - March 1941
May 1941 - September 1941
Aboard HMS Slavno from March to May 1941
820 Fairey Swordfish Mk. I January 1939 - June 1941 -
821 Fairey Swordfish Mk. I January 1939 - April 1940 Removed from operational service following losses against Scharnhorst
803 Blackburn Skua Mk. II
Blackburn Roc Mk. I
April 1939 - October 1940 -
818 Fairey Swordfish Mk. I August 1939 - October 1939
June 1940 - July 1940
Operated from HMS Furious and land bases between October 1939 and June 1940
801 Blackburn Skua Mk. II April 1940 - May 1940 Transferred to HMS Furious
807 Fairey Fulmar Mk. II April 1940 - November 1941 Embarked at sinking
701 Supermarine Walrus Mk. I June 1940 Training squadron
808 Fairey Fulmar Mk. II September 1940 - November 1941 Embarked at sinking
821X Fairey Swordfish Mk. I December 1940 - January 1941 Flight assembled from 821 Squadron survivors, later absorbed into 815 Squadron
800Y Fairey Fulmar Mk. I Juna 1941 Flight from 800 Squadron
825 Fairey Swordfish Mk. I June 1941 - November 1941 Embarked at sinking
816 Fairey Swordfish Mk. I July 1941 - November 1941 Embarked at sinking
812 Fairey Swordfish Mk. I September 1941 - November 1941 Embarked at sinking
828 Fairey Swordfish Mk. I
Fairey Albacore Mk. I
October 1941 Redeployed to Malta


Fairey Swordfish I of No.820 Squadron over HMS Ark Royal - History

Royal Navy Biplanes - (Post WW1) - Part 1

Fairey Swordfish and Albacore

Fairey TSR.1 Swordfish Mk.1, 820 Sqn Fleet Air Arm, RAF North Coates / HMS COURAGEOUS, March 1939

The new- mould Airfix Swordfish really is a fantastic model, accurate, finely moulded and relatively easy to build.

The Swordfish needs little introduction. Slow and agricultural in appearance, the Fairey Swordfish was an immensely robust and stable weapons platform that saw the RN through WW2, outlasting its replacement (the Albacore) and fighting with distinction in every theatre of the war. Easy to fly, perfectly tuned to carrier operations and powered by the faithful and trustworthy Bristol Pegasus engine, it made a significant contribution to the war effort. BAC 2010 - 100 Years of the Bristol Aeroplane Company

The aircraft represented by this model flew with 820 Sqn from HMS COURAGEOUS and from ashore at RAF North Coates, until the squadron was re- assigned to HMS ARK ROYAL at the end of 1939.

Fairey Swordfish Mk.1, 815 Sqn Fleet Air Arm, HMS ILLUSTRIOUS, Taranto, November 1940.

The Swordfish is another unsung Matchbox biplane gem, currently available from Revell and seen here with Aeromaster after- market decals. Far better than the Airfix kit, it can certainly hold its own with the Frog version. Standfast the rigging, it is an easy build, let down only by the very sparse cockpit. As supplied, it comes with the radar fit in the Observer's position to reflect a Mk III, but I have built this up to represent the long range tanks.

This model represents the aircraft flown at Taranto by the CO of 815 Sqn, Lt Cdr K Williamson DSO, with Observer NJ "Blood" Scarlett RN. Williamson led the first attack wave, sinking the Battleship Conte de Cavour.

Williamson's aircraft was subsequently shot down, with he and his observer taken as PoWs. The aircraft was recovered by the italians and a picture of her can be seen here: http://www.fleetairarmarchive.net/aircraft/faacapturedaircrafthomepage.html

Although the Swordfish normally carried a crew of 3, Pilot, Observer and Telegraphist Air Gunner (TAG), for this long range raid, the Observer's normal position was occupied by an auxiliary fuel tank and the TAG was not carried.

Fairey Swordfish Mk.II, 810 Sqn Fleet Air Arm, HMS ARK ROYAL, 26 May 1941.

The old Airfix Swordfish is well past its sell- by date, and the new tooling at the top of this page eclipses it totally. However, it's really not that much worse than the other contemporary 1/72 Swordfish kits (FROG & Matchbox). This is the 2009 Airfix Club issue, which came with a nice set of decals for one of 810 Sqns aircraft, plus a second set for the scheme currently worn by one of the RN Historic Flight aircraft (HMS RAIPANA in 1943).

In May 1941, after the devastating shock loss of HMS HOOD during the Battle of the Denmark Strait, the honour and spirit of the Royal Navy depended on the rapid destruction of the German surface raider BISMARCK. The entire Home Fleet, plus the Gibraltar based Force H were deployed to stop BISMARCK reaching the safety of a French port.

An initial attack in atrocious weather by Swordfish from HMS VICTORIOUS was ineffective, but a follow- on strike the next day by a large force from HMS ARK ROYAL jammed the BISMARCK's rudder, making her unmaneouverable and allowing the British Fleet to catch her and deliver the fatal blow.

The aircraft represented by this model was flown by Sub Lieutenant AWD Beale, with Observer SLt C Friend and TAG L/A K Pimlott, during the critical final action against the BISMARCK on 26 May 1941. Beale became disorientated in the poor visibility and flew back to the shadowing cruiser HMS SUFFOLK for directions. As a result he approached the BISMARCK from a different direction from the other ships, registering a torpedo hit amidships.

Fairey Swordfish TSR2 - 818 Sqn, HMS ARK ROYAL 1940.

This is the MPM enhanced kit, with Cooperativa (ex- Frog) kit, resin and photo- etch parts. Decals in the kit are a (miscoloured) copy of the original Frog ones. These are my own markings, from the spares box (some original Frog!). Rigging was fuse wire. I now know that Lycra is much better and doesn't sag ! The inspiration for this model, was Cdr Charles Lamb's astonishing autobiography "War In A Stringbag" which I thoroughly recommend.

Another of the Swordfish's most famous encounters was the disastrous 1942 Channel Dash

Lt Cdr Eugene Esmonde VC DSO RN, was posthumously awarded the Victoria Cross (VC) for leading a desperate attack in a Swordfish aircraft of 825 Naval Air Squadron. Esmonde and his men knew that most of them would die before they took off yet still they went.

"On 12 February 1942 in the Straits of Dover, off England, Lieutenant Commander Esmonde led his squadron of six Swordfish to the attack of two German battle cruisers the Scharnhorst and the cruiser Prinz Eugen, which were entering the Straits strongly escorted by surface craft. Detached from their escorting fighters (just 10 in number) by enemy fighters, all the aircraft of the squadron were damaged, but even after Lieutenant- Commander Esmonde's plane sustained a direct hit he still continued the run- in towards his target until it burst into flames and crashed into the sea. The squadron went on to launch a gallant attack, but none of the six aircraft returned".

. The Fleet Air Arm Historic Flight Swordfish about to take off at Yeovilton 2003

Fairey Albacore - 826 Sqn Dekhelia/Western Desert,1941.

Pegasus manufactured a range of interesting and unusual short run kits in the 1980s. The Albacore builds into a nice replica, but it is not one for the beginner. Kit decals are excellent, however in this case I had just finished reading Lt Cdr Donald Judd's autobiography, "Avenger From the Sky" , so was determined to do one of 826's western desert based aircraft with Black undersides.

The Albacore was intended as a replacement for the venerable Swordfish, but in the end its predecessor outlived it. Nevertheless, it was a reliable and popular aircraft, that achieved notable success in many roles. This was especially true over the Mediterranean and in the Western Desert, where RN Pilots provided close support and Strike missions for the 7th Armoured Division/Desert Rats , operating against Italian and German forces.

Background Picture - a model of Taranto Harbour from the air as displayed at the Fleet Air Arm Museum, Yeovilton

Click on the thumbnail below to go directly to the aircraft model, or simply scroll down

For the rest of my post- war RN Biplanes, click on the “Biplanes 1918- 1946” tab above


Istorija

Drugi svjetski rat

The squadron's first assignment on its formation was to provide spotter-reconnaissance duties for the aircraft carrier HMS Courageous. They were later re-equipped with Fairey Seals and Blackburn Sharks, eventually receiving Fairey Swordfish in autumn 1937. [ 2 ] The squadron was reassigned in November the following year to the new aircraft carrier, HMS Ark Royal. The squadron operated from here for the next three years, initially on anti-submarine duties, but later as surface search and torpedo-attack aircraft. The squadron went with Ark Royal to the Atlantic, and by April 1940 they were supporting allied operations during the Norwegian campaign, where they bombed Vaernes airfield. After the withdrawal from Norway, Ark Royal and the squadron moved to the Mediterranean in June. Aircraft from 820 squadron were involved in attacking the French fleet at Mers-el-Kébir, and later the Battle of Dakar, as well as attacks at Cagliari. They were also active during the Battle of Cape Spartivento, as well as covering convoys to Malta.

820 Squadron's next major engagement was the hunt for the German battleship Bismarck. Aircraft from the Squadron were able to disable the Bismarck’s steering gear with a torpedo hit, allowing the Bismarck to be engaged and sunk. [ 2 ] In June 1940 the squadron left Ark Royal, and in November that year returned to Iceland aboard HMS Victorious. The Swordfish were then replaced by Fairey Albacores. 820 Squadron then embarked aboard HMS Strašno in February 1942, and sailed with Strašno to serve in the Indian Ocean. The squadron was then active in the Battle of Madagascar, followed by Operation Torch, the Allied landings in North Africa. During these operations, aircraft from the squadron sank the German U-boat U-331, which had earlier sunk the battleship HMS Barham. Strašno and the squadron remained in the Mediterranean to provide support for the Allied landings at Sicily and Salerno. [2]

The squadron then returned to the UK in November 1943 and disbanded at RNAS Donibristle. The squadron was quickly reformed however, and equipped with 12 Fairey Barracudas was initially based at RNAS Lee-on-Solent as a torpedo bomber reconnaissance squadron. They were assigned to HMS Indefatigable in June 1944 and saw action as part of Operation Mascot on 17 July and Operations Goodwood in August, the attempts to sink the German battleship Tirpitz in Kaa Fjord, Alta, Norway. [ 2 ] The operations failed to cause significant damage to the Tirpitz. The squadron was re-equipped with 21 Grumman Avengers in September 1944 and sailed with Indefatigable to the Far East in November. They sailed to Ceylon where 820 squadron joined No 2 Strike Wing, which also consisted of 849 Squadron. The Wing attacked the oil refineries at Palembang, Sumatra in January 1945 as part of Operation Meridian, following this up with later strikes on the Sakashima Gunto islands. As the war in the Pacific moved closer to Japan 820 Squadron was assigned to the 7th Carrier Air Group, and carried out a number of raids on Tokyo prior to VJ-Day. After the end of the war, Indefatigable remained in the Pacific for some time, finally returning to the UK in March 1946. 820 Squadron was then disbanded again. [2]

Post war

The squadron was re-formed five years later in July 1951, this time flying the Fairey Firefly. The squadron was embarked alternately aboard the carriers HMS Neukrotiv i HMS Tezej during 1952 and 1953, spending most of its time on exercises in the Mediterranean. [ 2 ] The squadron operated the Grumman Avenger and then the Fairey Gannet during 1954 and 1956, aboard HMS Kentaur i HMS Bedem, before the decision was made to convert 820 Squadron as a helicopter squadron. [ 2 ] 820 disbanded on 2 December 1957 but were immediately re-formed the same day at HMS Vernon, equipped with the Westland Whirlwind MK VII. [ 2 ] They were assigned to HMS Hermes in May 1958 as an anti-submarine and commando support force, remaining aboard Hermes until October 1960, when the squadron was again disbanded. [2]

The squadron was re-formed in 1964, and equipped with the Westland Wessex MK1, with which they served as anti-submarine squadron aboard HMS orao. [ 2 ] They were upgraded to the MK3 in 1969, when they were transferred to the Tiger class helicopter cruiser HMS Blake. They remained aboard Blake until her disposal in 1979, having been upgraded with the Westland Sea King MK1 in December 1972, followed by the M2 version and then the MK5 in December 1980. [ 2 ]

The squadron was then assigned to HMS Nepobjediv in April 1982 for the Falklands War. During the conflict the squadron flew over 4700 hours, with Nepobjediv spending 166 days continuously at sea, setting a world record for continuous carrier operations. [ 2 ] The squadron transferred to HMS Ark Royal in late 1985. They were re-equipped in February 1990 with the Sea King MK5, and in January 1993 were dispatched aboard RFA Olwen and RFA Fort Grange to support the British forces in Bosnia as part of Operation Grapple. There the squadron was used to ferry men and supplies. 820 Squadron returned to Bosnia in 1994, this time aboard HMS Ark Royal. With the later decommissioning of Ark Royal, the squadron joined HMS Slavno and by 1996 was in the eastern Atlantic, followed by a round the world deployment in 1997. [ 2 ]

With Slavno in refit from 1998, 820 Squadron operated out of RNAS Culdrose on anti-submarine training exercises, followed with periods embarked on ships of the Royal Fleet Auxiliary. They rejoined Slavno in 1999 and participated in relief operations in Mozambique and for Operation Pallister in Sierra Leone. [ 2 ] Further training periods followed, as well as a Search and Rescue effort in October 2004 to aid the stricken Canadian submarine HMCS Chicoutimi, which had been disabled after suffering a fire and flooding off the west coast of Ireland. [2]


Print Scale 1/72 Fairey Swordfish Decals

Since there were approximately 2400 Fairey Swordfish built, there are bound to be plenty of marking options for it. Print Scale has realized this and released this set of decals for a 1/72 kit. There is no specific model manufacturer listed, but you can be sure it was probably meant for the ultimate Swordfish kit, put out a little while ago by Airfix. There are eleven aircraft in this release:

The decals appear nicely finished and in register. My only complaint is with the instructions. While there is a four-view profile for an overall camouflaged aircraft, there is no mention at all about what "Scheme 2", "Scheme 3" or "Scheme 4" really is. Plus, the two aircraft labeled as "Scheme 2" are different one has camouflage that runs the entire fuselage, while the other only has camouflage on top of the fuselage with Sky fuselage sides.

If you have references for the Swordfish for how these schemes look, then use them. If you don't, you'll definitely need to find some to help show how these schemes differed and how they were applied. Even with my caveat, I still am glad I have these to use.


Sisällysluettelo

Ensimmäisen laivueen palvelus 1933–1943 Muokkaa

Laivue perustettiin 3. huhtikuuta 1933 Gosportissa 450 lentueesta ja puolikkaasta 445 lentueesta kalustonaan yhdeksän Fairey IIIF:ää. Laivue sijoitettiin 5. toukokuuta HMS Courageousille. B-lentue sijoitettiin tammikuussa 1934 HMS Furiousille matkaamaan Gibraltarille. Kuusi Fairey IIIF:ää vaihdettiin kesäkuussa Fairey Sealeihin ja joulukuussa koko kalusto kahteentoista Blackburn Shark -koneeseen. Sharkien moottorien epävarmuus aiheutti A-lentueen kaluston vaihtamisen elokuussa 1935 kuuteen Baffiniin Välimerelle siirryttäessä. Baffinit poistettiin laivueesta sen palattua Englantiin helmikuussa 1936. Laivue vastaanotti joulukuussa kalustokseen kaksitoista Shark Mk II:sta. Laivueen kalustoksi vastaanotettiin syyskuussa 1937 Fairey Swordfish torpedopommittajat.

Laivue määrättiin marraskuussa 1938 palvelukseen saapuneelle uudelle tukialukselle HMS Ark Royalille, minne se siirtyi 11. tammikuuta 1939 ensisijaisena tehtävänään sukellusveneiden torjunta ja vihollisen pinta-alusten etsiminen ja tuhoaminen.

Laivue siirtyi kesäkuussa 1940 HMS Victorious, minä aikana laivueen koneiksi vaihtuivat Fairey Albacoret. Laivue siirtyi HMS Formidablelle helmikuussa 1942. Laivue palasi Englantiin marraskuussa 1943 ja lakkautettiin.

Toisen laivueen palvelus 1944–1946 Muokkaa

Laivue perustettiin nopeasti uudelleen ja sen kalustoksi määrättiin 12 Fairey Barracudaa. Laivue siirrettiin HMS Indefatigablelle kesäkuussa 1944. Laivueen kalustoksi vaihdettiin syyskuussa 21 Grumman Avengeria sen siirtyessä Kaukoitään.

Ceylonille saavuttuaan laivue liitettiin osaksi toista iskulennostoa (engl. No 2 Strike Wing ). Laivue osallistui Brittiläisen Tyynenmeren laivaston mukana taisteluihin, kunnes palasi Englantiin maaliskuussa 1946, minkä jälkeen se lakkautettiin.

Kolmannen laivueen palvelus 1951–1957 Muokkaa

Laivue perustettiin uudelleen heinäkuussa 1951 kalustonaan Fairey Fireflyt. Laivue palveli HMS Indomitablella ja HMS Theseuksella Välimerellä 1952–1953. Laivueen kalusto vaihdettiin 1954 Grumman Avengereiksi ja 1956 Fairey Ganneteiksi. Tuona aikana laivue palveli HMS Centaurilla ja HMS Bulwarkilla. Laivue päätettiin muuttaa helikopterilaivueeksi ja se lakkautettiin 2. joulukuuta 1957.

Neljännen laivueen palvelus 1957–1960 Muokkaa

Laivue perustettiin uudelleen jo lakkautuspäivänään HMS Vernonilla kalustonaan Westland Whirlwind Mk VII -helikopterit. Laivue siirrettiin HMS Hermekselle toukokuussa 1958 toimimaan sukellusveneidentorjuntalaivueena sekä tukemaan erikoisjoukkojen toimintaa. Laivue lakkautettiin lokakuussa 1960.

Viidennen laivueen palvelus 1964– Muokkaa

Laivue perustettiin uudelleen 1964 kalustonaan Westland Wessex Mk 1 ja se liitettiin sukellusveneidentorjunta tehtäviin HMS Eaglelle. Laivueen kalusto vaihdettiin Mk3 versioon 1969 ja se siirrettiin Tiger-luokan helikopteriristeilijä HMS Blakelle. Laivue palveli HMS Blakella, kunnes alus poistettiin palveluksesta 1979. Laivueen kalusto päivitettiin useaan otteeseen joulukuussa 1972 Westland Sea King Mk1, Mk2 ja joulukuussa 1980 Mk3.

Laivue siirrettiin huhtikuussa 1982 HMS Invinciblelle, joka purjehti Falklandin sotaan lähteneen osaston lippulaivana. Taisteluiden kuluessa laivue lensi yli 4700 tuntia. Laivue siirrettiin loppuvuodesta 1985 HMS Ark Royalille ja sen kalustoksi vaihdettiin helmikuussa 1990 Sea King Mk5. Laivue siirtyi tammikuussa 1993 RFA Olwenille ja RFA Fort Grangelle tukemaan brittijoukkojen operaatioita Bosniassa (operaatio Grapple). Laivue palasi Englantiin 1994 HMS Ark Royalin mukana. Laivue siirtyi HMS Illustriousille, kun HMS Ark Royal siirrettiin telakalle.

HMS Illustriousin siirtyessä huoltoon 1998 laivue siirrettiin RNAS Culdroseen sukellusveneentorjuntakoulutukseen. Koulutuksen jälkeen laivue tukilaivoille. selvennä Laivue palasi HMS Illustriousille 1999 ja sen mukana Mosambikin rannikolle ja Sierra Leoneen (operaatio Palliser).


Operation Catapult: Churchill's Plan To Destroy the French Navy in 1940

Firing on the French Fleet at Mers-el-Kebir was horrific but necessary for British security.

Now, as the day grew hotter, Admiral Somerville could only steam back and forth outside Mers el Kebir and Oran, waiting anxiously for Captain Holland to signal back reports on the progress of his negotiations with the French. Two and a half hours passed while Holland, Admiral Somerville, and the War Cabinet in distant London all waited for Admiral Gensoul’s response. It was a tense, impotent time, particularly for the Force H commander.

“Answer Fire with Fire”

At noon, Somerville signaled the Admiralty that he would give Gensoul until 3 pm to reply to the British terms. Half an hour later, Somerville was signaled that if he thought the French ships were preparing to leave the harbor, he “should inform them that if they moved, he would open fire.” The Force H commander then signaled to Holland and asked if he thought there was now any alternative to bombarding the French squadron. The emissary urged that the French should be asked for a final reply before any hostile action was taken. Holland told Admiral Somerville that his knowledge of the French character suggested “an initial refusal will often come around to an acquiescence.” Holland said he “felt most strongly that the use of force, even as a last resource, was fatal to our object.” So, he used “every endeavor to bring about a peaceful solution.”

At last, around 3 pm, Admiral Gensoul agreed to meet Holland on board Dunkerque, and this encouraged Somerville to again postpone action. “I think they are weakening,” he signaled to the Admiralty. At 4:15 pm, Holland was piped over the side of the French flagship and ushered into Gensoul’s cabin. The admiral was angry and indignant and had come to believe that the British might actually use force against his squadron. He played for time British decrypts of French cipher traffic that afternoon revealed that Gensoul could expect support from other naval units and was to “answer fire with fire.” Passing the intercept on to Admiral Somerville, the Admiralty added, “Settle this matter quickly, or you may have reinforcements to deal with.”

Somerville awaited news from Captain Holland, who was now convinced “we had won through and he [Gensoul] would accept one or other of the proposals.” But Holland was unaware of what London had omitted to pass on to Somerville. Its decrypt of the French Admiralty signal to Gensoul indicated that he believed he had only two options: to join the British squadron or scuttle his ships. The tension mounted as the situation came to a head.

The French take “an Advanced State of Readiness for Sea”

Around 5:15 pm, as Gensoul was deciding to reject the British ultimatum, he received a signal from Admiral Somerville stating that Force H would sink his ships unless he accepted the terms by 5:30. The dejected Holland observed that the French battleships were in “an advanced state of readiness for sea.” Control stations were being manned, rangefinders were trained on Force H, and tugs were fussing round the sterns of the French battlewagons. Action stations was sounded, but there was little bustle among the crews, Holland noted. He took a “friendly” leave-taking from Dunkerque as he made his way back to HMS Foxhound. The officer of the watch aboard the battleship Bretagne saluted him smartly. It seemed to Captain Holland that the French could not believe that they were about to be the targets of British gunners. At 5:55 pm, HMS Foxhound got clear after laying magnetic mines across the entrance to Mers el Kebir harbor.

Then the dreaded hour of reckoning came as the battlecruiser Hood steamed at 17 knots ahead of Admiral Somerville’s line. Her eight 15-inch guns thundered at a range of 17,500 yards, closely followed by those of Rezolucija i Dobar. It was the first clash of battle fleets in World War II, but hardly the kind of engagement expected by Admiralty planners in the prewar years the enemy was not the German, Italian, or Japanese fleets. By a fateful, tragic irony, Force H was attacking the Royal Navy’s 18th- and 19th-century foe and 20th-century ally.

Destroying the Fleet at Mers el Kebir

Because of haze and smoke billowing from the French ships raising steam, the targets of Force H were obscured. Hood’s target, a Dunkerque-class battleship anchored abeam to the harbor mole, was indistinct. So the three British capital ships had to use the nearby Mers el Kebir lighthouse as an aiming mark and make “a general shoot into the area of the anchorage.” It was difficult for the British crews to observe the results of their volleys, but a Fairey Swordfish torpedo bomber from No. 810 Squadron aboard HMS Ark Royal reported from an altitude of 7,000 feet that Hood’s first salvo had exploded in a line across Commandante Teste, Bretagne, and the quarterdeck of Strasbourg.

The second salvo, according to the Swordish crew, “hit the Bretagne, which blew up immediately and enveloped the harbor in smoke.” Hit in her after magazines, the French battleship died at 5:58 pm, with a thick mushroom cloud of smoke rising high behind the breakwater. When the smoke cleared, Bretagne was no longer visible to the Swordfish crew, but they observed a fire aft on the seaplane carrier. Dunkerque appeared to have hit a mine, with the loss of 210 dead, and grounded her bows on the shore opposite her berth. It was learned later that the badly damaged Provence also had beached herself. Meanwhile, a direct hit blew off the stern of the large destroyer Mogador, killing 42 men.

Cornered in confined waters and with limited fields of fire because of neighboring vessels, the French warships fired back as best they could. With a crushing 10-minute bombardment, Force H had struck a grievous blow against Gensoul’s squadron. At 6:04 pm, Admiral Somerville ordered a cease-fire in to give the French sailors an opportunity to leave their ships in the smoking harbor. By this time, more than 1,250 seamen lay dead, 977 of them in Bretagne. The cease-fire was welcomed in the British capital ships, where temperatures in the magazines and shell rooms had risen to more than 90 degrees, adversely affecting the crews.

At 6:20 pm, HMS Hood received a signal from the Ark Royal Swordfish crew saying that the battleship Strasbourg and five escorting destroyers had left the Mers el Kebir harbor and were heading along the coast. When the report was confirmed at 6:30, Admiral Somerville ordered Hood to steer eastward in pursuit. The British battlewagon increased speed to 25 knots in an attempt to challenge Strasbourg, but then veered away to avoid a torpedo attack by the French destroyers. Somerville, who had decided against a night action, reported later that his Operation Catapult instructions “did not make sufficient provision for dealing with any French ships that might attempt to leave harbor.”

But Force H had not finished with Strasbourg, and six lumbering Swordfish torpedo bombers from Ark Royal went after her. At 8:55 pm, they approached the French battleship at a height of 20 feet and loosed their torpedoes into a calm sea. The Swordfish crews believed that they might have scored two or three hits, but Strasbourg was able to steam away in the darkness and eventually reach haven at the big Toulon naval base in southeastern France.

Three days later, early on July 6, 1940, Swordfish planes from Ark Royal flew back to Mers el Kebir to finish off the grounded Dunkerque. Diving out of the rising sun from an altitude of 7,000 feet, the “stringbag” biplanes dropped six torpedoes, sinking the 859-ton auxiliary ship Terre Neuve, berthed alongside the battleship. The supply ship’s cargo of depth charges exploded, ripping open the side of Dunkerque. Another 150 French sailors were killed. Meanwhile, Force H was also battling surface units and submarines of the Italian Fleet elsewhere in the Mediterranean.

Dakar, Alexandria, and the Suez

On July 7, the British turned their attention to the French naval base at distant Dakar in West Africa, where the battleship Richelieu, cruiser Primauguet, a sloop, and destroyers were anchored. Commanded by Captain R.F.J. Onslow, a small force comprising the 10,850-ton carrier HMS Hermes i krstarica Australija i Dorsetshire stood off the harbor. Onslow was given an Admiralty ultimatum for the French, similar to that given at Mers el Kebir, but the commander of the Dakar squadron refused entry to a sloop carrying a Royal Navy emissary.

During the night of July 7-8, a fast launch from Hermes sneaked through the harbor booms, dropped depth charges under the stern of Richelieu, and escaped. The charges failed to detonate, but three hours later six Swordfish from the British flattop pounced on the battleship. They achieved only one hit but distorted a propeller shaft and flooded three compartments.

At Alexandria, meanwhile, Admiral Cunningham was able to persuade the French squadron there to disarm, avoiding more bloodshed. Its fuel and ammunition were surrendered to the Royal Navy. On July 18, all French merchant ships in the Suez Canal were seized.


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