Sadat dolazi u Jerusalim - istorija

Sadat dolazi u Jerusalim - istorija



We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

U novembru je egipatski predsjednik Anwar Sadat doputovao na aerodrom Lod, postavši prvi arapski lider koji je posjetio Izrael. Sadatova posjeta poslužila je za probijanje psihološke barijere za koju se činilo da sprečava arapske lidere da sklope mir s Izraelom. Tokom svoje posjete, Sadat je posjetio Yad Vashem (Izraelski spomenik holokausta), Omarovu džamiju i obratio se Knesetu (izraelski parlament). Sadatova posjeta označila je početak procesa koji je konačno okončao 30-godišnji rat između Izraela i Egipta.

Anwar Sadat

Naši urednici će pregledati ono što ste poslali i odlučiti da li želite da prepravite članak.

Anwar Sadat, u cijelosti Muhammed Anwar el-Sadat, Piše i Sadat Sādāt, el-Sadat, ili al-Sadat, (rođen 25. decembra 1918., Mīt Abū al-Kawm, gubernija Al-Minūfiyyah, Egipat-umro 6. oktobra 1981., Kairo), egipatski vojni oficir i političar koji je bio predsjednik Egipta od 1970. do njegovog ubistva 1981. godine. ozbiljni mirovni pregovori s Izraelom, postignuće za koje je Nobelovu nagradu za mir 1978. podijelio s izraelskim premijerom Menachemom Beginom. Pod njihovim vodstvom, Egipat i Izrael sklopili su mir jedni s drugima 1979.

Sadat je završio Vojnu akademiju u Kairu 1938. Tokom Drugog svjetskog rata planirao je protjerati Britance iz Egipta uz pomoć Nijemaca. Britanci su ga uhapsili i zatvorili 1942. godine, ali je pobjegao dvije godine kasnije. 1946. Sadat je uhapšen nakon što je bio umiješan u ubistvo pro-britanskog ministra Amina Othmana, bio je zatvoren do oslobađajuće presude 1948. 1950. pridružio se organizaciji Slobodnih oficira Gamala Abdela Nasera, učestvovao je u oružanom udaru protiv egipatske monarhije 1952. i podržao je Naserov izbor za predsjednika 1956. Sadat je obavljao različite visoke funkcije što ga je dovelo do potpredsjedništva (1964–66, 1969–70). Vršitelj dužnosti predsjednika postao je nakon Naserove smrti, 28. septembra 1970., a za predsjednika je izabran na plebiscitu 15. oktobra.

Sadatova unutrašnja i vanjska politika djelomično su bile reakcija protiv Naserove i odražavale su Sadatove napore da izađe iz sjene svog prethodnika. Jedna od najvažnijih Sadatovih domaćih inicijativa bila je politika otvorenih vrata poznata kao infitāḥ (Arapski: „otvaranje“), program dramatičnih ekonomskih promjena koji je uključivao decentralizaciju i diverzifikaciju ekonomije, kao i napore za privlačenje trgovine i stranih ulaganja. Sadatovi napori za liberalizaciju ekonomije imali su značajne troškove, uključujući visoku inflaciju i neravnomjernu raspodjelu bogatstva, produbljujući nejednakost i dovodeći do nezadovoljstva koje će kasnije doprinijeti neredima u hrani u januaru 1977. godine.

Sadat je učinio svoje najdramatičnije napore u vanjskim poslovima. Smatrajući da mu je Sovjetski Savez pružio neadekvatnu podršku u kontinuiranoj konfrontaciji Egipta s Izraelom, 1972. je protjerao hiljade sovjetskih tehničara i savjetnika iz zemlje. Osim toga, egipatski mirovni pregovori prema Izraelu pokrenuti su početkom Satatovog predsjedništva, kada je to dao do znanja da spremnost za postizanje mirnog rješenja ako se Izrael vrati Sinajsko poluostrvo (koje je ta zemlja zauzela u Šestodnevnom [junskom] ratu 1967. godine). Nakon neuspjeha ove inicijative, Sadat je pokrenuo vojni napad u koordinaciji sa Sirijom radi ponovnog preuzimanja teritorije, što je izazvalo arapsko-izraelski rat u oktobru 1973. Egipatska vojska postigla je taktičko iznenađenje u napadu 6. oktobra na naizgled neprobojna izraelska utvrđenja duž istočnoj obali Sueckog kanala, i iako je Izrael spriječio bilo kakav napredak Egipta da ponovo zauzme Sinajsko poluostrvo, pretrpio je velike žrtve i gubitak vojne opreme. Sadat je iz rata izašao s uvećanim ugledom kao prvi arapski vođa koji je zapravo oduzeo dio teritorije Izraelu. (Vidi Arapsko-izraelski ratovi.)

Nakon rata, Sadat je radio na stvaranju mira na Bliskom istoku. Posjetio je povijesnu posjetu Izraelu (19. - 20. novembra 1977.), tokom koje je otputovao u Jeruzalem kako bi svoj plan o mirovnom rješenju stavio pred izraelski Kneset (parlament). Ovo je pokrenulo niz diplomatskih napora koje je Sadat nastavio uprkos snažnom protivljenju većine arapskog svijeta i Sovjetskog Saveza. U.S. Pres. Jimmy Carter je posredovao u pregovorima između Sadata i Begina koji su rezultirali sporazumom iz Camp Davida (17. septembar 1978), preliminarnim mirovnim sporazumom između Egipta i Izraela. Sadat i Begin dobili su Nobelovu nagradu za mir 1978. godine, a njihovi nastavljeni politički pregovori rezultirali su potpisivanjem 26. marta 1979. Ugovora o miru između Egipta i Izraela - prvog između potonjeg i bilo koje arapske zemlje.

Iako je Sadatova popularnost na Zapadu porasla, u Egiptu je dramatično pala zbog unutrašnjeg protivljenja sporazumu, pogoršanja ekonomske krize i Sadatovog suzbijanja rezultirajućeg javnog neslaganja. U septembru 1981. naredio je masovni policijski štrajk protiv svojih protivnika, zatvarajući više od 1.500 ljudi iz cijelog političkog spektra. Sljedećeg mjeseca Sadat su ubili pripadnici egipatskog islamskog džihada tokom vojne parade povodom Dana oružanih snaga u znak sjećanja na arapsko-izraelski rat u oktobru 1973. godine.

Sadatova autobiografija, U potrazi za identitetom, objavljen je 1978.

Urednici Encyclopaedia Britannica Ovaj članak je nedavno izmijenio i ažurirao Adam Zeidan, pomoćnik urednika.


JERUZALEMSKO PITANJE PONOVNO SE PREDSTAVLJA KAO SADATNO-SUSRETNIK U BLIZINI

Još samo četiri dana do sastanka egipatskih i izraelskih čelnika na Sinaju, osjetljivo pitanje Jeruzalema ponovo je pomutilo odnose između dvije zemlje.

U poruci Ligi arapskih i islamskih naroda sa sjedištem u Kairu, predsjednik Anwar el-Sadat potvrdio je da Kairo podržava palestinski narod 's ' ' vječna, nacionalna i vjerska prava ' ' u Jeruzalemu.

Gospodin Sadat je također rekao da je nepravedno da se grad okupira ' 'po okupaciji ' ' i pozvao muslimane svuda ' ' na saradnju kako bi se zastave slobode, pravde i mira podigle nad Jerusalimom. ' '

Neki žele otkazati sastanak

Reagujući na govor, tvrdoglavi su rekli da bi premijer Menachem Begin trebao otkazati sastanak u četvrtak i ostati u Jerusalimu sa svojim kabinetom kako bi ponovo ocijenio odluku o završetku evakuacije Sinaja do aprila u skladu s egipatsko-izraelskim mirovnim ugovorom.

No, ministri na jutrošnjoj sjednici vlade u Jeruzalemu odlučili su se za prigušenu reakciju. Izlazeći sa sastanka, premijer Begin je mračno pročitao saopštenje u kojem se ponovo izražava stav Izraela da je Jerusalim glavni grad Izraela, jedan grad, nedjeljiv. ' '

U saopštenju se dodaje da su izraelski zakoni na snazi ​​od rata 1967. godine, kada su izraelske snage zauzele istočni Jerusalim od jordanskih snaga, jamčile slobodan pristup svetim mjestima pripadnicima svih religija. Predmet nije 't na dnevnom redu

G. Begin je odbio da proširi izjavu Kabineta, ali potpredsjednik Vlade Yigael Yadin rekao je da su se zvaničnici nakon prve posjete predsjednika Sadata Jerusalimu složili da se ne slažu oko Jeruzalema, jednog od najemotivnijih pitanja koja dijele dvije zemlje.

Rekao je da ta tema nije na dnevnom redu sastanka u četvrtak, koji će se baviti regionalnim problemima. Na današnjem sastanku Vlade bilo je riječi o predstojećem sastanku, a najviši oficiri vojske i zračnih snaga unijeli su karte na sjednicu Vlade, sugerišući da su ministri razgovarali i o raketnoj krizi sa Sirijom.

Okvirni raspored za sastanak u četvrtak pokazuje da će dvojica lidera provesti šest sati zajedno. Raspored također predviđa državni prijem na aerodromu Ofira, ručak i obilazak područja na južnom dijelu poluotoka gdje su Izraelci razvili pomorske kapacitete i područje odmorišta. ---- Sadat obećava vjernost ugovoru

KAIRO, 31. maja (AP)-Uprkos glasnim sukobima oko Jerusalima, predsjednik Anwar el-Sadat rekao je danas posjetivši izraelske zakonodavce da neće biti povratka ' ' ni pod kojim okolnostima ' ' iz egipatsko-izraelskog mirovnog sporazuma.

On je rekao delegaciji izraelskog parlamenta da bi se sve razlike između dva naroda mogle riješiti, navodi Bliskoistočna novinska agencija Kairo.

Gospodin Sadat je rekao izraelskoj delegaciji tokom sastanka u mediteranskom gradu Aleksandriji da se pitanje Jeruzalema mora riješiti na način koji je##x27 ' zadovoljavajući prema tvrdnjama kršćana, Židova i muslimana, koji ga svi smatraju svetim gradom . ' '


Proces mira ‘Mir ’: Kratka istorija

S obzirom na to da izraelsko-palestinski sukob vjerojatno nije bliže rješenju nego prije deset godina, treba se zapitati: Je li tako hvaljeni proces mira, koji su američki predsjednici pozdravili s obje strane, postao šarada? Fraza duga istorija sugerira da je bilo mnogo više procesa od mira. Sada, kako arapski ustanci transformiraju Bliski istok, a Izraelci i Palestinci idu svojim putevima, možda je vrijeme da odaberete novu riječ: ćorsokak. –Uri Friedman

1967
Nakon šestodnevnog rata, Rezolucija 242 Vijeća sigurnosti UN-a poziva Izrael da se povuče sa okupiranih teritorija u zamjenu za okončanje neprijateljstava i poštivanje suvereniteta svih država na tom području. Neprecizan jezik neutrališe rješavanje, ali formula zemlja-za-mir će nakon toga obavijestiti — ili proganjati##8212 mirovne napore.

1973
Egipat i Sirija pokreću koordinirane iznenadne napade na Izrael na Sinaju i Golanske visoravni na Yom Kippur. Američko-sovjetsko prevladavanje rata i arapski embargo na naftu naglašavaju geopolitičke dimenzije sukoba, a Sjedinjene Države posvećuju više diplomatskih mišića za njegovo rješavanje.

1973-1975
U onome što mediji nazivaju "šatl diplomatijom", američki državni sekretar Henry Kissinger vodi bilateralne razgovore sa zaraćenim stranama iz rata u Yom Kippuru, pomažući u smirivanju neposredne krize. Kissinger i njegovi savjetnici nazivaju ove diplomatske napore "pregovaračkim procesom", a zatim, kako se politička klima u regiji odmrzava, procesom mira. Taj proces zastaje jer je predsjednik SAD-a Richard Nixon podnio ostavku i šest Heroj Dnevnog rata Yitzhak Rabin preuzima vlast u Izraelu.

1974
Arapski lideri priznaju Palestinsku oslobodilačku organizaciju (PLO) kao jedinog legitimnog predstavnika palestinskog naroda, ” pretvarajući palestinsko pitanje iz prava izbjeglica u jedno od nacionalističkih težnji. “Došao sam s maslinovom grančicom i pištoljem borca ​​za slobodu,#8221 PLO -a Yasir Arafat obavještava Generalnu skupštinu UN -a mjesec dana kasnije. “Ne dopustite da mi maslinova grana padne s ruke. ”

1975
Utjecajna studija Instituta Brookings prekida s postupnim mirovnim procesom Kissingera, zagovarajući sveobuhvatno arapsko-izraelsko rješenje koje bi uključivalo povlačenje Izraela na otprilike svoje granice prije 1967. godine i podršku palestinskom samoopredjeljenju u zamjenu za diplomatsko priznanje i mir sa arapskim susjedima.

1977
Američki predsjednik Jimmy Carter dovodi u svoju administraciju nekoliko autora Brookingsovog izvještaja i odlučuje nastaviti ambiciozniji mirovni proces, iznenadivši čak i svoje najbliže savjetnike otvorenim pozivom na palestinsku “domovinu. ” Izrael ’s Menachem Begin i Egipat &# 8217s Anwar Sadat izražava apetit za mirom i Sadat postaje prvi arapski vođa koji je posjetio Izrael.

1978-1979
Sadat i Begin sastaju se s Carterom, potpisujući sporazum iz Camp Davida, a godinu dana kasnije i egipatsko-izraelski mirovni sporazum u kojem Egipat priznaje Izrael i Izrael se povlači sa Sinaja. Sporazum poziva Izrael i druge susjede da se pridruže mirovnom procesu s Izraelom. ” Nema onih koji ga preuzimaju.

1982
Nakon atentata na Sadat#8217 i izraelskih napada na PLO u Libanonu, američki predsjednik Ronald Reagan poziva na novi početak, pozivajući Jordan da radi s Palestincima kako bi postigao samoupravu. Cilj ostaje neostvaren.

1985
Dennis Ross, koji bi savjetovao pet američkih predsjednika o Bliskom istoku, tvrdi da bi Sjedinjene Države trebale oprezno olakšati diplomatiju u regiji, dok strpljivo očekuju pravi pokret lokalnih stranaka. ”

1987
Šeik Ahmed Yassin osniva Hamas usred erupcije Prve intifade, palestinskog ustanka protiv izraelske kontrole na Zapadnoj obali i Gazi. Povelja grupe iz 1988. poziva na uništenje Izraela i stvaranje islamističke palestinske države nasilnim džihadom.

1991
Ohrabreni uspjehom u Zaljevskom ratu, američki predsjednik George H.W. Bush je zajedno sa Sovjetskim Savezom sponzor konferencije u Madridu između Izraela i Jordana, Libana, Sirije i Palestinaca, koji se prvi put susreću s izraelskim pregovaračima. Dijalog postiže malo, ali stvara okvir koji dugo nedostaje za razgovore.

1993-1994
Tajni pregovori Izraela i PLO-a u Norveškoj donijeli su prvi sporazum između dvije strane, Sporazum iz Osla. Oni se međusobno prepoznaju i zacrtavaju petogodišnji plan za Izrael da prepusti kontrolu nad teritorijom novoj palestinskoj upravi i palestinskim liderima kako bi se slomili s terorizmom prije konačnog mirovnog sporazuma. Rabin i jordanski kralj Husein godinu dana kasnije potpisuju još jedan mirovni sporazum.

1995
Jevrejski ekstremista Yigal Amir ubija Rabina, koji je u drugom mandatu postao snažan zagovornik rješenja s dvije države. Mirovni proces u Oslu potresa se.

2000
Američki predsjednik Bill Clinton saziva Arafata i izraelskog premijera Ehuda Baraka u Camp Davidu radi rješavanja najtežih pitanja Osla: granica, sigurnosti, naselja, izbjeglica i Jeruzalema. Ali razgovori propadaju i Druga Intifada eksplodira u nasilju.

2001
U majskom izvještaju bivšeg američkog senatora Georgea Mitchella upozorava se da je najveća opasnost ” na Bliskom istoku to što je kultura mira, njegovana u prethodnoj deceniji, razbijena. ” Nakon napada 11. septembra , Predsjednik George W. Bush ne spominje mirovni proces u svom obraćanju o stanju unije 2002. godine.

2002-2003
Dok Sjedinjene Države grade koaliciju za rat u Iraku, Bush postaje prvi američki predsjednik koji je izričito pozvao na nezavisnu palestinsku državu. Saudijci predstavljaju mirovni plan koji podržava Arapska liga, a takozvani kvartet — Sjedinjenih Država, Europske unije, Rusije i Ujedinjenih naroda — otkriva “prometnu kartu ” za mir koja stavlja sigurnost ispred politički dogovor.

2007
S tim da pesimizam doseže nove dubine (“Mirni proces nema odjeće, ” piše analitičar sa Bliskog istoka Nathan J. Brown), Bush je u Annapolisu domaćin konferencije između Izraela i njegovih arapskih susjeda na kojoj je utvrđeno rješenje dvije države. Hamas, koji je preuzeo vlast u Gazi i podijelio se sa svojom rivalskom palestinskom frakcijom, Fatah, nije pozvan.

2008
Izraelska vojna ofenziva u Gazi briše dijalog između izraelskih Ehuda Olmerta i palestinskih vlasti Mahmuda Abbasa.

2009-2010
Američki predsjednik Barack Obama stupa na dužnost obećavajući da će "aktivno i agresivno tražiti trajni mir." da bi dobili značajne ustupke.
Izvor istraživanja: Gallup

Obama razbjesni Netanyahua predlažući da novi pregovori počnu od granica prije 1967. godine zamjenom kopna, dok Palestinci traže državnost u Ujedinjenim nacijama umjesto razgovora. Na početku 2012. godine, pregovarač na Bliskom istoku Ross prisjeća se onoga što mu je izraelski zvaničnik Dan Meridor jednom rekao, “ ‘ Mirovni proces je poput vožnje bicikla: Kada prestanete okretati pedale, padate. '” Izraelci i Palestinci, kaže Ross , “ su prestali okretati pedale. ”
Izvor istraživanja: Hebrejski univerzitet u Jeruzalemu i Palestinski centar za istraživanje politika i istraživanja

S obzirom na to da izraelsko-palestinski sukob vjerojatno nije bliže rješenju nego prije deset godina, treba se zapitati: Je li tako hvaljeni proces mira, koji su američki predsjednici pozdravili s obje strane, postao šarada? Fraza duga istorija sugerira da je bilo mnogo više procesa od mira. Sada, kako arapski ustanci transformiraju Bliski istok, a Izraelci i Palestinci idu svojim putevima, možda je vrijeme da odaberete novu riječ: pat pozicija. –Uri Friedman

1967
Nakon šestodnevnog rata, Rezolucija 242 Vijeća sigurnosti UN-a poziva Izrael da se povuče sa okupiranih teritorija u zamjenu za okončanje neprijateljstava i poštivanje suvereniteta svih država na tom području. Neprecizan jezik neutrališe rješavanje, ali formula zemlja-za-mir će nakon toga obavijestiti — ili proganjati##8212 mirovne napore.

1973
Egipat i Sirija pokreću koordinirane iznenadne napade na Izrael na Sinaju i Golanske visoravni na Yom Kippur. Američko-sovjetsko držanje u ratu i arapski embargo na naftu ističu geopolitičke dimenzije sukoba, a Sjedinjene Države posvećuju više diplomatskih mišića za njegovo rješavanje.

1973-1975
U onome što mediji nazivaju "šatl diplomatijom", američki državni sekretar Henry Kissinger vodi bilateralne razgovore sa zaraćenim stranama iz rata u Yom Kippuru, pomažući pri smirivanju neposredne krize. Kissinger i njegovi savjetnici nazivaju ove diplomatske napore "pregovaračkim procesom", a zatim, kako se politička klima u regiji odmrzava, procesom mira. Taj proces zastaje jer je predsjednik SAD-a Richard Nixon podnio ostavku i šest Heroj Dnevnog rata Yitzhak Rabin preuzima vlast u Izraelu.

1974
Arapski lideri priznaju Palestinsku oslobodilačku organizaciju (PLO) kao jedinog legitimnog predstavnika palestinskog naroda, ” pretvarajući palestinsko pitanje iz prava izbjeglica u jedno od nacionalističkih težnji. “Došao sam s maslinovom grančicom i pištoljem borca ​​za slobodu,#8221 PLO -a Yasir Arafat obavještava Generalnu skupštinu UN -a mjesec dana kasnije. “Ne dopustite da mi maslinova grana padne s ruke. ”

1975
Utjecajna studija Instituta Brookings prekida s postupnim mirovnim procesom Kissingera, zagovarajući sveobuhvatno arapsko-izraelsko rješenje koje bi uključivalo povlačenje Izraela na otprilike svoje granice prije 1967. godine i podršku palestinskom samoopredjeljenju u zamjenu za diplomatsko priznanje i mir sa arapskim susjedima.

1977
Američki predsjednik Jimmy Carter dovodi u svoju administraciju nekoliko autora Brookingsovog izvještaja i odlučuje nastaviti ambiciozniji mirovni proces, iznenadivši čak i svoje najbliže savjetnike otvorenim pozivom na palestinsku “domovinu. ” Izrael ’s Menachem Begin i Egipat &# 8217 Anwar Sadat izražava apetit za mirom, a Sadat postaje prvi arapski vođa koji je posjetio Izrael.

1978-1979
Sadat i Begin sastaju se s Carterom, potpisujući sporazum iz Camp Davida, a godinu dana kasnije i egipatsko-izraelski mirovni sporazum u kojem Egipat priznaje Izrael i Izrael se povlači sa Sinaja. Sporazum poziva Izrael i druge susjede da se pridruže mirovnom procesu s Izraelom. ” Nema onih koji ga preuzimaju.

1982
Nakon atentata na Sadat#8217 i izraelskih napada na PLO u Libanonu, američki predsjednik Ronald Reagan poziva na novi početak, pozivajući Jordan da radi s Palestincima kako bi postigao samoupravu. Cilj ostaje neostvaren.

1985
Dennis Ross, koji bi savjetovao pet američkih predsjednika o Bliskom istoku, tvrdi da bi Sjedinjene Države trebale oprezno olakšati diplomatiju u regiji, dok strpljivo očekuju pravi pokret lokalnih stranaka. ”

1987
Šeik Ahmed Yassin osniva Hamas usred erupcije Prve intifade, palestinskog ustanka protiv izraelske kontrole na Zapadnoj obali i Gazi. Povelja grupe iz 1988. poziva na uništenje Izraela i stvaranje islamističke palestinske države nasilnim džihadom.

1991
Ohrabreni uspjehom u Zaljevskom ratu, američki predsjednik George H.W. Bush je zajedno sa Sovjetskim Savezom sponzor konferencije u Madridu između Izraela i Jordana, Libana, Sirije i Palestinaca, koji se prvi put susreću s izraelskim pregovaračima. Dijalog postiže malo, ali stvara okvir koji dugo nedostaje.

1993-1994
Tajni pregovori Izraela i PLO-a u Norveškoj donijeli su prvi sporazum između dvije strane, Sporazum iz Osla. Oni se međusobno prepoznaju i zacrtavaju petogodišnji plan za Izrael da prepusti kontrolu nad teritorijom novoj palestinskoj upravi i palestinskim liderima kako bi se slomili s terorizmom prije konačnog mirovnog sporazuma. Rabin i jordanski kralj Husein godinu dana kasnije potpisuju još jedan mirovni sporazum.

1995
Jevrejski ekstremista Yigal Amir ubija Rabina, koji je u svom drugom mandatu postao snažan zagovornik rješenja s dvije države. Mirovni proces u Oslu potresa se.

2000
Američki predsjednik Bill Clinton saziva Arafata i izraelskog premijera Ehuda Baraka u Camp Davidu radi rješavanja najtežih pitanja Osla: granica, sigurnosti, naselja, izbjeglica i Jeruzalema. Ali razgovori propadaju i Druga Intifada eksplodira u nasilju.

2001
U majskom izvještaju bivšeg američkog senatora Georgea Mitchella upozorava se da je najveća opasnost ” na Bliskom istoku to što je kultura mira, njegovana u prethodnoj deceniji, razbijena. ” Nakon napada 11. septembra , Predsjednik George W. Bush ne spominje mirovni proces u svom obraćanju o stanju unije 2002. godine.

2002-2003
Dok Sjedinjene Države grade koaliciju za rat u Iraku, Bush postaje prvi američki predsjednik koji je izričito pozvao na nezavisnu palestinsku državu. Saudijci predstavljaju mirovni plan koji podržava Arapska liga, a takozvani kvartet — Sjedinjenih Država, Europske unije, Rusije i Ujedinjenih naroda — otkriva “prometnu kartu ” za mir koja stavlja sigurnost ispred politički dogovor.

2007
S tim da pesimizam doseže nove dubine (“Mirni proces nema odjeće, ” piše analitičar sa Bliskog istoka Nathan J. Brown), Bush je u Annapolisu domaćin konferencije između Izraela i njegovih arapskih susjeda koja podržava rješenje dvije države. Hamas, koji je preuzeo vlast u Gazi i podijelio se sa svojom rivalskom palestinskom frakcijom, Fatah, nije pozvan.

2008
Izraelska vojna ofenziva u Gazi briše dijalog između izraelskih Ehuda Olmerta i palestinskih vlasti Mahmuda Abbasa.

2009-2010
Američki predsjednik Barack Obama stupa na dužnost obećavajući da će "aktivno i agresivno tražiti trajni mir." za dobijanje značajnih ustupaka.
Izvor istraživanja: Gallup

Obama razbješnjava Netanyahua predlažući da novi pregovori počnu od granica prije 1967. godine zamjenom kopna, dok Palestinci traže državnost u Ujedinjenim nacijama umjesto razgovora. Na početku 2012. godine, pregovarač na Bliskom istoku Ross prisjeća se onoga što mu je izraelski zvaničnik Dan Meridor jednom rekao: “ ‘ Mirovni proces je poput vožnje bicikla: Kada prestanete okretati pedale, padate. '” Izraelci i Palestinci, kaže Ross , “ su prestali okretati pedale. ”
Izvor istraživanja: Hebrejski univerzitet u Jeruzalemu i Palestinski centar za istraživanje politike i istraživanja

Uri Friedman je zamjenik glavnog urednika Foreign Policy. Prije nego što se pridružio FP -u, prijavio se za Christian Science Monitor, radio na korporativnoj strategiji za Atlantic Media, pomogao pri pokretanju Atlantic Wirei pokrivao međunarodne poslove za web stranicu. Ponosni rodom iz Philadelphije u Pensilvaniji, studirao je evropsku istoriju na Univerzitetu u Pensilvaniji, a živio je u Barseloni, Španija i Ženevi, Švajcarska. Twitter: @UriLF


Sadržaj

Anwar Sadat rođen je 25. decembra 1918. u Mit Abu El Komu, Monufija, Egipat, u siromašnoj porodici, jednoj od 13 braće i sestara. [10] Jedan od njegove braće, Atef Sadat, kasnije je postao pilot i poginuo je u akciji tokom Oktobarskog rata 1973. [11] Njegov otac, Anwar Mohammed El Sadat bio je gornji Egipćanin, a njegova majka, Sit Al-Berain , bila je Sudanka od svog oca. [12] [13]

Diplomirao je na Kraljevskoj vojnoj akademiji u Kairu 1938. godine [14] i imenovan je u Signalni korpus. Ušao je u vojsku kao potporučnik i raspoređen je u Sudan (Egipat i Sudan tada su bili jedna država). Tamo je upoznao Gamala Abdela Nasera i zajedno sa još nekoliko mlađih oficira oformili su tajne Slobodne oficire, organizaciju posvećenu proterivanju britanskog prisustva iz Egipta i uklanjanju kraljevske korupcije. [15]

Tokom Drugog svjetskog rata Britanci su ga zatvorili zbog njegovih napora da od Sila Osovine dobiju pomoć u protjerivanju okupacijskih britanskih snaga. Anwar Sadat bio je aktivan u mnogim političkim pokretima, uključujući Muslimansko bratstvo, fašistički Mladi Egipat, pro-palačinsku Gvozdenu gardu Egipta i tajnu vojnu grupu pod nazivom Slobodni oficiri. [16] Zajedno sa svojim kolegama slobodnim oficirima, Sadat je učestvovao u vojnom udaru koji je pokrenuo Egipatsku revoluciju 1952. godine, koja je 23. jula iste godine svrgnula kralja Faruka. Sadat je dobio zadatak da putem radijskih mreža objavi vijest o revoluciji egipatskom narodu.

Za vrijeme predsjedništva Gamalom Abdel Naserom, Sadat je imenovan državnim ministrom 1954. Također je imenovan urednikom novoosnovanog dnevnog lista Al Gomhuria. [17] Godine 1959. preuzeo je funkciju sekretara Nacionalne unije. Sadat je bio predsjednik Narodne skupštine (1960–1968), a zatim potpredsjednik i član predsjedničkog vijeća 1964. Ponovo je ponovo imenovan za potpredsjednika u decembru 1969. godine.

Neki od važnijih događaja Sadatovog predsjedništva bili su njegova "Korektivna revolucija" za učvršćivanje vlasti, raskid s dugogodišnjim saveznikom Egipta i davaocem pomoći SSSR-om, Oktobarski rat s Izraelom 1973., mirovni sporazum u Camp Davidu s Izraelom, " otvaranje "(ili Infitah) egipatske ekonomije, i na kraju njegov atentat 1981.

Sadat je naslijedio Nassera na mjestu predsjednika nakon njegove smrti u oktobru 1970. [18] Očekivalo se da će Sadatovo predsjedništvo biti kratkotrajno. [19] Gledajući na njega kao na nešto više od marionete bivšeg predsjednika, Naserove pristalice u vladi smjestile su se na Sadat kao nekoga s kim se može lako manipulirati. Sadat je sve iznenadio nizom oštroumnih političkih poteza kojima je uspio zadržati mjesto predsjednika i sam se pojaviti kao lider. [20] 15. maja 1971. [21] Sadat je objavio svoje Korektivna revolucija, čisteći vladu, političke i sigurnosne ustanove od najvatrenijih nasserista. Sadat je potaknuo pojavu islamističkog pokreta, koji je Nasser potisnuo. Vjerujući da su islamisti društveno konzervativni, dao im je "značajnu kulturnu i ideološku autonomiju" u zamjenu za političku podršku. [22]

Godine 1971., tri godine nakon Rata protiv stradanja u zoni Sueckog kanala, Sadat je u pismu podržao mirovne prijedloge pregovarača UN-a Gunnara Jarringa, koji su, čini se, doveli do potpunog mira s Izraelom na osnovu povlačenja Izraela u svoje pre ratne granice. Ova mirovna inicijativa nije uspjela jer ni Izrael ni Sjedinjene Američke Države nisu prihvatile uslove o kojima se tada govorilo. [23]

Korektivna revolucija

Ubrzo nakon preuzimanja dužnosti, Sadat je šokirao mnoge Egipćane otpuštanjem i zatvaranjem dvije najmoćnije ličnosti u režimu, potpredsjednika Alija Sabrija, koji je bio u bliskim vezama sa sovjetskim zvaničnicima, i Sharawyja Gomae, ministra unutrašnjih poslova, koji je kontrolirao tajnu policiju. [19] Rastuća popularnost Sadata ubrzala bi se nakon što je smanjio ovlasti omražene tajne policije, [19] protjerao sovjetsku vojsku iz zemlje [24] i reformirao egipatsku vojsku radi ponovnog sukoba s Izraelom. [19]

Yom Kippur Rat

Dana 6. oktobra 1973., zajedno sa sirijskim Hafezom al-Assadom, Sadat je pokrenuo Oktobarski rat, poznat i kao rat na Yom Kippuru (a rjeđe kao ramazanski rat), iznenadni napad na izraelske snage koje su okupirale egipatski Sinajski poluotok , [25] i sirijske Golanske visoravni u pokušaju da zauzmu odgovarajuće egipatske i sirijske teritorije koje je Izrael okupirao od Šestodnevnog rata šest godina ranije. Egipatski i sirijski nastup u početnim fazama rata zadivio je Izrael i arapski svijet. Najupečatljivije postignuće (operacija Badr, poznata i kao prijelaz) bilo je napredovanje egipatske vojske otprilike 15 km prema okupiranom Sinajskom poluotoku nakon što je prodrlo i u velikoj mjeri uništilo liniju Bar Lev. U narodu se smatralo da je ova linija neosvojivi odbrambeni lanac.

Kako je rat odmicao, tri divizije izraelske vojske predvođene generalom Arielom Sharonom prešle su Suecki kanal pokušavajući prvo zaokružiti drugu egipatsku armiju. Iako to nije uspjelo, potaknuto sporazumom između Sjedinjenih Američkih Država i Sovjetskog Saveza, Vijeće sigurnosti Ujedinjenih naroda donijelo je 22. oktobra 1973. Rezoluciju 338, pozivajući na hitan prekid vatre. [26] Premda je dogovoreno, prekid vatre je odmah prekršen. [27] Aleksej Kosygin, predsjedavajući Vijeća ministara SSSR -a, otkazao je službeni sastanak s danskim premijerom Ankerom Jørgensenom na putovanju u Egipat gdje je pokušao uvjeriti Sadata da potpiše mirovni sporazum. Tokom Kosidinovog dvodnevnog boravka nije poznato da li su se on i Sadat ikada lično sreli. [28] Izraelska vojska je zatim nastavila s opkoljavanjem egipatske vojske. Opkoljavanje je završeno 24. oktobra, tri dana nakon prekida primirja. Ovaj razvoj događaja izazvao je napetost supersila, ali je drugi prekid vatre zajednički nametnut 25. oktobra kako bi se okončao rat. Po okončanju neprijateljstava, izraelske snage bile su 40 kilometara (25 milja) od Damaska ​​i 101 kilometar (63 milje) od Kaira. [29]

Mir sa Izraelom

Prve egipatske i sirijske pobjede u ratu povratile su moral u cijelom Egiptu i arapskom svijetu, a mnogo godina kasnije, Sadat je bio poznat kao "Heroj križanja". Izrael je priznao Egipat kao strašnog neprijatelja, a obnovljeni politički značaj Egipta na kraju je doveo do povratka i ponovnog otvaranja Sueckog kanala kroz mirovni proces. Njegova nova mirovna politika dovela je do zaključivanja dva sporazuma o razgraničenju snaga sa izraelskom vladom. Prvi od ovih sporazuma potpisan je 18. januara 1974. godine, a drugi 4. septembra 1975. godine.

Jedan od glavnih aspekata Sadatove mirovne politike bio je pridobijanje vjerske podrške za njegove napore. Već tokom posjete SAD -u u oktobru -novembru 1975. godine pozvao je evanđeoskog pastora Billyja Grahama u službenu posjetu, koja je održana nekoliko dana nakon Sadatove posjete. [31] Osim što je njegovao odnose s evanđeoskim kršćanima u SAD -u, izgradio je i određenu suradnju s Vatikanom. Dana 8. aprila 1976. godine prvi put je posjetio Vatikan i dobio poruku podrške od pape Pavla VI u pogledu postizanja mira s Izraelom, kako bi obuhvatio pravedno rješenje palestinskog pitanja. [32] Sadat je sa svoje strane uputio Papi javni poziv da posjeti Kairo. [33] [ neuspješna verifikacija ]

Sadat je takođe koristio medije za promociju svojih ciljeva. U intervjuu koji je dao libanonskim novinama El Hawadeth početkom februara 1976. tvrdio je da je imao tajnu obavezu američke vlade da izvrši pritisak na izraelsku vladu radi velikog povlačenja na Sinaju i Golanskoj visoravni. [34] Ova izjava izazvala je zabrinutost izraelske vlade, ali je Kissinger porekao da je takvo obećanje ikada dato. [35]

U siječnju 1977., niz "pobuna oko kruha" protestirao je protiv Sadatove ekonomske liberalizacije, a posebno vladinim dekretom kojim se ukida kontrola cijena osnovnih potrepština poput kruha. Neredi su trajali dva dana i obuhvatili su stotine hiljada ljudi u Kairu. Samo u Kairu uništeno je 120 autobusa i stotine zgrada. [36] The riots ended with the deployment of the army and the re-institution of the subsidies/price controls. [37] [38] During this time, Sadat was also taking a new approach towards improving relations with the West. [19]

The United States and the Soviet Union agreed on 1 October 1977, on principles to govern a Geneva conference on the Middle East. [19] Syria continued to resist such a conference. [19] Not wanting either Syria or the Soviet Union to influence the peace process, Sadat decided to take more progressive stance towards building a comprehensive peace agreement with Israel. [19]

On 19 November 1977, Sadat became the first Arab leader to visit Israel officially when he met with Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin, and spoke before the Knesset in Jerusalem about his views on how to achieve a comprehensive peace to the Arab–Israeli conflict, which included the full implementation of UN Resolutions 242 and 338. He said during his visit that he hopes "that we can keep the momentum in Geneva, and may God guide the steps of Premier Begin and Knesset, because there is a great need for hard and drastic decision". [39]


Istorija

State of Israel established when the Israeli Declaration of Independence is proclaimed. The text declares the State of Israel open for Jewish immigration and that the state will “ensure complete equality of social and political rights to all its inhabitants” regardless of religion, race, or sex.

David Ben-Gurion (center) reading Israel’s Declaration of Independence, May 14, 1948 (National Photo Collection of Israel)

The United States recognizes the provisional government of Israel. (Read more in America’s relationship to Israel.)

Expulsion and exodus of Jews from Arab countries begins the first wave lasts through 1951. With the establishment of the State of Israel, Jews leave Arab countries by the thousands.

Yemenite Jewish family walking through the desert, 1949 (National Photo Collection of Israel)

May 15

Egypt, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, and Iraq invade Israel. Additional troops come from Saudi Arabia, under Egyptian command.

Altalena Affair: a confrontation between Israel Defense Forces and the Irgun. Sixteen Irgun fighters and three IDF soldiers are killed. The event is significant because it shows that David Ben-Gurion is prepared to fight other Jews to establish a single authority for the new state.

Decembra

UN passes Resolution 194, affirming the right of return of Palestinian refugees.

First elections in Israel: The first Knesset is elected, with the Labor Zionist Mapai winning the majority of votes. David Ben-Gurion forms the first government. (Read more about how Israeli politics work here.)

David Ben-Gurion speaking in Knesset, July 1949 (National Photo Collection of Israel)

Armistice signed with Egypt in February, and in the months that follow, Israel signs armistice agreements with Lebanon, Jordan, and Syria.

Israel admitted to UN a little under a year after the state is established.

Operation Magic Carpet starts was the operation to airlift Yemenite Jews to Israel. 49,000 Jews come to Israel between 1949 and 1950 as a result of this program.

Yemenite Jews en route to Israel (Wikimedia Commons)

Jordan formally annexes the West Bank, a move that gives the residents of the West Bank Jordanian citizenship.

Law of Return passes, stating “Every Jew has the right to immigrate to the country,” sparking an influx of Jewish immigrants.

King Abdullah I of Jordan is assassinated while visiting al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem by a Palestinian nationalist who views his cooperation with Israel as a betrayal.

Operation Ezra & Nehemia airlift more than 100,000 Jews from Iraq through Iran and Cyprus between 1951 and 1952. The operation is named after Ezra and Nehemiah, who led the Jewish people out of Babylonian exile (poetic!).

Immigrants from Iraq arriving in Israel, May 1951 (National Photo Collection of Israel)

Gamal Abdul Nasser comes to power in Egypt under Nasser the Arab League puts the Gaza Strip under Egyptian control officially.

Nasser waving to crowds, Mansoura, Egypt, 1960 (Bibliotheca Alexandrina)

King Hussein comes to power in Jordan at age 17, increasing problems with the Palestinians living in Jordan who are angry at their inferior status.

King Hussein with Jordanian troops, March 1957 (Wikimedia Commons)

German reparations agreement: Israel signs a reparations agreement with West Germany. This is a controversial move, with some Israeli political figures claiming that it amounts to taking blood money.

Lavon Affair: a failed Israeli false-flag operation in Egypt (lasts through 1955) wherein Egyptian Jews are recruited to foment instability in Egypt by planting bombs and blaming the Muslim Brotherhood.

Nasser nationalizes the Suez canal: This move eventually leads to the Suez Crisis, which erupts after Israel, with backing from Britain and France, invade Sinai on October 29, 1956, as a pretext for those countries to intervene to protect the canal zone.

Suez Canal, during the initial Anglo-French assault on Port Said, November 5, 1956 (Imperial War Museum)

Kafr Qasim massacre: Israeli border police kill 48 Arab civilians deemed in violation of an Israeli-imposed curfew.

Israel withdraws from the Sinai Peninsula in March, officially ending the Suez Crisis.

Fatah formed by Yasser Arafat and three others in the Gulf as a Palestinian nationalist movement. (Read more about Palestinian politics here.)

Adolf Eichmann is captured in Argentina by the Mossad, brought to Israel, and eventually tried and executed.

Operation Yakhin (Yachin) helps Moroccan Jews emigrate to Israel about 97,000 Moroccan Jews leave by plane and ship between 1961 and 1964.

Dimona Nuclear Reactor: Israel’s nuclear reactor (in Dimona, Israel) begins operations. Israel has never formally acknowledged that it has nuclear weapons capacity.

PLO Founded in Cairo: The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) calls for the liberation of Palestine and the destruction of Israel through armed struggle, as well as the establishment of an “independent Palestinian state” between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea. (Read more about the PLO here.)

Yasser Arafa (center) in Amman, Jordan, June 1970 (Al Ahram Weekly)

Egypt escalates regional tensions, closes the Straits of Tiran to Israeli shipping, and expels the UN peacekeepers from the Sinai Peninsula.

June 5 — 10

Six-Day War: To preempt Egyptian strikes, Israel launches air strikes against Egypt, taking Egypt by surprise and destroying nearly its entire air force within 24 hours. By the end of the war, Israel controls the Gaza Strip, Sinai Peninsula, West Bank, Eastern Jerusalem, and the Golan Heights.

After the Six-Day War, Israel controlled the Sinai, Gaza Strip, West Bank, and Golan Heights

The new territories will completely alter the political conversation in Israel (and outside it). Israel considers offering the majority of the land in exchange for peace.

Septembar

First West Bank Settlement established in Kfar Etzion, an Israeli community in the West Bank. (Read more about settlements here.)

Khartoum Resolution: The Arab League meets in Khartoum, Sudan and adopts the Three No’s:

  1. No peace with Israel
  2. No recognition of Israel
  3. No direct negotiations with Israel

Novembra

UN Resolution 242 adopted, calling for Israel to withdraw from territories occupied during the Six-Day War. This formula, known as the “land for peace,” would form the basis for all subsequent efforts to resolve the Arab-Israeli conflict. (Read more about attempts to solve the conflict here.)

War of Attrition begins: Egypt launches this against Israel after the Six-Day War basically, artillery shelling into the Sinai, aerial warfare, and raids. Ends with a ceasefire in 1970.

Golda Meir elected Prime Minister.

Black September: King Hussein declares military rule and expels Arafat from Jordan. The Palestinian leadership flees to south Lebanon.

Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine fighters, Jordan, 1969 (Thomas R. Koeniges/Look Magazine)

Munich Olympic Massacre: Palestinian terrorists kidnap and murder 11 Israeli athletes (and one West German police officer) during the Summer Olympics. Five terrorists are killed, and the Mossad launches Operation Wrath of God to assassinate those involved.

Yom Kippur War: Arab forces from Egypt and Syria lead surprise attacks on Israel on Yom Kippur, the holiest day of the Jewish year, hoping to gain back territories lost in 1967. Even though Israel eventually prevails, it’s considered a diplomatic and military failure.

Arafat addresses the UN, in a famous speech: “Today I come bearing an olive branch in one hand, and the freedom fighter’s gun in the other. Do not let the olive branch fall from my hand. I repeat, do not let the olive branch fall from my hand.”

Civil War breaks out in Lebanon: The PLO initially try and stay out of the conflict, but they eventually team up with the leftist Lebanese forces.

UN Resolution 3379 calls Zionism “a form of racism and racial discrimination.”

Land Day protests: the first Arab general strike in Israeli history to protest Israeli expropriation of Arab land in the Galilee. “Land Day” on March 30 becomes an annual day of protest and commemoration.

Entebbe Rescue Operation: In July, an Air France plane, flying from Tel Aviv to Paris, is hijacked by a faction of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine alongside German terrorists. Mossad mounts a rescue operation and rescues most of the hostages. One Israeli — Benjamin Netanyahu’s older brother, Yonatan — is killed.

Likud comes to power (this is called the Mahapakh or “Upheaval”): Menachem Begin, leader of Likud, is elected, ending Labor’s dominance. The first time a right-wing party is in power in Israel.

Egyptian President Anwar Sadat addresses Knesset, signaling his willingness to make peace between Israel and Egypt.

Camp David Accords: Menachem Begin and Anwar Sadat come together at Camp David with U.S. President Jimmy Carter to negotiate a peace treaty, the first ever between Israel and an Arab country. Israel agrees to withdraw from the Sinai Peninsula in exchange for peace (#LandForPeace). Begin and Sadat receive the Nobel Peace Prize.

L-R: Egyptian President Anwar Sadat, U.S. President Jimmy Carter, and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin, Camp David, September 1978 (U.S. Government Archives)

Basic Law on Jerusalem (also known as the “Jerusalem Law”) passed by the Knesset, declaring Jerusalem, “complete and united,” the capital of Israel.

Sadat is assassinated by a member of Egyptian Islamic Jihad, mainly over discontent over signing the Camp David Accords and the peace treaty.

Israel annexes the Golan Heights, a move not recognized by the international community.

Lebanon War: Israel invades southern Lebanon after skirmishes on the border between the PLO and the IDF.

An Israeli tank, June 1982 (Wikimedia Commons)

Sabra & Shatila Massacre: Christian Phalangists (allied with the IDF) murder Palestinian refugees in the Sabra and Shatila refugee camp in Beirut. An investigation finds that Israeli military personnel failed to stop this massacre and therefore bore responsibility. Defense Minister Ariel Sharon resigns.

Hezbollah founded: Muslim clerics, funded by Iran, form Hezbollah in response to the Israeli attack on Lebanon.

Great Synagogue of Rome attack: Palestinian militants attack Rome’s Great Synagogue, killing one and injuring 37.

Israel withdraws from most of Lebanon in August but maintains a “security zone” in southern Lebanon.

Operation Moses: the secret evacuation of Ethiopian Jews (Beta Israel/Falashas) from Sudan over 8,000 Jews are brought to Israel.

Ethiopian Jewish children, January 1985 (Israeli Government Press Office)

Israel bombs PLO headquarters in Tunis, in retaliation for the murder of Israeli tourists on a yacht off the coast of Cyprus earlier that year.

Hezbollah releases its manifesto, with the central goal of destroying Israel.

Hamas founded, as an offshoot of Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood, after PLO begins to seek a negotiated solution with Israel. Founded by Sheik Ahmed Yassin and others, Hamas is a Sunni fundamentalist group that sought to liberate Palestine and place it under Muslim rule. (Read more about Hamas here.)

First Intifada begins, lasting through 1991. The first intifada includes riots, Molotov cocktail attacks, assaults with guns, and explosives along with other forms of non-violent resistance.

Hussein gives up Jordan’s claim on the West Bank, with the exception of guardianship over Muslim holy sites in Jerusalem.

Hamas charter issued, defining Palestinian nationalism as a struggle against Islam’s enemies. Hamas calls for a rooting out of the “Zionist invasion” and “to raise the banner of Allah over every inch of Palestine.”

PLO Declaration of Independence signed in Algiers, Algeria. The Palestinian National Council (PNC) votes to endorse UN resolution 242, which some understand as implicit recognition of Israel.

Arafat (center) with the Palestinian National Council (PNC)

Post-Soviet aliyah: After Soviet premier Mikhail Gorbachev opens the borders of the Soviet Union, thousands of Soviet Jews flee. About 979,000 make aliyah to Israel between 1989 and 1991.

Scud Missile Attacks: Iraq attacks Israel with 39 Scud missiles in the course of the Gulf War.

Operation Solomon: Israel secretly airlifts nearly 15,000 Ethiopian Jews (Beta Israel) to Israel in a 36-hour period.

Madrid Peace Conference: The U.S. and Soviet Union jointly organize a meeting between Israeli and Palestinian leaders (and leaders from Lebanon, Jordan, and Syria).

President Bush addresses the conference, Royal Palace in Madrid, Spain, October 1991 (David Valdez/National Archives and Records Administration)

Yitzhak Rabin elected prime minister.

Oslo Accords signed: After secret negotiations in Oslo, Norway, Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat sign the accords on the White House lawn. Oslo has three key components: mutual recognition between Israel and the PLO the establishment of the Palestinian Authority (PA) and the division of the West Bank into Israeli and Palestinian spheres of authority. (Read more about trying to solve the conflict here.)

Arafat, Clinton, and Rabin at the White House

Cave of the Patriarchs Massacre: Baruch Goldstein, an American-born Jew, walks into the Cave of the Patriarchs in Hebron and kills 29 Muslim worshippers and injures 125 before he is beaten to death. The massacre is one of the deadliest terror attacks in the history of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.

Israel-Jordan Peace Treaty: Jordan becomes the second Arab country to sign a peace treaty with Israel.

Nobel Peace Prize awarded to Yitzhak Rabin, Shimon Peres, and Yasser Arafat, which they win for the Oslo Accords.

L-R: Yasser Arafat, Shimon Peres, and Yitzhak Rabin receiving the Nobel Peace Prize

Rabin assassinated: Yigal Amir, a Jewish extremist and Israeli ultra-nationalist, kills Yitzhak Rabin after a rally for peace. Amir believed Rabin’s peace policies endangered Jewish lives. Rabin’s assassination has disastrous effects on the peace process.

Mourning for Rabin, November 1995 (Israel PikiWiki Project)

Suicide bombing wave begins: Three suicide bombings on buses and a mall prompt a severe military crackdown by Israel and erode public faith in the peace process.

Operation Grapes of Wrath: a campaign by IDF to attempt to end Hezbollah’s attacks on northern Israel.

Netanyahu elected: Benjamin Netanyahu (Likud) comes to power for the first time.

Wye River Memorandum signed by Netanyahu and Arafat, agreeing on steps to implement Oslo II.

Ehud Barak elected Prime Minister.

Lebanon withdrawal: Israel withdraws completely from southern Lebanon in May.

Barak-Arafat peace talks at Camp David, aimed at reaching a “final status” agreement, breaks down before that happens.

Second Intifada begins after Ariel Sharon visits the Temple Mount in September, sparking riots and protests.

Sharon visits the Temple Mount (AP Photo)

This intifada (lasting until 2005) sees Israel shaken by suicide bombings, rocket attacks, and other types of attacks. Israel meets this with deadly force. In over five years, around 1,000 Israelis and 3,000 Palestinians are killed. Skepticism around the peace process grows.

Barak resigns in December.

Ariel Sharon elected, defeating Ehud Barak.

Arab League peace proposal: the Arab League meet in Beirut and call for unilateral Israeli withdrawal from Arab territories and a “just settlement” of the Palestine refugee problem, in exchange for normalized relations between Arab nations and Israel. Israel never officially responds.

Passover Massacre: A Hamas suicide attack on a Passover seder kills 30 the deadliest attack during the Second Intifada.

Operation Defensive Shield: a military operation in the West Bank conducted during the Second Intifada, with the goal of thwarting terror attacks.

Security barrier planned: Israel begins construction of a security barrier between the West Bank and Israel. Palestinians refer to it as an “apartheid wall.” (Read more about the use of “apartheid” here.)

Arafat dies at age 75 in Paris, after undergoing medical treatment. The circumstances surrounding his death are still unclear. He’s succeeded as head of the PLO by Mahmoud Abbas.

Arafat Funeral (Abbas Momani/AFP)

Gaza withdrawal, ordered by Sharon, where nearly 10,000 Jewish settlers are removed from Gaza and the Israeli army withdraws from inside the Gaza Strip. (Read more here.)

Hamas wins Palestinian legislative elections for the first time. Ismail Haniyeh becomes Prime Minister.

Hamas election rally, Ramallah, West Bank, 2006 (Wikimedia Commons)

Hamas captures an Israeli soldier: Gilad Shalit is captured by Hamas during a cross-border raid.

July — August

Second Lebanon War: Hezbollah initiates the war with a cross-border raid on July 12 that kills three soldiers and captures two. Israel then attacks Hezbollah targets in Lebanon and launches a ground invasion of southern Lebanon. The conflict ends with a UN ceasefire.

Hamas controls Gaza: Hamas fighters take over the Gaza Strip and remove all Fatah officials. (Read more here.)

Abbas-Olmert peace talks: They ultimately fail, but it’s probably the closest the two sides have ever gotten to peace.

Operation Cast Lead: 22 days of fighting, beginning in December 2008 and ending in January 2009. Israeli goal is to stop Hamas rockets launching from Gaza into southern Israel Hamas says its rockets are a response to Israeli military actions.

Gaza flotilla raid: Israel raids the Gaza Freedom Flotilla, six ships intended to break the Israeli blockade of Gaza nine activists are killed.

One of the Gaza Freedom Flotilla ships (Free Gaza Movement/Flickr)

Abbas submits a request to the UN to recognize Palestine, in an effort for the State of Palestine to be internationally recognized.

Shalit freed and prisoner exchange: Hamas and Israel reach a deal in which Gilad Shalit is freed in exchange for 1,027 Palestinian prisoners.

Operation Pillar of Defense launched in Gaza in an effort to stop Hamas rocket attacks. A week after operation begins, a ceasefire (mediated by Egypt) is agreed upon.

Three Israeli teens are kidnapped in the West Bank, resulting in a massive IDF operation to find them. Their bodies are later found near Hebron. In retaliation, a Palestinian teen is kidnapped, beaten, and burned alive by Jewish extremists.

The 2014 Israel-Gaza conflict, also called “Operation Protective Edge,” begins, again with the aim of stopping rockets from Gaza into Israel and destroying Hamas tunnels. A ceasefire is agreed upon in late August.

Duma Firebombing: A Jewish extremist firebombs a Palestinian family home in Duma, killing an 18-month-old and his parents.

“Stabbing Intifada” begins Palestinians try (and sometimes succeed) to kill Israeli civilians with knives.

U.S. Embassy opens in Jerusalem, a move hailed in Israel and by some American Jewish groups, while drawing criticism from many other governments and fueling massive Palestinian protests. (Read more here.)

Palestinian activist Ahed Tamimi released. (Read more here.)

Netanyahu elected (again). (Read more here.) (Actually, now there will be a new election. Read more here.)

The Suez Crisis refers to the invasion by Israel of Egypt in 1956, in coordination with France and England.

Known to Israelis as Operation Protective Edge, this was a military campaign launched by Israel in 2014 in response to the kidnapping and murder of three Jewish teenagers by Hamas.

Jihad is an Arabic word meaning “struggle” that can refer both to holy war against nonbelievers and personal moral struggle.

Fatah is the political party of Yasser Arafat.

Black September refers both to a conflict fought between Jordan and the Palestine Liberation Organization and to the terrorist group that carried out the massacre of 11 Israeli atheletes at the Munich Olympics in 1972.

The Palestine Liberation Organization was a group founded in 1948 to liberate Palestinian territories through force. Israel considered the PLO a terrorist group prior to the 1994 Oslo Accords.

The Palestinian Authority is a Palestinian governing body established for the purposes of Palestinian self-government by the 1994 Oslo Accords.

The Second Intifada was a period of Israeli-Palestinian violence sparked by the visit of Ariel Sharon to the Temple Mount in Jerusalem in 2000.

The First Intifada was a Palestinian uprising against Israel that began in 1987 and lasted for several years.

The Oslo Accords were a series of agreements signed by Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization aimed at achieving a peace treaty between the sides and a final resolution of the conflict.

The Camp David Accords were a 1978 agreement between Egypt and Israel, negotiated under the auspices of U.S. President Jimmy Carter, which paved the pay for an Egyptian-Israeli peace treaty the following year, the first such agreement between Israel and an Arab state.

The Six-Day War was a war between Israel and multiple Arab states in 1967 that resulted in Israel vastly expanding the territory under its control, including the disputed territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip.

Yasser Arafat was the chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization and, following the Oslo Accords, the president of the Palestinian Authority. Umro je 2004.

The Knesset is Israel’s parliament.

The Al-Aqsa Mosque is the name of the religious shrine that sits atop the Temple Mount in Jerusalem. The mount is the site from which Muslims believe Muhammad ascended to heaven and where the two Jewish temples once stood.

The Golan Heights is a plateau captured by Israel from Syria in the 1967 war. It was effectively annexed by Israel in 1981.

The Yom Kippur War was a 1973 conflict fought between Israel and a coalition of Arab states. It began with a surprise Arab attack on the Jewish Day of Atonement.

David Ben-Gurion was the first prime minister of the State of Israel.

The West Bank is the territory captured from Jordan by Israel in 1967. It remains the core piece of disputed territory between Israelis and Palestinians.

The Gaza Strip is a coastal territory bordered by Israel, Egypt and the Mediterranean Sea. The strip was occupied by Israel following the 1967 war and returned to Palestinian control in 2005.


I Didn’t Come Back to Jerusalem To Be in a War

Photo by STF/AFP/Getty Images.

I’m in Jerusalem on book leave and everyone keeps asking me to write about all this mess. I keep saying that I don’t ever write about things I can’t fully understand. It’s why I like the law—it’s tidy. I don’t have much to say about what is happening all around me here in Israel. But maybe I can share a memory.

Thirty-five years ago, I spent a year with my family in Jerusalem. I was 10, and my dad was on an academic sabbatical at Hebrew University. My best friend and I danced to Europop in the living room every afternoon. It was the best year of my life.

And 35 years ago this week, Anwar Sadat addressed the Israeli Knesset in an unprecedented and historic move toward establishing peace between Israel and Egypt. My little brother and I stayed up half the night making an enormous Egyptian flag. We colored it in with pencils and crayons and trekked up to the Knesset with it, where we stood on the sidewalk with throngs of Israelis, waiting for his mortorcade to arrive. Our flag was so huge, we took up three feet of sidewalk.

My indelible memory of that day—in the pale greens and reds of the late ‘70s—is that President Sadat smiled and waved at the two kids with the massive Egyptian flag as he drove past, and then we probably went home for ice cream. Sadat said in his remarks that Israel had a right to exist. We really believed he had made history that day. We had the flag to prove it. (Here is Daniel Gordis’ lovely piece on his memories of that same day.)

I didn’t come back to Jerusalem to be in a war. I didn’t come to Jerusalem to write about Middle East politics either. I came because I needed to take some time away to write my book about the Supreme Court (thank you, it’s going fine) and because my parents live here in Israel and we wanted to spend a year with them. I came because we desperately wanted to give our sons—who are seven and nine—a year in which their world became bigger and more complicated, since everything in their lives up until now had been measured out in equal units of comfort and Lego.

I don’t really want to write a heartbreaking account of the sirens in Jerusalem Friday night, or the touching and innocent commentary offered up by our boys as they told us they were scared and wanted to go home. I am just not sure how such accounts help us move forward. I am fully aware that innocent children on either side are being traumatized by growing up in this way.

I don’t know how to talk about what is happening here but it’s probably less about writers’ block than readers’ block. It says so much about the state of our discourse that the surest way to enrage everyone is to tweet about peace in the Middle East. We should be doing better because, much as I hate to say it, the harrowing accounts of burnt-out basements and baby shoes on each side of this conflict don’t constitute a conversation. Counting and photographing and tweeting injured children on each side isn’t dialogue. Scoring your own side’s suffering is a powerful way to avoid fixing the real problems, and trust me when I tell you that everyone—absolutely everyone—is suffering and sad and yet being sad is not fixing the problems either.

One good lesson I am learning this week is to shut up and listen. Because the only way to cut through the mutual agony here is to find people who have solutions and to hear what they have to say. Bombing the other side into oblivion is no more a solution than counting your dead children in public. The best thing about shutting up and listening? You eventually lose the impulse to speak.

Please don’t judge. Work toward solutions. Because everyone on every side of this is desperate. This isn’t a way to live and we all know it. Last night I was at a study session with a group of women in Jerusalem. A teenage girl was crying and I assumed it was over a guy. It’s always a guy. But it wasn’t. She was headed to the army today.

Friday night when the air raid sirens sounded here in Jerusalem, my husband Aaron was on a Skype conference call with a bunch of students in London describing his ten-years-in-the-making white flags installation. As I typed these words, Ynet’s live blog flashed this: “17:09: Hamas’s armed wing, the Izz al-Din al-Qassam Brigades, says it’s launched ‘two M75 homemade missiles towards Jerusalem.’ ” And there was Aaron’s disembodied voice from the next room, explaining that in the end we are all part of a single human family destined to the same fate. And I was typing, “But I don’t want to die this way.” And my boys were watching Ice Age 4—which was blessedly louder than the sirens Friday night. They told us they would like to go home now.

You want to hear about what it’s like here? It’s fucking sad. Everyone I know is sad. My kids don’t care who started it and the little boys in Issawiya, the Arab village I see out my window, don’t care much either. I haven’t met a single Israeli who is happy about this. They know this fixes nothing. The one thing we learned this week is how quickly humans can come to normalize anything. But the hopelessness seeps right into your bones as well.

I am worried about our friends here who are being called up. I am worried about my friends here who are war correspondents. I am worried about terrified children in Gaza. I am also worried about how I will explain to my sons why we are staying, but I’m more worried about what I would tell them if we left. I am crazy-worried about my parents who live in the south, where 1400 rockets have been fired since January. I am worried about how this can possibly ever end if just tweeting about peace is an international act of aggression.

So tonight I will tell my kids about Sadat’s visit 35 years ago, just as we told them last month about Yitzhak Rabin. I hope they understand what I am trying to tell them, because—forgive me—what they think matters more to me than what you all think right now. People who tell me you can’t teach children about peace in a war zone are wrong. We have nothing but peace left to talk about.


Remembering Anwar Sadat’s legacy

From left: Egyptian President Anwar Sadat, President Jimmy Carter, and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin clasped hands in 1979 after Egypt and Israel signed a peace treaty. Bob Daugherty/Associated Press/File

Forty years ago — on Nov. 19, 1977 — Egyptian President Anwar Sadat embarked on a groundbreaking visit to Jerusalem. The 1979 peace treaty he later signed with Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin set in motion the unmistakable dynamic of the Israeli-Arab rapprochement we witness today.

Prior to Sadat’s visit, Bahrain’s king, Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, would have never openly expressed his opposition to the Arab boycott against Israel, and Israeli flags would have never flown openly throughout the streets of Iraqi Kurdistan. Today, Jordanian, Palestinian and Israeli emergency response teams participate in joint exercises on our soil, while Israeli high-tech firms hire engineers from Gaza and our military teams and doctors treat refugees on the Syrian border.

But even with such progress, there is no room for complacency Israel must remain vigilant. Iran and its jihadist proxies in Hezbollah and Hamas are committed to our destruction and will go to the ends of the earth to see it through.

There are other — albeit less threatening — signs that Sadat’s vision has not yet reached fruition. Take the scandal that surrounded this year’s Judo Grand Slam in Abu Dhabi. The International Judo Federation and the United Arab Emirates made a mockery of the very essence of sport when they refused to fly the Israeli flag, play our national anthem, and properly deliver the medals to the five Israeli athletes who earned them.

What made the snub all the more frustrating was that Israel opened an official mission to the International Renewable Energy Agency in the UAE in 2015.

Yet even here lies a silver lining. In a meeting following the Judo competition, officials from the Judo Federation, Israel and the UAE met to discuss the events that took place. The UAE apologized for the athletes who had refused to shake hands with their Israeli competitors and even congratulated our team on its success.

Danny Danon, Israel’s ambassador to the UN, refers to matters of the like as delicate “balancing acts.” Recalling the moment he was elected to chair the UN Legal Committee, Danon stated: “When I put my name in I had to listen to the ambassadors from Iran, Yemen and Syria say why Israel could not hold this position, but it was a secret ballot.” He won 109-44, with 12 ambassadors from Muslim states either voting for Israel or abstaining.

Sadat deserves much credit for this positive shift in behavior toward Israel. He believed that Arab States should view Israel as we truly are — an asset to strengthen the Middle East, not a country to be destroyed.

The success of Sadat’s journey to Jerusalem was replicated in 1994 between Israel and Jordan when King Hussein formally recognized Israel, pursued direct negotiations with Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin, and ushered in peace between Israel and the Hashemite Kingdom.

Israel and Muslim states have come a long way in the past 40 years. As Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu emphasized at this year’s UN General Assembly, Israel stands “shoulder-to-shoulder with those in the Arab world who share our hopes for a brighter future.”

Last week I hosted in Boston recently-retired Israeli Supreme Court Justice Elyakim Rubinstein, who was part of the Israeli team at the Camp David talks with Egypt. He described waiting for Sadat at Ben-Gurion Airport as the most significant experience of his professional career. In his words, it was as if he could “hear the wings of history.”

Rubinstein recalled being told at the time by an otherwise skeptical Israeli minister: “Look, if this is hopeful in another 15 years, I’ll think the price was worthwhile.” Forty years later, with tensions between Israel and Arab States on the decline, I believe that the price was categorically worthwhile.

For me, that hope for rapprochement capsulizes the importance of what Sadat pursued. We should all take a moment to remember him.


Samo ste ogrebali površinu Sadat porodična historija.

Between 1984 and 1997, in the United States, Sadat life expectancy was at its lowest point in 1985, and highest in 1997. The average life expectancy for Sadat in 1984 was 50, and 82 in 1997.

An unusually short lifespan might indicate that your Sadat ancestors lived in harsh conditions. Kratak životni vijek također može ukazivati ​​na zdravstvene probleme koji su nekad bili prisutni u vašoj porodici. SSDI je baza podataka za pretraživanje sa više od 70 miliona imena. Možete pronaći datume rođenja, datume smrti, adrese i drugo.


Timeline: Israel, UAE deal follows years of failed peace initiatives

JERUSALEM (Reuters) - A deal between Israel and the United Arab Emirates intended to fully normalise relations follows a history of peace efforts between Israel and the Palestinians and their Arab allies that have failed to overcome decades of distrust and violence.

Most Arab nations, including the UAE, have not recognised Israel or had formal diplomatic or economic relations with it because of what they regard as Israel’s thwarting of Palestinians’ aspirations for a state of their own.

Here are the main initiatives undertaken by the parties themselves and international mediators since the 1967 Middle East War, when Israel captured the West Bank and East Jerusalem, the Sinai peninsula and the Gaza Strip and the Golan Heights:

1967 - U.N. Security Council Resolution 242

After the Six-Day War, U.N. Security Council Resolution 242 calls for the “withdrawal of Israeli armed forces from territories occupied in the recent conflict” in return for all states in the area to respect each other’s sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence.

The resolution is the foundation for many peace initiatives but its imprecise phrasing - is the reference to all territories or just some? - has complicated efforts for decades.

1978 - Camp David agreement

Israel’s Menachem Begin and Egypt’s Anwar Sadat agree on a framework for regional peace that calls for an Israeli withdrawal in stages from Egypt’s Sinai and a transitional Palestinian government in the West Bank and Gaza.

1979 - Israeli-Egyptian peace treaty

The first peace treaty between Israel and an Arab country sets out plans for a complete Israeli withdrawal from Sinai within three years. in 1981, Sadat was assassinated by Islamist revolutionaries at a military parade in Cairo.

Representatives of Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) attend a peace conference. No agreements are reached but the scene is set for direct contacts.

1994 - Israel-Jordan agreement

Jordan becomes the second Arab country to sign a peace treaty with Israel. But the treaty is unpopular and pro-Palestinian sentiment is widespread in Jordan.

1993-1995 - Declaration of Principles/Oslo Accords

Israel and the PLO hold secret talks in Norway that result in interim peace accords calling for the establishment of a Palestinian interim self-government and an elected council in the West Bank and Gaza for a five-year transitional period, Israeli troop withdrawals and negotiations on a permanent settlement.

U.S. President Bill Clinton convenes Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat and Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak at Camp David. They fail to agree. Another Palestinian uprising ensues.

2002-2003 - Bush Declaration/Arab peace initiative/Road Map

George W. Bush becomes the first U.S. president to call for the creation of a Palestinian state, living side-by-side with Israel “in peace and security”.

2002 - Saudi Arabia presents Arab League-endorsed peace plan for full Israeli withdrawal from occupied territory and Israel’s acceptance of a Palestinian state in return for normal relations with Arab countries. The United States, the European Union, the United Nations and Russia present their own roadmap to a permanent two-state solution to the conflict.

Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas and Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Olmert fail to reach a deal at a U.S.-hosted summit. Olmert later says they were close to a deal but a graft investigation against him and a Gaza war in 2008 scupper any agreement.

2009 - Netanyahu’s Bar-Ilan address

Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu says he would be prepared for a peace deal that includes the establishment of a demilitarised Palestinian state. He also sets another condition: Palestinian recognition of Israel as the “state of the Jewish people”.

2013 - 2014 - Washington peace talks/negotiations collapse

U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry coaxes Israelis and Palestinians to resume talks. They fail and are suspended in April 2014.

June 2019 - Trump economic plan announced

Jared Kushner, Trump’s son-in-law, launches its preliminary stage in Bahrain. He takes an “economy first” approach, calling for a $50 billion investment fund to boost the Palestinian and neighbouring Arab economies. Palestinian leaders dismiss it.

Netanyahu says he intends to annex West Bank settlements, and much of the Jordan Valley if elected. Later, U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo effectively backs Israel’s claimed right to build Jewish settlements in the occupied West Bank by abandoning a four-decade-old U.S. position that they were inconsistent with international law.

Arab League head Ahmed Aboul Gheit says in June 2019 the only acceptable resolution for Arab states is Israel’s acceptance of the initiative drawn up by Saudi Arabia in 2002.


Pogledajte video: Agape-Jerusalim prvi deo