Nigerska vlada - historija

Nigerska vlada - historija



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NIGER

Niger je Republika
TRENUTNA VLADA
PredsjedničeTandja, Mamadou
premijerAmadou, Hama
Min. poljoprivredeBoukari, Wassalke
Min. životinjskih resursaMaoude, Koroney
Min. osnovnog obrazovanjaIbrahim, Ari
Min. trgovine i promocije privatnog sektoraOumarou, Seyni
Min. odbraneGaoh, Sabiou Dady
Min. okoliša, vodnih resursa i kontrole decertifikacijeNamata, Adamou
Min. finansija i planiranjaGamatie, Ali Badjo
Min. vanjskih poslova, saradnje i afričkih integracijaMindaoudou, Aichatou
Min. zdravljaKomma, Ibrahim
Min. stambenog i teritorijalnog razvojaLabo, Abdou
Min. unutrašnjosti i decentralizacijeAmadou, Laouali
Min. pravde i ljudskih pravaMoussa, Maty El-Hadji
Min. rada i državne službeKasseye, Moussa Seybou
Min. rudnika i energijeIbrahim, Tampone
Min. privatizacije i restrukturiranja preduzećaFatima, Trapsida
Min. javnih radovaMireille, Ausseil
Min. ruralnog razvojaBoukary, Wassalke
Min. srednjeg obrazovanjaSalissou, Sala Habi
Min. razvoja malih preduzećaBonto, Souley Hassane rođ
Min. društvenog razvojaFoumakoye, Nana Aichatou
Min. sporta i kultureLamine, Issa
Min. turizmaBoula, Rhissa Ag
Min. transporta i komunikacijaMahamane, Mamane Sani Malam
Min. mladihBonto, Hassane Souley
Ambasador u SAD -uDiatta, Joseph
Stalni predstavnik pri UN -u, New YorkMoutari, Ousmane


Vlada Nigera, historija, stanovništvo i geografija

Okoliš i#151 tekući problemi: prekomerna ispaša tla erozija krčenje šuma dezertifikacija populacija divljih životinja (kao što su slon, nilski konj, žirafa i lav) ugrožena krivolovom i uništavanjem staništa

Okoliš — međunarodni ugovori:
zabava na: Biodiverzitet, Klimatske promjene, Dezertifikacija, ugrožene vrste, Modifikacija okoliša, Zabrana nuklearnih ispitivanja, Zaštita ozonskog omotača, Močvare
potpisao, ali nije ratifikovao: Zakon mora

Geografija —nota: nema izlaz na more

Stanovništvo: 9,671.848 (procjena jula 1998.)

Starosna struktura:
0-14 godina: 48% (muškarci 2.374.482 žene 2.277.176)
15-64 godine: 50% (muškarci 2,345,773 žene 2,447,951)
65 godina i više: 2% (muškarci 119.644 žene 106.822) (procjena jula 1998.)

Stopa rasta stanovništva: 2,96% (procjena 1998)

Natalitet: 53,01 rođenja/1.000 stanovnika (procjena 1998)

Smrtnost: 23,38 smrti/1.000 stanovnika (procjena 1998)

Neto stopa migracije: 0 migranata/1.000 stanovnika (procjena 1998)

Odnos polova:
pri rođenju: 1,03 muško/žensko
ispod 15 godina: 1,04 muško/žensko
15-64 godine: 0,95 muško/žensko
65 godina i više: 1.12 muško/žensko (procjena 1998)

Stopa smrtnosti dojenčadi: 114,39 umrlih/1000 živorođenih (procjena 1998)

Očekivano trajanje života pri rođenju:
ukupno stanovništvo: 41,52 godina
muški: 41,83 godina
žensko: 41,21 godina (procjena 1998)

Ukupna stopa fertiliteta: 7,3 rođene žene/žena (procjena 1998)

Nacionalnost:
imenica: Nigerijac
pridev: Nigerija

Etničke grupe: Hausa 56%, Đerma 22%, Fula 8,5%, Tuareg 8%, Beri Beri (Kanouri) 4,3%, Arapi, Toubou i Gourmantche 1,2%, oko 1.200 francuskih iseljenika

Religije: 80%muslimana, preostala autohtona vjerovanja i kršćani

Jezici: Francuski (službeni), hausa, đerma

Pismenost:
definicija: 15 i više godina znaju čitati i pisati
ukupno stanovništvo: 13.6%
muški: 20.9%
žensko: 6,6% (procjena 1995.)

Naziv zemlje:
konvencionalni dugi oblik: Republika Niger
konvencionalni kratki oblik: Niger
lokalni dugi oblik: Republique du Niger
lokalni kratki oblik: Niger

Vrsta vlade: republika

Nacionalni kapital: Niamey

Administrativne podjele: 7 odjela (odjeli, jedinstven odjel i odjel#151) i 1 glavni okrug* (glavni grad) Agadez, Diffa, Dosso, Maradi, Niamey*, Tahoua, Tillaberi, Zinder

Nezavisnost: 3. avgusta 1960. (iz Francuske)

Državni praznik: Dan republike, 18. decembra (1958.)

Ustav: Ustav iz januara 1993. revidiran je na nacionalnom referendumu 12. maja 1996. godine

Legalni sistem: zasnovan na francuskom sistemu građanskog prava i običajnom pravu nije prihvatio obaveznu nadležnost Međunarodnog suda pravde

Pravo glasa: 18 godina univerzalno

Izvršna vlast:
šef države: Predsjednik Ibrahim BARE Mainassara (od 28. januara 1996.) bilješka — predsjednik je i šef države i šef vlade
šef vlade: Predsjednik Ibrahim BARE Mainassara (od 28. januara 1996.) Premijer Ibrahim MAYAKI (od 27. novembra 1997.) imenovan je predsjedničkom notom - predsjednik je i šef države i šef vlade
ormar: Vijeće ministara imenovao predsjednik BARE
izbori: predsjednik se bira narodnim glasanjem na petogodišnji mandat na zadnjim izborima od 7. do 8. jula 1996. (sljedeći izbori NA 2001) nota —Ibrahim BARE Mainassara je u početku postao predsjednik kada je 27. januara 1996. svrgnuo predsjednika Mahamane OUSMANE-a, a zatim je poražen na pogrešnim izborima u julu 1996
izborni rezultati: posto ukupnog broja glasova —Ibrahim BARE Mainassara 52,22%, Mahamane OUSMANE 19,75%, Tandja MAMADOU 15,65%, Mahamadou ISSOUFOU 7,60%, Moumouni AMADOU Djermakoye 4,77%

Zakonodavna vlast: dva doma Narodna skupština jedan dom sa 83 mandata koji se direktno biraju po proporcionalnoj zastupljenosti za petogodišnji mandat Proces izbora za drugi dom nije uspostavljen
izbori: zadnji put održano 23. novembra 1996. (sljedeće će biti održano NA 2001)
izborni rezultati: posto glasova po stranci i#151NA mjesta po stranci —UNIRD 59, ANDPS-Zaman Lahiya 8, UDPS-Amana 3, koalicija nezavisnih 3, MDP-Alkwali 1, UPDP-Shamuwa 4, DARAJA 3, PMT-Albarka 2

Sudska vlast: Državni sud ili Cour d'Etat Apelacioni sud ili Cour d'Appel

Političke stranke i lideri: Savez za demokratiju i napredak ili ADP-AUMUNCI [Issoufou BACHARD, predsjedavajući] DARAJA [Ali TALBA, predsjedavajući] Demokratska i društvena konvencija-Rahama ili CDS-Rahama [Mahamane OUSMANE] Pokret za razvoj i pan-afrikanizam ili MDP-Alkwali [Mai Manga BOUCAR, predsjedavajući] Nacionalni pokret Društva za razvoj-Nassara ili MNSD-Nassara [Tandja MAMADOU, predsjedavajući] Nacionalna unija nezavisnih za preporod demokrata ili UNIRD [vođa NA] Napredna stranka u Africi-Afrički demokratski skup ili PPN-RDA [Dori ABDOULAI] Nigerska socijaldemokratska stranka ili PADN [Malam Adji WAZIRI] Nigerijska stranka za demokratiju i socijalizam-Tarayya ili PNDS-Tarayya [Mahamadou ISSOUFOU] Nigerijska alijansa za demokratiju i društveni napredak-Zaman Lahia ili ANDPS-Zaman Lahia [Moumouni Adamou DJERMAK] Savez za demokratiju i društveni napredak-Amana ili UDPS-Amana [Akoli DAOUEL] Savez patriota, demokrata i naprednjaka-Shamuwa ili UPDP-Shamuwa [profesor Andre 'SALIFOU, predsjednik] Unija narodnih snaga za De demokratija i napredak-Sawaba ili UFPDP-Sawaba [Djibo BAKARY, predsjedavajući]

Učešće međunarodnih organizacija: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, Antanta, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, MMF, Intelsat, Interpol, MOK, ITU, MIPONUH, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WAEMU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatsko predstavništvo u SAD -u:
šef misije: Ambasador Joseph DIATTA
kancelarija: 2204 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telefon: [1] (202) 483-4224 do 4227

Diplomatsko predstavništvo iz SAD -a:
šef misije: Ambasador Charles O. CECIL
ambasada: Rue Des Ambassades, Niamey
poštanska adresa: B. P. 11201, Niamey
telefon: [227] 72 26 61 do 72 26 64
FAX: [227] 73 31 67

Opis zastave: tri jednake vodoravne trake narančaste (gore), bijele i zelene s malim narančastim diskom (koji predstavlja sunce) u sredini bijele trake, slične zastavi Indije, koja ima plavi kotačić sa žbicama centriran u bijeloj traci

Ekonomija i pregled#151: Niger je siromašna podsaharska nacija koja nema izlaza na more, čija se ekonomija usredotočuje na vlastitu poljoprivredu, stočarstvo, reeksportnu trgovinu, a sve manje na uran, čiji je glavni izvoz od 1970-ih. Uvjeti trgovine s Nigerijom, najvećim regionalnim trgovinskim partnerom u Nigeru, dramatično su se poboljšali od 50% devalvacije zapadnoafričkog franaka u januaru 1994. Ova devalvacija je povećala izvoz stoke, kravljeg graška, luka i proizvoda male nigerske industrije pamuka. Vlada se oslanja na bilateralnu i multilateralnu pomoć za operativne troškove i javna ulaganja i snažno je nagnana da se pridržava programa strukturnog prilagođavanja koje su osmislili MMF i Svjetska banka. SAD su prekinule bilateralnu pomoć Nigeru nakon puča 1996. Drugi donatori su smanjili svoju pomoć.

BDP: paritet kupovne moći — 6,3 milijardi USD (procjena 1997.)

Realna stopa rasta BDP -a:#151: 4,5% (procjena 1997)

BDP — po glavi stanovnika: paritet kupovne moći — 670 USD (procjena 1997.)

BDP —kompozicija po sektorima:
poljoprivreda: 41%
industrija: 18%
usluge: 41% (1996)

Stopa inflacije i indeks potrošačkih cijena#151: 5.3% (1996)

Radne snage:
ukupno: 70.000 prima redovne plate ili dnevnice
po zanimanju: poljoprivreda 90%, industrija i trgovina 6%, vlada 4%

Stopa nezaposlenosti: N / A%

Budžet:
prihodi: 370 miliona dolara (uključujući 160 miliona dolara iz stranih izvora)
rashodi: 370 miliona dolara, uključujući kapitalne izdatke od 186 miliona dolara (procjena 1998)

Industrije: cement, cigla, tekstil, prerada hrane, kemikalije, klanice i nekoliko drugih malih industrija lake rudarstva urana

Stopa rasta industrijske proizvodnje: 0,5% (procjena 1994)

Kapacitet električne energije i#151: 63.000 kW (1995)

Električna energija i proizvodnja#151: 170 miliona kWh (1995)
Bilješka: uvozi oko 200 miliona kWh električne energije iz Nigerije

Potrošnja električne energije i#151 po glavi stanovnika: 40 kWh (1995)

Poljoprivreda i proizvodi#151: kravlji grašak, pamuk, kikiriki, proso, sirk, manioka (tapioka), goveda od riže, ovce, koze, deve, magarci, konji, perad

Izvoz:
ukupna vrijednost: 188 miliona dolara (f.o.b., 1996)
roba: ruda urana 67%, stočni proizvodi 20%, kravlji grašak, luk
partneri: Francuska 41%, Nigerija 22%, Burkina Faso, Obala Bjelokosti, Japan 18%

Uvoz:
ukupna vrijednost: 374 miliona dolara (c.i.f., 1996)
roba: roba široke potrošnje, primarni materijali, mašine, vozila i dijelovi, nafta, žitarice
partneri: Francuska 24%, Nigerija 19%, Obala Slonovače, Kina, Belgija-Luksemburg

Dug —eksterni: 1,3 milijarde dolara (procjena 1996.)

Ekonomska pomoć:
primalac: Bilateralni donatori ODA -e: Francuska, Njemačka, EU, Japan

Valuta: 1 Communaute Financiere Afrički franak (CFAF) = 100 centima

Kursna lista: CFA franci (CFAF) po 1 USD 𥀸,36 (januar 1998), 583,67 (1997), 511,55 (1996), 499,15 (1995), 555,20 (1994), 283,16 (1993)
Bilješka: počevši od 12. januara 1994., CFA franak je devalviran na 100 CFAF po francuskom franku sa 50 CFAF na koliko je bio utvrđen od 1948.

Fiskalna godina: kalendarska godina

Telefoni: 14.000 (procjena 1991.)

Telefonski sistem: mali sistem žičanih, radiotelefonskih komunikacija i mikrotalasnih radio relejnih veza koncentrisan u jugozapadnom području
domaći: žičane, radiotelefonske komunikacije i mikrotalasni radio relejni domaći satelitski sistem sa 3 zemaljske stanice i 1 planiranom
međunarodni: satelitske zemaljske stanice i#1512 Intelsat (1 Atlantski ocean i 1 Indijski ocean)

Radio stanice: AM 15, FM 6, kratki talas 0

Radio aparati: 500.000 (procjena 1992.)

Televizijske stanice: 18 stanica u jednoj mreži (1995)

Televizori: 38.000 (procjena 1992.)

Autoputevi:
ukupno: 10.100 km
asfaltirano: 798 km
neasfaltirano: 9.302 km (procjena 1996.)

Plovni putevi: Rijeka Niger je plovna 300 km od Niameya do Gaye na Beninskoj granici od sredine decembra do marta

Luke i luke: nijedan

Aerodromi: 27 (procjena 1997.)

Aerodromi#151 sa popločanim pistama:
ukupno: 9
2.438 do 3.047 m: 2
1.524 do 2.437 m: 6
914 do 1.523 m: 1 (procjena 1997.)

Aerodromi — sa neasfaltiranim pistama:
ukupno: 18
1.524 do 2.437 m: 1
914 do 1.523 m: 14
ispod 914 m: 3 (procjena 1997.)

Vojne grane: Vojska, vazduhoplovstvo, Nacionalna žandarmerija, Republikanska garda, Nacionalna policija

Vojno ljudstvo i starosna dob#151: 18 godina starosti

Vojno ljudstvo i raspoloživost#151:
muškarci od 15 do 49 godina: 2,049,296 (procjena iz 1998)

Vojno ljudstvo i vojna služba#151:
mužjaci: 1.105.821 (procjena 1998)

Vojno ljudstvo i#151 godišnje dosegnu vojno doba:
mužjaci: 98.946 (procjena 1998)

Vojni izdaci i broj dolara u dolarima: 23 miliona dolara (97/98 FG)

Vojni izdaci i#151 posto BDP -a: 1,3% (FY92/93)

Međunarodni sporovi: Libija tvrdi da oko 19.400 kvadratnih kilometara u sjevernom Nigeru razgraničava međunarodne granice u blizini jezera Čad, čiji je nedostatak u prošlosti doveo do graničnih incidenata, dovršena je i čeka ratifikaciju od Kameruna, Čada, Nigra i Nigerije


Niger je podijeljen na 7 regija i jedan glavni okrug. Ove regije su podijeljene na 36 odjela. 36 odjela trenutno je podijeljeno na općine različitih tipova. Od 2006. bilo je 265 komuna, uključujući komune urbaines (urbane komune: kao podjele većih gradova), rurales communes (ruralne komune), u rijetko naseljenim područjima i administrativne položaje (administrativna mjesta) za uglavnom nenaseljena pustinjska područja ili vojne zone.

Ruralne komune mogu sadržavati službena sela i naselja, dok su gradske komune podijeljene po četvrtima. Podružnice u Nigeru preimenovane su 2002. godine, u implementaciji projekta decentralizacije, koji je prvi put počeo 1998. Ranije je Niger bio podijeljen na 7 odjela, 36 okruga i komune. Ovim odjeljenjima upravljali su službenici koje je imenovala nacionalna vlada. Ove će funkcije u budućnosti zamijeniti demokratski izabrana vijeća na svakom nivou.


Kratka istorija Nigera - 1. dio američkog Stejt departmenta

Znatni dokazi ukazuju na to da su ljudi prije otprilike 600.000 godina nastanjivali ono što je od tada postalo pusta Sahara sjevernog Nigra. Mnogo prije dolaska francuskog utjecaja i kontrole na tom području, Niger je bio važno ekonomsko raskršće, a carstva Songhai, Mali, Gao, Kanem i Bornu, kao i brojne države Hausa, preuzele su kontrolu nad dijelovima području.

Afričke države i carstva:

Tokom posljednjih stoljeća, nomadski Tuarezi formirali su velike konfederacije, gurnuli se prema jugu i, pristajući uz različite države Hausa, sukobili se s Fulani Carstvom Sokoto, koje je steklo kontrolu nad većim dijelom teritorija Hausa krajem 18. stoljeća.

Evropljani stižu:

U 19. stoljeću kontakti sa Zapadom započeli su kada su prvi evropski istraživači - prije svega Mungo Park (britanski) i Heinrich Barth (njemački) - istraživali područje tražeći ušće rijeke Niger. Iako su francuski napori u smirivanju počeli prije 1900. godine, disidentske etničke grupe, posebno pustinjski Tuareg, nisu bile pokorene sve do 1922. godine, kada je Niger postao francuska kolonija.

Razvoj kao francuska kolonija:

Kolonijalna historija i razvoj Nigera paralelni su s drugim francuskim zapadnoafričkim teritorijima. Francuska je upravljala svojim zapadnoafričkim kolonijama preko generalnog guvernera u Dakaru, Senegalu i guvernera na pojedinim teritorijima, uključujući Niger. Osim što je stanovnicima ovih teritorija dodijelilo francusko državljanstvo, francuski ustav iz 1946. predviđao je decentralizaciju vlasti i ograničeno učešće u političkom životu za lokalne savjetodavne skupštine.

Niger postigao nezavisnost:

Daljnja revizija organizacije prekomorskih teritorija dogodila se usvajanjem Zakona o prekomorskim reformama (Loi Cadre) od 23. jula 1956. godine, nakon čega su uslijedile reorganizacijske mjere koje je donio francuski parlament početkom 1957. Osim uklanjanja nejednakosti u glasanju, ovi zakoni su predviđali za stvaranje državnih organa, osiguravajući pojedinim teritorijama veliku mjeru samouprave. Nakon uspostave Pete Francuske Republike 4. decembra 1958. godine, Niger je postao autonomna država u sastavu Francuske zajednice. Nakon potpune nezavisnosti 3. avgusta 1960., članstvo je dozvoljeno da prestane.

Pravilo jedne stranke:

Prvih 14 godina kao nezavisna država Nigrom je upravljao jednopartijski civilni režim pod predsjedanjem Hamani Diorija, Parti Progressiste Nigérien (PPN, Progresivna stranka Niger). 1974. godine, kombinacija razorne suše i optužbi za rasprostranjenu korupciju rezultirala je vojnim udarom koji je srušio Diorijev režim. Potpukovnik Seyni Kountché i mala grupa vojske vladali su zemljom do Kountchéove smrti 1987.

Vojna vlada:

Naslijedio ga je načelnik štaba brigadni general. Ali Saibou, koji je oslobodio političke zatvorenike, liberalizirao je neke nigerske zakone i politiku i proglasio novi ustav. Međutim, napori predsjednika Saiboua da kontrolira političke reforme propali su usprkos sindikalnim i studentskim zahtjevima za uspostavljanjem višestranačkog demokratskog sistema. Saibouov režim pristao je na ove zahtjeve do kraja 1990.

Priprema puta za demokratiju:

Pojavile su se nove političke stranke i udruženja građana, a u julu 1991. sazvana je nacionalna konferencija kako bi se pripremili put za donošenje novog ustava i održavanje slobodnih i poštenih izbora. Debata je često bila sporna i optužujuća, ali pod vodstvom prof. Andre Salifoua, konferencija je razvila konsenzus o modalitetima tranzicijske vlade.

Tranzicijska vlada:

Tranzicijska vlada postavljena je u studenom 1991. godine za upravljanje državnim poslovima sve dok institucije Treće republike nisu uspostavljene u travnju 1993. Iako se ekonomija pogoršala tijekom tranzicije, ističu se određena postignuća, uključujući uspješno vođenje državnih poslova. ustavni referendum o usvajanju ključnih zakona, kao što su izborni i ruralni kodeksi, te održavanju nekoliko slobodnih, poštenih i nenasilnih nacionalnih izbora. Sloboda štampe procvjetala je pojavom nekoliko novih nezavisnih novina.

Vojni udar još jednom:

16. aprila 1993. Mahamane Ousmane izabrana je za predsjednika, vođu Konvencije Demokratske i društvene zajednice (CDS, Demokratska i socijalna konvencija). Suparništvo unutar vladajuće koalicije dovelo je do paralize vlade, što je pukovniku Ibrahimu Baréu Maïnassari pružilo obrazloženje za svrgavanje Treće republike i njenog predsjednika Mahamane Ousmane u januaru 1996. Dok je vodio vojno tijelo koje je vodilo vladu (Conseil de Salut National) tokom šestomjesečnog prijelaznog perioda, predsjedavajući Baré pozvao je stručnjake za izradu novog ustava za Četvrtu republiku objavljenu u maju 1996.


Sudska vlast

Najviša pravosudna institucija u Nigeriji je Vrhovni sud u Nigeru. Pruža publici žalbe iz nižih sudova i odlučuje samo o primjeni zakona pored ustavnih pitanja. Svaka od osam nacionalnih regija ima apelacioni sud koji odlučuje o činjeničnim i pravnim pitanjima. Izborna i ustavna pitanja slušaju se pred Ustavnim sudom u Nigeru. U ovom sudu sjedi sedam članova, a njime upravlja predsjednik kojeg imenuju članovi. Viši sud pravde (HCJ) sudi državnim službenicima optuženim za izvršenje zločina tokom vršenja svog mandata. Sud državne sigurnosti vodi vojne poslove. Mreža nigerijskih krivičnih i građanskih sudova služi građanima Nigerije. U Nigeru postoje običajni sudovi koji posreduju u društvenim pitanjima, uključujući sporove u zajednici, zemlju i brak.


Odjeli Niger

Regije Niger podijeljene su na 63 departmana (francuski: départements). Prije programa decentralizacije 1999-2005, ova su odjela nazvana arondismanima. Zbunjujuće je da je sljedeći nivo više (regioni), prije 2002-2005. Godine, nazvan odjelima. Prije revizije 2011. godine postojalo je 36 odjela. Nacrt zakona u avgustu 2011. proširio bi taj broj na 63 [1] [2] [3] [4] Do 2010. godine, okruzi su ostali predložena podjela odjeljenja, iako nijedna nije korištena. Proces decentralizacije, započet u periodu 1995.-1999., Zamijenio je imenovane župane na nivou odjela/okruga sa izabranim vijećima, prvi put izabranima 1999. To su bili prvi lokalni izbori održani u istoriji Nigera. Zvaničnici izabrani na nivou komuna zatim se biraju za predstavnike u vijećima i administracijama vijeća, na regionalnom i nacionalnom nivou. Ministarstvo za decentralizaciju osnovano je kako bi nadgledalo ovaj zadatak i formiralo nacionalno savjetodavno vijeće lokalnih zvaničnika.

Dana 1. avgusta 2011. godine, Narodna skupština Nigera odobrila je nacrt zakona kojim bi se broj odjeljenja dramatično proširio na 63. Zakon će stvoriti 27 novih odjeljenja u čijem će središtu biti bivši imenovani pododsjeci Postes Administratifs. [1]

27 novih glavnih gradova departmana bit će: Aderbissanat, Iférouane, Ingall, Bosso, Goudoumaria, N'Gourti, Dioundiou, Falmèye, Tibiri, Bermo, Gazaoua, Bagaroua, Tassara, Tillia, Abala, Ayérou, Ballayara, Bankilaré, Gonibang, Gonibari, Torodi, Belbédji, Damagaram Takaya, Dungass, Takiéta, Tesker. [1]

63 odjela su podijeljena na komune. Od 2006. godine postojalo je 265 komuna, uključujući komune urbaines (urbane komune: sa centrom u ili kao podjele gradova sa više od 10000), rurales communes (ruralne komune) sa centrom u gradovima sa manje od 10.000 i/ili rijetko naseljenim područjima, i raznim tradicionalna (rodovska ili plemenska) tijela među polunomadskom populacijom. Bivši postes administratifs (administrativna mjesta) za uglavnom nenaseljena pustinjska područja ili vojne zone uključeni su kao potpuni odjeli s granicama koje treba utvrditi.


Niger teži stabilnosti i demokratiji

David Zounmenou sa Instituta za sigurnosne studije u Senegalu kaže da je uspostava političke stabilnosti i demokracije ključna za Niger.

"Mohamed Bazoum mora započeti dijalog sa svojim izazivačem, dijalog prema poboljšanjima koja su potrebna zemlji", rekao je za DW. "Niger mora naporno raditi na konsolidaciji demokratskog okruženja s obzirom na činjenicu da je zemlja uvučena u sigurnosne izazove. Vlada mora razviti koherentan odgovor na sigurnosne izazove koji pogađaju građane, a također i podrivaju ekonomski razvoj Nigra."

No, za mnoge promatrače još uvijek postoji osjećaj olakšanja nakon prvog mirnog i demokratskog prijenosa vlasti u povijesti Nigra. Bazoumov prethodnik i saveznik, Mahamadou Issoufou, odstupio je nakon 10 godina na vlasti i dobio je Ibrahimovu nagradu za postignuća u afričkom vođstvu. Njegovom vlastitom izboru na dužnost prethodio je vojni udar 2011.

Odlazeći predsjednik Nigera Mahamadou Issoufou dobio je Ibrahimovu nagradu nakon poštovanja ustava koji ga je ograničio na dva mandata


Sadržaj

Ime zemlje potječe od rijeke Niger koja protiče zapadno od zemlje, a porijeklo imena rijeke je neizvjesno, iako je popularna teorija da potječe iz Tuarega n'eghirren, što znači „tekuća voda“. [20] Najčešći izgovor je francuski od / n iː ˈ ʒ ɛər /, iako se u anglofonskim medijima / ˈ n aɪ dʒ ər / također povremeno koristi.

Praistorija

Ljudi su milenijumima naseljavali teritorij modernog Nigra, kameni alati, neki datiraju čak 280.000 godina prije nove ere, pronađeni su u Adrar Bousu, Bilmi i Đadu u sjevernoj regiji Agadez. [21] Neki od ovih nalaza povezani su s aterijskim i musterijskim kulturama alata iz perioda srednjeg paleolita, koji su procvjetali u sjevernoj Africi oko 90.000 godina prije Krista do 20.000 godina prije Krista. [22] [21] Smatra se da su ti rani ljudi vodili način života lovaca i sakupljača. [21] U prapovijesno doba klima u pustinji Sahara bila je mnogo vlažnija i plodnija nego danas, fenomen koji arheolozi nazivaju 'Zelena Sahara', koji je pružao povoljne uvjete za lov, a kasnije i poljoprivredu i stočarstvo. [23] [24]

Neolitsko doba započelo je oko 10.000 godina prije nove ere. U tom razdoblju došlo je do brojnih važnih promjena, poput uvođenja keramike (o čemu svjedoče Tagalagal, Temet i Tin Ouffadene), širenja stočarstva i pokopavanja mrtvih u kamenim tumulima. [21] Kako se klima mijenjala u periodu 4000–2800 godina prije Krista, Sahara se postupno počela sušiti, prisiljavajući promjenu u obrascima naseljavanja na jugu i istoku. [25] Poljoprivreda je postala široko rasprostranjena, posebno sadnja prosa i sirka, kao i proizvodnja grnčarije. [21] Željezo i bakreni predmeti prvi put se pojavljuju u ovoj eri, s ranim nalazima, uključujući one u Azawaghu, Takeddi, Marendetu i masivu Termit. [26] [27] [28] Kifske (oko 8000–6000 pne) i kasnije tenerijske (oko 5000–2500 pne) kulture, sa centrom na Adrar Bous -u i Goberu, gdje su otkriveni brojni kosturi, procvjetali su u tom periodu. [29] [30] [31] [32] [33]

Krajem ovog razdoblja, sve do prvih stoljeća naše ere, društva su nastavila rasti i postajati sve složenija, s regionalnom diferencijacijom u poljoprivrednoj i pogrebnoj praksi. Značajna kultura ovog kasnog razdoblja je kultura Bura (oko 200-1300. Godine), nazvana po arheološkom nalazištu Bura. gdje je otkrivena grobnica prepuna gvozdenih i keramičkih kipića. [34] U doba neolita došlo je i do procvata saharske umjetnosti, posebno u planinama Aïr, masivu Termit, visoravni Đado, Iwelene, Arakao, Tamakon, Tzerzait, Iferouane, Mammanet i Dabous, a umjetnost se proteže od 10.000 godina prije Krista do 100AD i prikazuje niz tema, od raznovrsne faune pejzaža do prikaza figura koje nose koplja nazvane „libijski ratnici“. [35] [36] [37]

Carstva i kraljevstva u predkolonijalnom Nigeru

Naše znanje o ranoj istoriji Nigerije ograničeno je nedostatkom pisanih izvora, iako je poznato da je barem u 5. stoljeću prije nove ere teritorij modernog Nigra postao područje transsaharske trgovine. Predvođene plemenima Tuarega sa sjevera, deve su bile dobro prilagođeno prijevozno sredstvo kroz ono što je sada bila ogromna pustinja. [38] [39] Ova mobilnost, koja će se nastaviti u talasima nekoliko stoljeća, bila je popraćena daljnjom migracijom na jug i miješanjem između podsaharskog i sjevernoafričkog stanovništva, kao i postepenim širenjem islama. [40] Tome je pomogla i arapska invazija na sjevernu Afriku krajem 7. stoljeća, što je rezultiralo selidbom stanovništva na jug. [25] Nekoliko carstava i kraljevstava cvjetalo je u Sahelu tokom ove ere. Njihova se povijest ne uklapa lako u moderne granice Nigera, koje su nastale u razdoblju europskog kolonijalizma, a zatim slijedi približno hronološki prikaz glavnih carstava.

Mali Imperij (1200 -te -1400 -te)

Mali Carstvo bilo je Mandinka carstvo koje je osnovao Sundiata Keita (r. 1230–1255) oko 1230. i postojalo je do 1600. Kako je detaljno opisano u Ep o Sundiati, Mali se pojavio kao otcijepljeno područje Soso carstva, koje se i samo odvojilo od ranijeg Ganskog carstva. Nakon toga Mali je pobijedio Sosso u bitci kod Kirine 1235., a zatim Ganu 1240. [41] [42] [43] Iz svog središta oko današnje granične regije Gvineja-Mali, carstvo se znatno proširilo pod uzastopnim kraljevima i došlo do dominacije. prekosaharski trgovački putevi, koji su dosegli najveći obim za vrijeme vladavine Mansa Muse (r. 1312–1337). [42] U ovom trenutku dijelovi današnje regije Tillabéri u Nigeru pali su pod malijsku vlast. [41] Musliman, Mansa Musa izveo je hadž 1324–25 i poticao širenje islama u carstvu, iako se čini da je većina običnih građana nastavila održavati svoja tradicionalna animistička uvjerenja umjesto ili uz novu vjeru. [41] [44] Carstvo je počelo propadati u 15. stoljeću zbog kombinacije međusobnih sukoba oko kraljevskog nasljedstva, slabih kraljeva, pomicanja evropskih trgovačkih puteva prema obali i pobuna na periferiji carstva od strane Mossija, Wolofa, Tuarezi i Songhai narodi. [44] Međutim, kraljevstvo Mali nastavilo je postojati do kraja 1600 -ih. [42]

Songhai carstvo (1000. – 1591.)

Songhai carstvo je dobilo ime po svojoj glavnoj etničkoj grupi, Songhai ili Sonrai, i bilo je usred zavoja rijeke Niger u modernom Maliju. Songhai je počeo naseljavati ovu regiju od 7. do 9. stoljeća [45] do početka 11. stoljeća Gao (glavni grad bivšeg kraljevstva Gao) postao je glavni grad carstva. [45] [46] [47] Od 1000. do 1325. godine, Songhai carstvo je napredovalo i uspjelo je održati mir sa Malijskim carstvom, njegovim moćnim susjedom na zapadu. Godine 1325. Songhai je osvojio Mali sve dok nije ponovo stekao neovisnost 1375. [45] Pod kraljem Sonni Alijem (r. 1464–1492) Songhai je usvojio ekspanzionističku politiku koja je dosegla svoj vrhunac za vrijeme vladavine Askia Mohammada I (r. 1493–1528 ) u ovom trenutku carstvo se značajno proširilo iz središta Niger-ove zavoje, uključujući istok gdje je veći dio modernog zapadnog Nigra pao pod njegovu vlast, uključujući Agadez, koji je osvojen 1496. [21] [48] [49] Međutim carstvo nije moglo izdržati ponovljene napade marokanske dinastije Saadi i bilo je odlučno poraženo u bitci kod Tondibija 1591. godine, a carstvo se tada raspalo u nekoliko manjih kraljevstava. [45] [47]

Airski sultanat (1400 -te – 1906)

U c. 1449. na sjeveru današnjeg Nigera, sultan Air osnovao je sultan Ilisawan sa sjedištem u Agadezu. [21] Nekada malo trgovačko mjesto nastanjeno mješavinom Hausa i Tuarega, sultanat se obogatio zbog svog strateškog položaja na prekosaharskim trgovačkim putevima. Godine 1515. Song je osvojio Aïr, koji je ostao dio tog carstva do njegovog raspada 1591. [21] [40] Sljedeći su vijekovi donekle zbunjujuću sliku, iako se čini da je sultanat ušao u pad obilježen međusobnim ratovima i klanom sukobi. [40] Kad su Europljani počeli istraživati ​​regiju u 19. stoljeću veliki dio Agadeza ležao je u ruševinama, a Francuzi su ga preuzeli, iako s teškoćamavidi dolje). [21] [40]

Carstvo Kanem-Bornu (700-ih-1700-ih)

Na istoku, Carstvo Kanem-Bornu dominiralo je regijom oko jezera Čad veći dio ovog perioda. [47] Osnovali su ga Zaghawa oko 8. stoljeća sa sjedištem u Njimiju, sjeveroistočno od jezera. Kraljevstvo se postupno širilo, posebno za vrijeme vladavine dinastije Sayfawa koja je započela u c. 1075 under Mai (kralj) Hummay. [50] [51] Kraljevstvo je doseglo najveći obim u 1200 -im godinama, uglavnom zahvaljujući naporima Mai Dunama Dibbalemi (r. 1210–1259), i obogatio se pod kontrolom mnogih transsaharskih trgovačkih puteva, veći dio istočnog i jugoistočnog Nigra, posebno Bilma i Kaouar, bio je u tom periodu pod Kanemovom kontrolom. [52] Islam su u kraljevstvo uveli arapski trgovci od 11. stoljeća, postepeno stječući sve više obraćenika u narednim stoljećima. [50] Napadi naroda Bulala u kasnom 14. stoljeću natjerali su Kanema da se pomakne zapadno od jezera Čad, gdje je postalo poznato kao Carstvo Bornu, kojim je vladao glavni grad Ngazargamu na današnjoj granici između Nigerije i Nigerije. [53] [50] [54] Bornu je napredovao tokom vladavine Mai Idris Alooma (r. Oko 1575–1610) i ponovno osvojio veliki dio tradicionalnih zemalja Kanema, otuda i naziv „Kanem-Bornu“ za carstvo. Krajem 17. i 18. stoljeća kraljevstvo Bornu ušlo je u dugo razdoblje opadanja, postepeno se smanjivši natrag u središte jezera Čad, iako je ostalo važan igrač u regiji. [47] [50]

Oko 1730–40, grupa doseljenika iz Kanurija predvođena Mallamom Yunusom napustila je Kanem i osnovala sultanat Damagaram, sa središtem u gradu Zinder. [40] Sultanat je nominalno ostao podložan Carstvu Borno sve do vladavine sultana Tanimounea Dana Souleymana sredinom do kraja 19. stoljeća, koji je proglasio neovisnost i započeo fazu snažne ekspanzije. [21] Sultanat se uspio oduprijeti napredovanju kalifata Sokoto (vidi dolje), ali su ih kasnije zauzeli Francuzi 1899. [21]

Države Hausa i druga manja kraljevstva (1400-1800 -ih)

Između rijeke Niger i jezera Čad nalazila su se različita kraljevstva Hausa kraljevstava, obuhvatajući kulturno-jezičko područje poznato kao Hausaland koje se proteže preko moderne granice između Nigerije i Nigerije. [55] The origins of the Hausa are obscure, though they are thought to be a mixture of autochthonous peoples and migrant peoples from the north and/or east, emerging as a distinct people sometime in the 900s–1400s when the kingdoms were founded. [55] [21] [56] They gradually adopted Islam from the 14th century, though often this existed alongside traditional religions, developing into unique syncretic forms some Hausa groups, such as the Azna, resisted Islam altogether (the area of Dogondoutchi remains an animist stronghold to this day). [21] [47] The Hausa kingdoms were not a compact entity but several federations of kingdoms more or less independent of one other. Their organisation was hierarchical though also somewhat democratic: the Hausa kings were elected by the notables of the country and could be removed by them. [46] The Hausa Kingdoms began as seven states founded, according to the Bayajidda legend, by the six sons of Bawo. [55] [47] Bawo was the only son of the Hausa queen Daurama and Bayajidda or (Abu Yazid according to certain Nigerien historians) who came from Baghdad. The seven original Hausa states (often referred to as the 'Hausa bakwai') were: Daura (state of queen Daurama), Kano, Rano, Zaria, Gobir, Katsina and Biram. [46] [21] [56] An extension of the legend states that Bawo had a further seven sons with a concubine, who went on to the found the so-called 'Banza (illegitimate) Bakwai': Zamfara, Kebbi, Nupe, Gwari, Yauri, Ilorin and Kwararafa. [56] A smaller state not fitting into this scheme was Konni, centred on Birni-N'Konni. [40]

The Fulani (also called Peul, Fulbe etc.), a pastoral people found throughout the Sahel, began migrating to Hausaland during the 1200s–1500s. [47] [55] During the later 18th century many Fulani were unhappy with the syncretic form of Islam practised there exploiting also the populace's disdain with corruption amongst the Hausa elite, the Fulani scholar Usman Dan Fodio (from Gobir) declared a jihad in 1804. [40] [21] [57] After conquering most of Hausaland (though not the Bornu Kingdom, which remained independent) he proclaimed the Sokoto Caliphate in 1809. [55] Some of the Hausa states survived by fleeing south, such as the Katsina who moved to Maradi in the south of modern Niger. [47] Many of these surviving states harassed the Caliphate and a long period of small-scale wars and skirmishes commenced, with some states (such as Katsina and Gobir) maintaining independence, whereas elsewhere new ones were formed (such as the Sultanate of Tessaoua). The Caliphate managed to survive until, fatally weakened by the invasions of Chad-based warlord Rabih az-Zubayr, it finally fell to the British in 1903, with its lands later being partitioned between Britain and France. [58]

Other smaller kingdoms of the period include the Dosso Kingdom, a Zarma polity founded in 1750 which resisted the rule of Hausa and Sokoto states. [40]

French Niger (1900–58)

In the 19th century Europeans began to take a greater interest in Africa several European explorers travelled in the area of modern Niger, such as Mungo Park (in 1805–06), the Oudney-Denham-Clapperton expedition (1822–25), Heinrich Barth (1850–55 with James Richardson and Adolf Overweg), Friedrich Gerhard Rohlfs (1865–67), Gustav Nachtigal (1869–74) and Parfait-Louis Monteil (1890–92). [21]

Several European countries already possessed littoral colonies in Africa, and in the latter half of the century they began to turn their eyes towards the interior of the continent. This process, known as the 'Scramble for Africa', culminated in the 1885 Berlin conference in which the colonial powers outlined the division of Africa into spheres of influence. As a result of this, France gained control of the upper valley of the Niger River (roughly equivalent to the areas of modern Mali and Niger). [59] France then set about making a reality of their rule on the ground. In 1897 the French officer Marius Gabriel Cazemajou was sent to Niger he reached the Sultanate of Damagaram in 1898 and stayed in Zinder at the court of Sultan Amadou Kouran Daga—however he was later killed as Daga feared he would ally with the Chad-based warlord Rabih az-Zubayr. [40] In 1899–1900 France coordinated three expeditions—the Gentil Mission from French Congo, the Foureau-Lamy Mission from Algeria and the Voulet–Chanoine Mission from Timbuktu—with the aim of linking France's African possessions. [59] The three eventually met at Kousséri (in the far north of Cameroon) and defeated Rabih az-Zubayr's forces at the Battle of Kousséri. The Voulet-Chanoine Mission was marred by numerous atrocities, and became notorious for pillaging, looting, raping and killing many local civilians on its passage throughout southern Niger. [40] [21] On 8 May 1899, in retaliation for the resistance of queen Sarraounia, captain Voulet and his men murdered all the inhabitants of the village of Birni-N'Konni in what is regarded as one of the worst massacres in French colonial history. [40] The brutal methods of Voulet and Chanoine caused a scandal and Paris was forced to intervene however when Lieutenant-Colonel Jean-François Klobb caught up with the mission near Tessaoua to relieve them of command he was killed. Lt. Paul Joalland, Klobb's former officer, and Lt. Octave Meynier eventually took over the mission following a mutiny in which Voulet and Chanoine were killed. [21]

The Military Territory of Niger was subsequently created within the Upper Senegal and Niger colony (modern Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger) in December 1904 with its capital at Niamey, then little more than a large village. [21] The border with Britain's colony of Nigeria to the south was finalised in 1910, a rough delimitation having already been agreed by the two powers via several treaties during the period 1898–1906. [59] The capital of the territory was moved to Zinder in 1912 when the Niger Military Territory was split off from Upper Senegal and Niger, before being moved back to Niamey in 1922 when Niger became a fully-fledged colony within French West Africa. [21] [40] The borders of Niger were drawn up in various stages and had been fixed at their current position by the late 1930s. Various territorial adjustments took place in this period: the areas west of the Niger river were only attached to Niger in 1926–27, and during the dissolution of Upper Volta (modern Burkina Faso) in 1932–47 much of the east of that territory was added to Niger [60] [40] and in the east the Tibesti Mountains were transferred to Chad in 1931. [61]

The French generally adopted a form of indirect rule, allowing existing native structures to continue to exist within the colonial framework of governance providing that they acknowledged French supremacy. [21] The Zarma of the Dosso Kingdom in particular proved amenable to French rule, using them as allies against the encroachments of Hausa and other nearby states over time the Zarma thus became one of the more educated and westernised groups in Niger. [40] However, perceived threats to French rule, such as the Kobkitanda rebellion in Dosso Region (1905–06), led by the blind cleric Alfa Saibou, and the Karma revolt in the Niger valley (December 1905–March 1906) led by Oumarou Karma were suppressed with force, as were the latter Hamallayya and Hauka religious movements. [21] [40] [62] Though largely successful in subduing the sedentary populations of the south, the French faced considerably more difficulty with the Tuareg in the north (centered on the Sultanate of Aïr in Agadez), and France was unable to occupy Agadez until 1906. [21] Tuareg resistance continued however, culminating in the Kaocen revolt of 1916–17, led by Ag Mohammed Wau Teguidda Kaocen, with backing from the Senussi in Fezzan the revolt was violently suppressed and Kaocen fled to Fezzan, where he was later killed. [40] A puppet sultan was set up by the French and the decline and marginalisation of the north of the colony continued, exacerbated by a series of droughts. [40] Though it remained something of a backwater, some limited economic development took place in Niger during the colonial years, such as the introduction of groundnut cultivation. [21] Various measures to improve food security following a series of devastating famines in 1913, 1920 and 1931 were also introduced. [21] [40]

During the Second World War, during which time mainland France was occupied by Nazi Germany, Charles de Gaulle issued the Brazzaville Declaration, declaring that the French colonial empire would be replaced post-war with a less centralised French Union. [63] The French Union, which lasted from 1946 to 1958, conferred a limited form of French citizenship on the inhabitants of the colonies, with some decentralisation of power and limited participation in political life for local advisory assemblies. It was during this period that the Nigerien Progressive Party (Parti Progressiste Nigérien, or PPN, originally a branch of the African Democratic Rally, or Rassemblement Démocratique Africain – RDA) was formed under the leadership of former teacher Hamani Diori, as well as the left-wing Mouvement Socialiste Africain-Sawaba (MSA) led by Djibo Bakary. Following the Overseas Reform Act (Loi Cadre) of 23 July 1956 and the establishment of the Fifth French Republic on 4 December 1958, Niger became an autonomous state within the French Community. On 18 December 1958, an autonomous Republic of Niger was officially created under the leadership of Hamani Diori. The MSA was banned in 1959 for its perceived excessive anti-French stance. [64] On 11 July 1960, Niger decided to leave the French Community and acquired full independence on 3 August 1960 Diori thus became the first president of the country.

Independent Niger (1960–present)

Diori years (1960–74)

For its first 14 years as an independent state Niger was run by a single-party civilian regime under the presidency of Hamani Diori. [65] The 1960s were largely peaceful, and saw a large expansion of the education system and some limited economic development and industrialisation. [40] Links with France remained deep, with Diori allowing the development of French-led uranium mining in Arlit and supporting France in the Algerian War. [40] Relations with other African states were mostly positive, with the exception of Dahomey (Benin), owing to an ongoing border dispute. Niger remained a one-party state throughout this period, with Diori surviving a planned coup in 1963 and an assassination attempt in 1965 much of this activity was masterminded by Djibo Bakary's MSA-Sawaba group, which had launched an abortive rebellion in 1964. [40] [66] In the early 1970s, a combination of economic difficulties, devastating droughts and accusations of rampant corruption and mismanagement of food supplies resulted in a coup d'état that overthrew the Diori regime.

First military regime (1974–1991)

The coup had been masterminded by Col. Seyni Kountché and a small military group under the name of the Conseil Militaire Supreme, with Kountché going on to rule the country until his death in 1987. [40] The first action of the military government was to address the food crisis. [67] Whilst political prisoners of the Diori regime were released after the coup and the country was stabilised, political and individual freedoms in general deteriorated during this period. There were several attempted coups (in 1975, 1976 and 1984) which were thwarted, their instigators being severely punished. [40]

Despite the restriction in freedom, the country enjoyed improved economic development as Kountché sought to create a 'development society', funded largely by the uranium mines in Agadez Region. [40] Several parastatal companies were created, major infrastructure (building and new roads, schools, health centres) constructed, and there was minimal corruption in government agencies, which Kountché did not hesitate to punish severely. [68] In the 1980s Kountché began cautiously loosening the grip of the military, with some relaxation of state censorship and attempts made to 'civilianise' the regime. [40] However the economic boom ended following the collapse in uranium prices, and IMF-led austerity and privatisation measures provoked opposition by many Nigeriens. [40] In 1985 a small Tuareg revolt in Tchintabaraden was suppressed. [40] Kountché died in November 1987 from a brain tumour, and was succeeded by his chief of staff, Col. Ali Saibou, who was confirmed as Chief of the Supreme Military Council four days later. [40]

Saibou significantly curtailed the most repressive aspects of the Kountché era (such as the secret police and media censorship), and set about introducing a process of political reform under the overall direction of a single party (the Mouvement National pour la Société du Développement, or MNSD). [40] A Second Republic was declared and a new constitution was drawn up, which was adopted following a referendum in 1989. [40] General Saibou became the first president of the Second Republic after winning the presidential election on 10 December 1989. [69]

President Saibou's efforts to control political reforms failed in the face of trade union and student demands to institute a multi-party democratic system. On 9 February 1990, a violently repressed student march in Niamey led to the death of three students, which led to increased national and international pressure for further democratic reform. [40] The Saibou regime acquiesced to these demands by the end of 1990. [40] Meanwhile, trouble re-emerged in Agadez Region when a group of armed Tuaregs attacked the town of Tchintabaraden (generally seen as the start of the first Tuareg Rebellion), prompting a severe military crackdown which led to many deaths (the precise numbers are disputed, with estimates ranging from 70 to up to 1,000). [40]

National Conference and Third Republic (1991–1996)

The National Sovereign Conference of 1991 marked a turning point in the post-independence history of Niger and brought about multi-party democracy. From 29 July to 3 November, a national conference gathered together all elements of society to make recommendations for the future direction of the country. The conference was presided over by Prof. André Salifou and developed a plan for a transitional government this was then installed in November 1991 to manage the affairs of state until the institutions of the Third Republic were put into place in April 1993. After the National Sovereign Conference, the transitional government drafted a new constitution that eliminated the previous single-party system of the 1989 Constitution and guaranteed more freedoms. The new constitution was adopted by a referendum on 26 December 1992. [70] Following this, presidential elections were held and Mahamane Ousmane became the first president of the Third Republic on 27 March 1993. [40] [69] Ousmane's presidency was characterised by political turbulence, with four government changes and early legislative elections in 1995, as well a severe economic slump which the coalition government proved unable to effectively address. [40]

The violence in Agadez Region continued during this period, prompting the Nigerien government to sign a truce with Tuareg rebels in 1992 which was however ineffective owing to internal dissension within the Tuareg ranks. [40] Another rebellion, led by dissatisfied Toubou peoples claiming that, like the Tuareg, the Nigerien government had neglected their region, broke out in the east of the country. [40] In April 1995 a peace deal with the main Tuareg rebel group was signed, with the government agreeing to absorb some former rebels into the military and, with French assistance, help others return to a productive civilian life. [71]

Second military regime and third military regime (1996–1999)

The governmental paralysis prompted the military to intervene on 27 January 1996, Col. Ibrahim Baré Maïnassara led a coup that deposed President Ousmane and ended the Third Republic. [72] [73] Maïnassara headed a Conseil de Salut National (National Salvation Council) composed of military official which carried out a six-month transition period, during which a new constitution was drafted and adopted on 12 May 1996. [40]

Presidential campaigns were organised in the months that followed. Maïnassara entered the campaign as an independent candidate and won the election on 8 July 1996, however the elections were viewed nationally and internationally as irregular, as the electoral commission was replaced during the campaign. [40] Meanwhile, Maïnassara instigated an IMF and World Bank-approved privatisation programme which enriched many of his supporters but were opposed by the trade unions. [40] Following fraudulent local elections in 1999 the opposition ceased any cooperation with the Maïnassara regime. [40] In unclear circumstance (possibly attempting to flee the country), Maïnassara was assassinated at Niamey Airport on 9 April 1999. [74] [75]

Maj. Daouda Malam Wanké then took over, establishing a transitional National Reconciliation Council to oversee the drafting of a constitution with a French-style semi-presidential system. This was adopted on 9 August 1999 and was followed by presidential and legislative elections in October and November of the same year. [76] The elections were generally found to be free and fair by international observers. Wanké then withdrew from governmental affairs. [40]

Fifth Republic (1999–2009)

After winning the election in November 1999, President Tandja Mamadou was sworn in office on 22 December 1999 as the first president of the Fifth Republic. Mamadou brought about many administrative and economic reforms that had been halted due to the military coups since the Third Republic, as well as helped peacefully resolve a decades-long boundary dispute with Benin. [77] [78] In August 2002, serious unrest within military camps occurred in Niamey, Diffa, and Nguigmi, but the government was able to restore order within several days. On 24 July 2004, the first municipal elections in the history of Niger were held to elect local representatives, previously appointed by the government. These elections were followed by presidential elections, in which Mamadou was re-elected for a second term, thus becoming the first president of the republic to win consecutive elections without being deposed by military coups. [40] [79] The legislative and executive configuration remained quite similar to that of the first term of the president: Hama Amadou was reappointed as prime minister and Mahamane Ousmane, the head of the CDS party, was re-elected as the president of the National Assembly (parliament) by his peers.

By 2007, the relationship between President Tandja Mamadou and his prime minister had deteriorated, leading to the replacement of the latter in June 2007 by Seyni Oumarou following a successful vote of no confidence at the Assembly. [40] The political environment worsened in the following year as President Tandja Mamadou sought out to extend his presidency by modifying the constitution which limited presidential terms in Niger. Proponents of the extended presidency, rallied behind the 'Tazartche' (Hausa for 'overstay') movement, were countered by opponents ('anti-Tazartche') composed of opposition party militants and civil society activists. [40]

The situation in the north also deteriorated significantly in this period, resulting in the outbreak of a Second Tuareg Rebellion in 2007 led by the Mouvement des Nigériens pour la justice (MNJ). Despite a number of high-profile kidnappings the rebellion had largely fizzled out inconclusively by 2009. [40] However the poor security situation in the region is thought to have allowed elements of Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) to gain a foothold in the country. [40]

Fourth military regime (2009–2010)

In 2009, President Tandja Mamadou decided to organize a constitutional referendum seeking to extend his presidency, which was opposed by other political parties, as well as being against the decision of the Constitutional Court which had ruled that the referendum would be unconstitutional. Mamadou then modified and adopted a new constitution by referendum, which was declared illegal by the Constitutional Court, prompting Mamadou to dissolve the Court and assume emergency powers. [80] [81] The opposition boycotted the referendum and the new constitution was adopted with 92.5% of voters and a 68% turnout, according to official results. The adoption of the new constitution created a Sixth Republic, with a presidential system, as well as the suspension of the 1999 Constitution and a three-year interim government with Tandja Mamadou as president. The events generated severe political and social unrest throughout the country. [40]

In a coup d'état in February 2010, a military junta led by captain Salou Djibo was established in response to Tandja's attempted extension of his political term by modifying the constitution. [82] The Supreme Council for the Restoration of Democracy, led by General Salou Djibo, carried out a one-year transition plan, drafted a new constitution and held elections in 2011 that were judged internationally as free and fair.

Seventh Republic (2010–present)

Following the adoption of a new constitution in 2010 and presidential elections a year later, Mahamadou Issoufou was elected as the first president of the Seventh Republic he was then re-elected in 2016. [83] [40] The constitution also restored the semi-presidential system which had been abolished a year earlier. An attempted coup against him in 2011 was thwarted and its ringleaders arrested. [84] Issoufou's time in office has been marked by numerous threats to the country's security, stemming from the fallout from the Libyan Civil War and Northern Mali conflict, a rise in attacks by AQIM, the use of Niger as a transit country for migrants (often organised by criminal gangs), and the spillover of Nigeria's Boko Haram insurgency into south-eastern Niger. [85] French and American forces are currently assisting Niger in countering these threats. [86]

On 27 December 2020, Nigeriens went to the polls after Issoufou announced he would step down, paving the way to Niger's first ever peaceful transition of power. [87] However, no candidate won an absolute majority in the vote: Mohamed Bazoum came closest with 39.33%. As per the constitution, a run-off election was held on 20 February 2021, with Bazoum taking 55.75% of the vote and opposition candidate (and former president) Mahamane Ousmane taking 44.25%, according to the electoral commission. [88]

On 31 March 2021, Niger's security forces thwarted an attempted coup by a military unit in the capital, Niamey. Heavy gunfire was heard in the early hours near the country's presidential palace. The attack took place just two days before newly elected president, Mohamed Bazoum, was due to be sworn into office. The Presidential Guard arrested several people during the incident. [89]


Niger - Politics

Niger is a secular democracy, but Niger's political culture, even in the age of democratic politics, is still short of inner restraints. the country remains divided politically among the supporters and clients of the leading political personalities. Nigerien civil society does not currently constitute a strong counterweight to government abuse of power. Many are fronts for politicians and those seeking to use their organizations as a base for launching political careers in the future.

Niger went through a period of political turbulence between 2009 and 2011 that started with the end of the Tuareg rebellion, Mamadou Tandja s efforts to seek a third term as president and his removal through a military coup. The military regime organized a referendum to approve a new constitution in 2010 and then kept its promise to restore civilian rule by organizing national presidential, legislative and regional elections in 2010 and 2011.

Nigeriens regard the conspicuous consumption by Niger s political elite and the favoritism shown to their friends, families, and supporters in allocating state resources as sure signs of corruption. There appear to be few differences between government coalitions and opposition parties in terms of the seriousness with which they approach political and economic reforms. A disconnect between the government and the people seems to be growing as promises of reform, improving government services, and providing more employment opportunities, have not materialized.

A disconnect between the government and the people seems to be growing and undermining the legitimacy of the government as promises to reform the system, improve government services, and provide more employment opportunities have not yet materialized This trend undermines trust in the government and its legitimacy.

Characterized since colonialism by a highly-centralized state that often undercut traditional rulers, Niger has embraced a system of political decentralization based on democratically elected local governments. While on paper, these "commune" governments have taken over some of the functions of the chiefs and the central government administrators, the reality is more complex. While chiefs are agents of the state, government control over the chiefs varies in practice, as do chiefs' conceptions of their role. Chiefs often dominate the locally elected commune governments, and are in a position to dictate their success or failure.

Chiefs usually enjoy more popular support than local or national politicians. Their presence can make local democracy awkward in practice. Their role vis-a-vis modern judicial and governmental institutions invites criticism from the secular civil society. Yet, in the world's least developed country, where better than eighty percent of the people live in rural areas, traditional chiefs remain a major source of authority for most Nigeriens.

While some chiefs complicate efforts to promote democracy and the rule of law, the institution serves as a break on radical Islam, a viable mechanism for cross-border and local conflict resolution, and an essential -- if often un-tapped -- partner and guide for development interventions.

In an important departure from colonial policy, independent Niger has largely allowed local communities and noblemen to select chiefs for themselves via a quasi-democratic mechanism. Consequently, the quality of individual chiefs is often high, and the institution's legitimacy has re-bounded since the colonial period.

In July 2004, Niger held nationwide municipal elections as part of its decentralization process. Some 3,700 people were elected to new local governmental positions in 265 newly established communes. Although the ruling MNSD party won more positions than any other political party, opposition parties made significant gains.

In November and December 2004, Niger held presidential and legislative elections. Mamadou Tandja was elected to his second 5-year presidential term with 65% of the vote in an election that international observers called generally free and fair. This was the first presidential election with a democratically elected incumbent and was a test of Niger's young democracy. In the 2004 legislative elections, the ruling MNSD, the CDS, the Rally for Social Democracy (RSD), the Rally for Democracy and Progress (RDP), the Nigerien Alliance for Democracy and Progress (ANDP), and the Social Party for Nigerien Democracy (PSDN) coalition, all of which backed Tandja, won 88 of the 113 seats in the National Assembly.

In February 2007, a previously unknown rebel group, the Movement of Nigeriens for Justice (MNJ), emerged as a formidable threat to peace in the north of Niger. The predominantly Tuareg group issued a number of demands, mainly related to development in the north. It attacked military and other facilities and laid landmines in the north. The resulting insecurity devastated Niger's tourist industry and deterred investment in mining and oil. The government labeled the MNJ members criminals and traffickers, and refused to negotiate with the group until it disarmed.


Military Juntas in Nigeria (1970-1999)

In the 1970s Nigeria experienced an oil boom. The country joined OPEC and the oil revenues generated helped enrich the economy. Much was, however, not done to improve the standards of living for the locals the military government did not invest in infrastructure or help businesses grow thus leading to a political struggle in the country.

In 1979, power was returned to the civilian regime led by Shehu Shagari but his government was viewed as corrupt. In 1984, a military coup led by Muhammadu Buhari was executed and people thought of it as a positive development. Major reforms were promised by Buhari but his government was no better and he was overthrown in 1985 by another military coup.

Ibrahim Babangida became the new president and in his tenure, he enlisted Nigeria in the Organization of the Islamic Conference. He also introduced the International Monetary Fund&rsquos Structural Adjustment Program to assist in repaying the country&rsquos debt.

On 12 June 1993, the first free and fair elections were held since the military coup of 1983 and the presidential victory went to the Social Democratic Party after defeating the National republican Convention. The elections were, however, cancelled by Babangida. This led to civilian protests which eventually led to the shutting down of the nation for weeks.

On 5 May 1999, a new constitution was adopted and it provided for multiparty elections.


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