17. avgusta 1944

17. avgusta 1944


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17. avgusta 1944

Istočni front

Sovjetske trupe stigle su do istočno -pruske granice

Zapadni front

Model zamjenjuje Klugea kao zapovjednika njemačkih snaga na zapadu

Američke trupe oslobađaju St Malo, Chartres i Orleans

Južna Francuska

Mostobrani 7. armije povezani su, stvarajući front od 50 milja

Diplomacy

Keitel posjećuje Finsku u pokušaju da ohrabri kolebljivog saveznika Njemačke



17. avgust 1944 - Istorija

Deklasifikovani izvještaj o akciji

17. avgusta do 28. avgusta 1944

Operacija "Nakovanj"

Napad i smanjenje tvrđave Saint Mandrier

U planiranju operacije Dragoon, luka Toulon bila je važan cilj. S velikom i dobro zaštićenom lukom, stoljećima je bila središte francuskih pomorskih operacija na Mediteranu. Pomorska baza bila je najveća u zapadnoj Evropi, pokrivala je stotine hektara i imala objekte za održavanje najvećih ratnih brodova. Kao takav, i kao izvor opskrbe za invaziju, odmah nakon veće civilne luke Marseilles, njegovo zauzimanje bilo je od suštinskog značaja za uspjeh Dragoona.

Nijemci su bili svjesni važnosti grada i pretvorili su područje Toulona u tvrđavu. Obrana od izravnog napada s mora uključivala je baterije velikih pomorskih topova u Mauvannesu, na poluotoku Saint-Mandrier, i na nekoliko drugih lokacija uz obalu.

Epilog ove bitke dolazi 28. kolovoza, kada je u 0800 1800 marinaca garnizona Saint-Mandrier ponudilo predaju i formiralo kolonu za povratak u okrug Les Sablettes, prvu fazu njihovog zatočeništva.

Predaja ove velike francuske vojne luke na Mediteranu završena je osam dana prije roka.

U devet dana borbe#8217 plaćena je cijena od oko 2.700 francuskih žrtava, od kojih je 100 oficira, kao i uništeno mnogo tenkova. Na njemačkoj strani, hiljade leševa potvrdilo je gorčinu borbi. Plijen francuske vojske sastojao se od 17.000 zarobljenika, velike količine ratnog materijala i stotinu artiljerijskih komada koji su korišteni za jačanje ratnih napora.

Konačno je najveća pomorska baza u zapadnoj Evropi osvojena i otvorena savezničkim snagama da postave temelje za daljnje pobjede.

Citirano iz Odsjeka za pomorsku povijest Odsjeka mornarice, Odsjek za brodsku istoriju:

Od 6. juna do 13. avgusta MACKENZIE je bez incidenata putovao konvojem po srednjem Mediteranu. Trinaestog je otplovila kako bi zauzela svoje mjesto s 879 drugih brodova u blizini Toulona u Francuskoj pripremajući se za "Operaciju Nakovanj" - saveznički napad na obalu južne Francuske.

Smišljena da prati invaziju na Normandiju, ova operacija ne samo da bi oslobodila južnu Francusku i umanjila pritisak na južni bok armija generala Eisenhowera, već bi stavila savezničke vojske na bok talijanske vojske na Rivijeri. Osim toga, praktično bi se eliminirala prijetnja podmornice-Luftwaffe u zapadnom Mediteranu.

MACKENZIE je dodijeljen Gunfire Support koji pokriva desant 36. pješadijske divizije. Početno iskrcavanje 15. avgusta naišlo je na mali otpor, pa su u roku od tri dana savezničke snage zarobile preko deset hiljada zarobljenika.

Dok su nastavili da pružaju vatru za pokrivanje nadirućih trupa 17. avgusta, obalne baterije su se otvorile na MACKENZIE i nagomilale je jedanaest promašaja. Najbliži je pao 200 metara, ali je nastala šteta.

Dana 27. Nijemci su isplovili iz svog utvrđenja koje je bilo pod vatrom i predali se MACKENZIE. 15. septembra je otpuštena sa svoje stanice i vratila se u Boston na popravke i remont.

Kliknite na donju vezu za izvještaj o akciji USS MacKenzie u vezi s operacijom "Nakovanj", napadom i smanjenjem tvrđave Saint Mandrier.

29. avgusta 1944 - Operacija Nakovanj (17. do 28. avgusta 1944)

Ovi izvještaji su objavljeni kao PDF datoteke. Kliknite na gornji logo ako vam je potreban besplatni PDF čitač.


Slomljeni grad – ‘Festung St Malo ’ – se predaje

Kako je njemačka situacija na Istoku i Zapadu postajala sve ozbiljnija, Hitler je morao postavljati sve očajnije zahtjeve prema svojim snagama. Uvijek je oklijevao dopustiti povlačenje. Sada je trebao inzistirati na tome da se određene lokacije pretvore u “forsove ”, obrambene citadele u kojima se očekivalo da će se njegove trupe boriti do posljednjeg čovjeka, zadržavajući opći napredak saveznika što je duže moguće. Bilo je još dosta fanatičnih nacista spremnih slijediti takva naređenja.

Dok su američke snage prelazile Bretanju, morali su naići na niz takvih utvrda utvrđenih u lukama koje bi mogle pomoći saveznicima da dovedu ljude i municiju ravno na evropski kontinent. Cherbourg nije izdržao ni približno onoliko koliko se Hitler nadao, iako je lučka infrastruktura bila toliko oštećena da je bila od ograničene koristi saveznicima. Na drugim mjestima Nijemci su izdržali dosta duže, a pokušaji američke Treće armije da ih uklone nanijeli su veliku štetu ovim drevnim gradovima. Međutim, nisu se svi branitelji pokazali tako fanatiznima kako se Hitler nadao.

‘Festung St Malo ’ predao se 17. augusta nakon dvotjednog udaranja bombama, artiljerijom i minobacačima. Svuda je ležalo uništenje#8211, samo 182 zgrade od 865 su još uvijek stajale. Prisustvovao je novinar Montague Lacey koji je izvještavao o događajima za Daily Express:

Nekoliko minuta prije četiri sata popodne, njemački zapovjednik Citadele, pukovnik von Auloch, ludi pukovnik s monoklom i razmetljivom šetnjom, izveo je 605 ljudi iz dubine svoje tvrđave i prekršio obećanje Hitleru da će nikada ne bi popustio pred Amerikancima. Pukovnik je guskom prišao da se preda, sa batmanom koji je nosio njegov veliki crni kofer, a drugi je prisustvovao oko njega i otimao prašinu iz uniforme, a dok su prolazili jedan američki vojnik je doviknuo: “Koji korni šou! & #8221

Pukovnik von Auloch je čovjek koji je pisao američkom komandantu koji je napadao Citadelu kako bi rekao da se njemački oficir nikada ne predaje i 15 dana je sjedio čvrsto 60 stopa ispod zemlje u sigurnosti svog podzemnog skloništa. Do večeras bi Amerikanci sjedili na vrhu njegove tvrđave, koja bi postala masovna grobnica za sve muškarce u njoj. Izdržavši, pukovnik von Auloch nije uticao na tok rata ni jednim trunkom. Ono što je učinio je da izazove gotovo potpuno uništenje starog grada St. Mala i posije dodatno sjeme mržnje u srca Francuza.

Čak i dok pišem, mještani okupljeni na mjestu gore viču i dršću šakama prema Nijemcima sa Citadele. Dok se Nijemci gomilaju u kamione kako bi ih odvezli, stariji muškarci nekako izgledaju posramljeno i glupo, ali mladi Nijemci i dalje se cerekaju i arogantni. Citadela je dramatično pala samo sat vremena prije nego što su američki pješaci treći put bili spremni za napad na tvrđavu, i baš kad je eskadrila bombardera doletela da zasuti zapaljive bombe na to mjesto.

Sinoć i cijelo jutro jutro su teški topovi lupali Citadelom, glavnom blok-kućom okruženom s desetak ulaza iz donjih pećina sličnih minama. Amerikanci su ručali na razorenim ulicama prije nego što su se formirali za napad. U 14.30 velika bijela zastava pojavila se na jednom od sanduka. Niko nije obraćao pažnju, jer je u 3 sata i 8217 sati trebao biti napadnut lovačko-bombarderski napad. Ubrzo nakon 3 o ’ sati doletela je prva Munja. Spustila se na 50 stopa i zasadila nekoliko zapaljivih kvadrata na vrhu Citadele. Tada je podignuto još bijelih zastava - sada ih je pet vijorilo na povjetarcu.

Ugledao ih je pilot drugog bombardera i zaronio ne bacajući bombe. Ali otvorio je oružje kao svojevrsno upozorenje dok je letio okolo za njim i ostatkom eskadrile. Vazduhoplovci su čekali dovoljno dugo da vide grupu Nemaca kako dolaze sa Citadele i gomilu Amerikanaca kako idu uz brdo napred, noseći obojenu identifikacionu zastavu.

Sada je došlo do lude borbe do Citadele. Ubrzo se pročulo da su se Nijemci predali. Svi su potrčali niz padinu da vide prizor. Prvo je izašao pukovnik von Auloch koji je i dalje lajao naređenja svojim oficirima i ljudima koji su se gotovo prevrnuli preko sebe da bi ih poslušali. S njim su bila dva viša oficira, jedan od njih pomorski zapovjednik. Svi su pokušavali napraviti impresivan prikaz pred Amerikancima.

Tada se dogodila jedna čudna stvar. Stariji Nijemac, mornarički kuhar, razbio je redove i dotrčao u zagrljaj mladom američkom vojniku. Nijemac je imao sreću da nije upucan, a stražari su na vrijeme spustili oružje. No, nitko se nije miješao kad je američki vojnik zagrlio Nijemca. Bili su otac i sin. Nijemac je dobro govorio američki žargon i bilo mu je dozvoljeno da ostane van redova i da djeluje kao tumač. Rekao je da je 14 godina bio u Americi, a vratio se u Njemačku neposredno prije izbijanja rata.

Pukovnik von Auloch prebrojao je sve svoje ljude dok su izlazili noseći svoje stvari. U partiji je bilo Poljaka, nekoliko Rusa i desetak Talijana. I dalje izvikujući naređenja, Von Aulocha su strpali u džip i odvezli u štab divizije. Odbio je govoriti o svojoj predaji, a isto su učinili i njegovi vojnici.


Oberst Andreas von Aulock od 79. pješačka divizija (stoji u džipu) koju su zarobili američki vojnici, St. Malo, Francuska. © Lawrence Riordan 1944

Dolje u lavirintu tunela Citadele bilo je uobičajenih razaranja i znakova panike. Odjeća i oprema bili su razbacani posvuda. Još je bilo dosta hrane, vode i municije - i uobičajenih gomila praznih boca.

Soba pukovnika von Aulocha bila je u najnižem i najsigurnijem dijelu tvrđave. Bilo je otprilike osam stopa na deset stopa i opremljeno je samo s dvije kožne fotelje i krevetom. Činilo se da je to jedina soba s umivaonikom i tekućom vodom.

Na stolu je stajala električna lampa, a telefon u blizini je bio poslužavnik sa kafom i dvije razglednice koje je pukovnik namjeravao napisati. Sada imam jednu od ovih kartica. Prikazuje sliku Geringa i Hitlera kako se smiješe dok voze kroz navijačku gomilu. Na poleđini je pečat na koji se pukovnik upravo zalijepio - prekrasan slikovni pečat dvorca tvrđave.

Veliki topovi tvrđave su razbijeni, a Nijemci su ostali samo mitraljezi i drugo malokalibarsko oružje. Sa zatvorenicima koji su izašli iz Citadele bila je mala grupa američkih vojnika koji su zarobljeni prošlog petka. Noću su se dovukli do tvrđave s eksplozivom u pokušaju da razore ventilacijski sistem.

Kada su svi predati garnizoni bili otjerani ili odmarširani, nekoliko stotina Francuza okupilo se i stisnulo jedan drugome za ruku, navijajući i pjevajući svoju državnu himnu. A jednog dana, možda uskoro, Citadela u kojoj se ludi pukovnik predao bit će jedna od znamenitosti koje će stanovnici St. Mala ukazati posjetiteljima koji iz Engleske ponovno dolaze na odmor.

Institut za istorijski pregled ima poslijeratnu analizu bitke i razloge uništenja –, ali pogledajte komentare ispod. Francuski lokalitet koji dokumentuje rekonstrukciju 1944-1966.

Snimci bitke za St Malo u američkoj arhivi prikazuju artiljerijski napad, pješaštvo koje ulazi u grad i obračunava se sa snajperistima, konačno oslobođene Francuze i njihov odnos prema Nijemcima.

Poslijeratni snimak iz zraka stare luke St Malo – gdje je većina starih granitnih zgrada uništena.


U nastavku su navedeni neki od najvažnijih istorijskih događaja koji su se dogodili 17. avgusta 1944.

1590 Guverner kolonije Roanoke Island, John White, vraća se iz Engleske ne pronalazeći tragove kolonista koje je tamo ostavio 3 godine ranije [ili 18. augusta 1591].

1903 & ndash Joe Pulitzer donira milion dolara Univerzitetu Columbia i započinje Pulitzerovu nagradu u Americi.

1945 & ndash Koreja je podijeljena na Sjevernu i Južnu Koreju duž 38. paralele.


17. avgusta 1944: Pad Wellingtona u North Devonu

Moj otac je bio leteći oficir W Broadley br. 178054, pilot bombardera u Wellingtonu sa obalnom komandom 172 eskadrile, sa sjedištem u RAF -u Chivenor u Sjevernom Devonu.

U noći 17. avgusta 1944. avion je uzletio kao i obično za noćne poslove. Njihov je posao bio loviti neprijateljske podmornice.

Te noći samo su napustili aerodrom kada je otkrivena greška u avionu. Posada je odlučila izaći u zaljev Barnstaple i odbaciti dubinska punjenja koja su nosili. To su učinili, vratili su se zračnoj bazi. Nažalost stvari su krenule po zlu. Motor se odvojio od aviona i sletio na željezničku prugu između Barnstaplea i Ilfracombea. Narednog dana svi vozovi su zaustavljeni na toj liniji. Uspjeli su nastaviti natrag u Chivenor. U teretani se te večeri održavao ples, a tata i posada su se plašili da će avion udariti u zgradu. Avion je promašio teretanu i srušio se na sportski teren iza zgrade. U nesreći su poginula dva člana posade, mladić iz Manchestera i kanadski zrakoplovac Butch Butchart. Pilot, bivši vozač speedwaya, zadobio je slomljenu nogu, drugi su zadobili lakše tjelesne ozljede, ali duboke emocionalne ozljede. Moj otac, kopilot, izletio je iz aviona i zbog toga je izgubio desnu ruku. Snaga eksplozije takođe ga je izbacila iz letećih čizama.

Zvuk aviona u nevolji i rezultirajuća nesreća izvadili su svo osoblje na zračnoj stanici. Mlada WAAF je riskirala svoj život kako bi odvukla mog oca iz aviona prije nego što je eksplodirao. Nikad ne zna njeno ime.

Moj otac je odveden u bolnicu u Barntapleu na hitnu terapiju za spašavanje života. Kad je bio dovoljno dobro, premješten je u RAF bolnicu Halton na daljnje liječenje, koje je uključivalo još nekoliko amputacija oštećenog ekstremiteta.

U vrijeme nesreće moj otac je imao 22 godine, bio je u braku nešto manje od godinu dana, a moja majka, tada stara 20 godina, bila je trudna sa svojim prvim djetetom. Ja. Rođen sam dva mjeseca kasnije i odrastao uz ovu priču.

Očeva ambicija je bila da postane komercijalni pilot, nažalost to nije bilo moguće.

Moji su roditelji odgajali još dvoje djece i izgradili vrlo uspješan posao.

Nažalost, moj otac je umro prije deset godina, bio je vrlo hrabar čovjek koji uprkos stalnoj boli i patnji nije dopustio da mu invaliditet ometa život. Bio je jako voljen i svima nam je bio primjer.

© Autorska prava nad sadržajem koji je priložen ovoj Arhivi pripada autoru. Saznajte kako ovo možete koristiti.

Ova priča je svrstana u sljedeće kategorije.

Većinu sadržaja na ovoj web stranici kreiraju naši korisnici, koji su članovi javnosti. Izneseni stavovi su njihovi i ako nije posebno navedeno nisu stavovi BBC -a. BBC nije odgovoran za sadržaj bilo kojih vanjskih web stranica na koje se poziva. U slučaju da smatrate da bilo šta na ovoj stranici krši Kućni red stranice, kliknite ovdje. Za sve ostale komentare, kontaktirajte nas.


Identificirani ostaci topnika B-17

U avgustu 1944. godine, štab vazduhoplovstva Komande vojske narednik Willard R. Best je bio 24-godišnji topnik na B-17 raspoređenom u 407. bombardersku eskadrilu (teška), 40. borbeno krilo za bombardovanje, 1. vazduhoplovnu diviziju, 8. vazduhoplovstvo.

Rođeni Staunton, Illinois, bio je dio devetočlane posade u letećoj tvrđavi B-17 tokom bombaškog napada na Merseburg, Njemačka, 24. augusta. Avion je zahvaćen protivavionskom vatrom i srušio se. Četiri člana posade su preživjela i Nijemci su ih zarobili. Ostali, uključujući Best, poginuli su u sudaru.

Ostaci Besta su, kako se izvještava, sahranjeni na groblju Leipzig-Lindenthal. Kada je rat završio, američka komanda za registraciju grobova je razriješila tri kompleta ostataka sa tog groblja. Dva od tri tada nisu mogli biti identifikovani.

Topnici B-17

Proglašeni su neidentifikovanim i dodijeljene su im oznake Nepoznato X-1047 i X-183. Utvrđeno je da su X-1047 posmrtni ostaci dva odvojena pojedinca i promijenjeni nazivi X-1047A i X-1047B nakon razdvajanja. Tri kompleta posmrtnih ostataka sahranjena su na grobljima Američke komisije za borbene spomenike 2017.

Volonteri su obavijestili DPAA o sahranama nepoznatih pripadnika službe koji bi mogli biti povezani s padom B-17. Povjesničar DPAA -e istražio je tu tvrdnju i izjavio da bi neidentificirani posmrtni ostaci mogli potjecati iz te nesreće.

U travnju 2019. godine, Ministarstvo obrane i ABMC razriješili su tri kompleta posmrtnih ostataka i poslali ih u laboratoriju DPAA radi identifikacije. Naučnici koji rade za DPAA i za Sistem medicinskih ispitivača Oružanih snaga koristili su antropološke dokaze i mitohondrijsku DNK za pozitivnu identifikaciju jednog od skupova ostataka koji pripadaju Bestu 3. septembra 2019. Otkriće je objavila DPAA 24. oktobra 2019. godine. .

B-17 oštećen u sudaru sa Fw190 u direktnom napadu

Bestovo ime upisano je na Tablicama nestalih na američkom groblju Henri-Chapelle u Belgiji. Uz njegovo ime bit će postavljena rozeta koja će prepoznati da je sada identifikovan.

Best su rodili Otto i Lena Best iz Stauntona, Illinois. Bio je brat Lelanda Elmera Besta, Joyce Best i Harolda C. Besta. Bio je oženjen Almom L. Best iz Decatura, Illinois, kada je umro. Njegovi posmrtni ostaci bit će sahranjeni u rodnom gradu na proljeće 2020.

Šesnaest miliona Amerikanaca je služilo u Drugom svjetskom ratu. Preko 400.000 njih je poginulo u ratu. Još uvijek postoji 72.650 pripadnika službe koji se vode kao nestali iz Drugog svjetskog rata. 30.000 njih je navedeno kao moguće nadoknadivo.

Tobdžije u bombarderima B-17 bile su odgovorne za borbu protiv neprijateljskih borbenih aviona mitraljezima koji su bili usmjereni ručno ili na električni pogon. Pola posade bombardera bili su tipično tobdžije koje su radile gornju kupolu, kuglu s loptom, strukove i repnu kupolu.

Vrhunski naoružani oružnici obično su služili kao inženjer leta za posadu. Osim što je štitio avion od napada odozgo, od njega se očekivalo da poznaje sve sisteme u avionu i prati motore i gorivo u letu.


Varšavski ustanak 1. avgusta 1944

Dakle mr. Kuznjecov se ne može opisati kao rusofob, ali mogu biti zato što koristim njegove izraze. To su vrlo zanimljive i fleksibilne azatove koncepcije. Pretpostavljam da je bolje to ignorirati.

& quotUjutro jutro 7. novembra 1941., s obzirom da se neprijatelj već približio Moskvi na udaljenosti od samo 15 milja, ipak je Staljin neustrašivo izveo vojnu paradu na Crvenom trgu kao i obično kako bi proslavio 24. godišnjicu Velike revolucije. Saznavši za Staljinov govor emitovan tokom parade, Hitler se razbjesnio zbog snažnog prkosa Rusije. Očigledno je da firer i njegovi vješali nisu shvatili da ništa na svijetu ne može zastrašiti Ruse. & Quot

Azato2000

Dakle mr. Kuznjecov se ne može opisati kao rusofob, ali mogu biti zato što koristim njegove izraze. To su vrlo zanimljive i fleksibilne azatove koncepcije. Pretpostavljam da je bolje ignorirati ga.

& quotUjutro jutro 7. novembra 1941., s obzirom da se neprijatelj već približio Moskvi na udaljenosti od samo 15 milja, ipak je Staljin neustrašivo izveo vojnu paradu na Crvenom trgu kao i obično kako bi proslavio 24. godišnjicu Velike revolucije. Saznavši za Staljinov govor emitovan tokom parade, Hitler se razbjesnio zbog snažnog prkosa Rusije. Očigledno je da firer i njegovi vješali nisu shvatili da ništa na svijetu ne može zastrašiti Ruse. & Quot

Ne paniči, druže. Ništa na zemlji nije moglo zastrašiti Poslovice. Završio sam s tobom.

Moje lično izvinjenje antonini zbog ovih definicijskih pojmova svađa.

Azato2000

BlackViper

Antonina

Zar ne? Hvala na čitanju.

Akcja pod Arsenałem (26. mart 1943.) oružani napad na kombi Gestapoa koji je prevozio zatvorenike iz sjedišta Gestapa u zatvor Pawiak u Varšavi izveo je Grupy Szturmowe „Szarych Szeregów“ (Olujne grupe „Sivi činovi“) Operacija je kodirana kao & quot; Meksyk II & quot ("Meksiko II") i održala se u blizini zgrade Varšavskog Arsenala. Njegov cilj je bio oslobađanje Jana Bytnara „Rudy” (oslobođeno je i 25 drugih političkih zatvorenika). AK je izgubila tri čovjeka, dvojica su bila teško ranjena, a kasnije su umrli, jedan je uhvaćen i istjeran. Četiri Nijemca su poginula, a devet ranjeno.

Operacija je zahtijevala pažljivu pripremu i savršenu sinhronizaciju. Prilažem kompletan spisak učesnika

Za operaciju je zadužen: Stanislaw Broniewski & quotOrsza & quot, komandant "Sivih činova"

  • & quotZośka & quot Tadeusz Zawadzki, vođa grupe
  • & quotAnoda & quot [ame = & quothttp: //pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jan_Rodowicz"] Jan Rodowicz [/ame], vođa sekcije
  • & quotBolec & quot [ame = & quothttp: //pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tadeusz_Chojko"] Tadeusz Chojko [/ame],
  • & quotHeniek & quot Henryk Kupis,
  • & quotStasiek & quot Stanisław Pomykalski,
  • & quotMaciek & quot; Sławomir Bittner, vođa sekcije
  • & quotKołczan & quot [ame = & quothttp: //pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eugeniusz_Koecher"] Eugeniusz Koecher [/ame],
  • & quotSem & quot Wiesław Krajewski,
  • & quotSłoń & quot [ame = & quothttp: //pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jerzy_Gawin"] Jerzy Gawin [/ame], vođa sekcije
  • & quotBuzdygan & quot Tadeusz Krzyżewicz, teško ranjen, kasnije je umro
  • & quotCielak & quot [ame = & quothttp: //pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tadeusz_Szajnoch"] Tadeusz Szajnoch [/ame],
  • & quotAlek & quot [ame = & quothttp: //pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maciej_Aleksy_Dawidowski"] Aleksy Dawidowski [/ame], vođa odjeljenja, teško ranjen, kasnije je umro
  • & quotHubert & quot [ame = & quothttp: //pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hubert_Lenk"] Hubert Lenk [/ame], uhvaćen i pogubljen 7. maja 1943. u ruševinama geta
  • & quotMirski & quot [ame = & quothttp: //pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jerzy_Zapadko"] Jerzy Zapadko [/ame]
  • & quotGiewont & quot Władysław Cieplak, vođa grupe
  • & quotKuba & quot [ame = & quothttp: //pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Konrad_Okolski"] Konrad Okolski [/ame], vođa sekcije
  • & quotKadłubek & quot Witold Bartnicki,
  • & quotJur & quot [ame = & quothttp: //pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrzej_Wolski"] Andrzej Wolski [/ame],
  • & quotKatoda & quot Józef Saski, vođa sekcije
  • & quotKopeć & quot Stanisław Jastrzębski,
  • & quotRawicz & quot Żelisław Olech,
  • & quotTytus & quot Tytus Trzciński, vođa sekcije
  • & quotFelek & quot [ame = & quothttp: //pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Feliks_Pendelski"] Feliks Pendelski [/ame],
  • & quotZiutek & quot Józef Pleszczyński,
  • & quotPająk & quot Jerzy Tabor,
  • & quotKapsiut & quot Kazimierz Łodziński,
  • & quotJeremi & quot [ame = & quothttp: //pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jerzy_Zborowski"] Jerzy Zborowski [/ame], vozač
  • & quotJurek TK & quot; Jerzy Pepłowski,

Da biste vizualizirali kako Akcja pod Arsenalem je učinjeno, evo videozapisa (do stvarnog zaustavljanja kombija dolazi negdje u sredini). Film je prilično star, ali prilično precizno rekonstruira događaje. Vidite li na početku, AK je imala doušnika u sedištu Gestapoa. On je bio taj koji je pozvao i obavijestio vođu operacije da kombi s vozilom "Query" odlazi u zatvor Pawiak.

[ame = & quothttp: //www.youtube.com/watch? v = lzQGKGIDwe8 & ampfeature = related & quot] Akcja pod Arsenaom 8/10 - YouTube [/ame]

Antonina

Primio sam privatnu poruku od jednog od Historumita, izražavajući zabrinutost zbog nedavnih postova na ovoj temi. Predloženo je da bi opisane aktivnosti podzemnih izviđačkih formacija (& quot; Grey Ranks & quot]), uključujući & quotminor sabotažu & quot & operaciju & quot; Akcja pod Arsena & amp#322em & quot; mogle imati negativan učinak na gledatelje tinejdžere. Takođe je dovedena u pitanje ispravnost objavljivanja fotografija djece-vojnika.

Iskreno, bio sam više začuđen nego što mogu reći: knjiga & quotKamienie na Szaniec & quot (koja opisuje & quotAkcja pod Arsena & amp#322em & quot) nalazi se na službenoj školskoj listi za čitanje ovdje i svako dijete u Poljskoj to zna, na godišnjicu racije, svi izviđački timovi u Varšavi organiziranje igara uloga u spomen na operaciju. Kao djeca, odrasli smo na pričama o oružanim napadima podzemlja AK -a i "quotminor sabotažama". Mislim da nikoga nije učinio ubilačkim manijakom ili maloljetnim prestupnikom.

Tada sam shvatio da bi ovdje moglo doći do sukoba u kulturi - s obzirom na problem pucnjave u školama u SAD -u, razumijem da je poruku pokrenula iskrena zabrinutost. Međutim, smatram da je trebalo vjerovati da bi materijal koji sam postavio mogao imati negativan učinak na bilo koga. Harris i Kleebold bili su fascinirani Hitlerom, nacistima i borbenom opremom (ako ništa drugo, to je nit Waffen SS-a, koja bi mogla privući momke fascinirane takvim lažnim mačo stvarima) Ne vjerujem da bi priča poput & quotAkcja pod Arsena & amp#322em & quot privukla u njih je bilo uključeno previše dobra.

Što se tiče djece vojnika, borbene jedinice AK ih nisu "ometale", poput "dječjih vojnika" danas u Africi. Svi su oni bili dobrovoljci, izviđači, koji su služili kao posrednici ili papirići koji su distribuirali štampu AK-a. Da, njihov najveći san bio je nabaviti pištolj i pucati, ranjeni i umirući insistirali su da na njihovom grobu (čak i 13 -godišnjaci) bude ispisano "vojnik AK". U starom gradu u Varšavi postoji statua "Malog pobunjenika", posvećena njihovom sjećanju. Kad bolje razmislim, bilo je užasno, ali odrasli smo s ovim.


Sadržaj

Larry Ellison rođen je u New Yorku, od nevjenčane majke Židovke. [5] [6] [7] [8] Njegov biološki otac bio je pilot zrakoplovnog korpusa američko-američke vojske Italije i Amerike. Nakon što je Ellison obolio od upale pluća u dobi od devet mjeseci, majka ga je dala tetki i stricu na usvajanje. [8] Svoju biološku majku nije ponovo sreo sve dok nije napunio 48 godina. [9]

Ellison se preselio u čikašku South Shore, tada četvrt srednje klase. Sjeća se svoje usvojiteljice kao srdačne i pune ljubavi, za razliku od svog strogog, nepodržavajućeg i često udaljenog posvojitelja, koji je ime Ellison odabrao u čast svog ulaska u Sjedinjene Države, Ellis Island. Louis Ellison bio je državni službenik koji je zaradio malo bogatstvo na nekretninama u Chicagu, da bi ga izgubio tokom Velike depresije. [8]

Iako su Ellisona u reformatorskoj jevrejskoj kući odgajali njegovi usvojitelji, koji su redovno išli u sinagogu, on je ostao vjerski skeptik. Ellison navodi: "Iako mislim da sam religiozan u jednom smislu, određene dogme judaizma nisu dogme na koje se pridržavam. Ne vjerujem da su stvarne. To su zanimljive priče. To su zanimljiva mitologija, a ja svakako poštujem ljude koji vjeruju da su ovo doslovno istinite, ali ja ne. Ne vidim dokaze za ove stvari. " S trinaest godina Ellison je odbila organizirati proslavu bar micve. [10] Ellison kaže da njegova naklonost Izraelu nije povezana s vjerskim osjećajima, već zbog inovativnog duha Izraelaca u tehnološkom sektoru. [11]

Ellison je pohađao srednju školu South Shore u Chicagu [12], a kasnije je primljen na Univerzitet Illinois u Urbana -Champaign i upisan je kao student. [12] U Illinoisu je proglašen studentom godine [13] [14], ali se kasnije povukao bez polaganja završnih ispita nakon druge godine, jer mu je usvojiteljica upravo umrla. Nakon što je ljeto 1966. proveo u Kaliforniji, tada je jedan termin pohađao Univerzitet u Chicagu, studirajući fiziku i matematiku. [12] Nije polagao nijedan ispit, a u Chicagu se prvi put susreo s dizajnom računara. Godine 1966., sa 22 godine, preselio se u Berkeley, California.

Dok je radio u Ampexu ranih 1970 -ih, na njega je uticalo istraživanje Edgara F. Codda o dizajnu relacionih baza podataka za IBM, koje je 1977. dovelo do formiranja onoga što je postalo Oracle. Oracle je postao uspješan dobavljač baza podataka za sisteme srednjeg i niskog dometa, kasnije se natječući sa Sybaseom (nastao 1984.) i Microsoft SQL Serverom (port Sybase stvoren 1989.) što je dovelo do toga da Ellison bude na listi Forbes kao jedan od najbogatijih ljudi na svetu.

1977–1994 Urediti

Tokom 1970 -ih, nakon kratkog boravka u Amdahl Corporation, Ellison je počeo raditi za Ampex Corporation. Njegovi projekti uključivali su bazu podataka za CIA -u, koju je nazvao "Oracle". Ellison je inspiriran radom koji je napisao Edgar F. Codd o sistemima relacijskih baza podataka pod nazivom "Relacijski model podataka za velike banke podataka sa zajedničkom upotrebom". [15] 1977. osnovao je Laboratorije za razvoj softvera (SDL) sa dva partnera, a njegovo ulaganje u iznosu od 2.000 $ 1.200 USD.

1979. kompanija se preimenovala u Relational Software Inc., a 1983. službeno je postala Oracle Systems Corporation po svom vodećem proizvodu, Oracle Database. Ellison je čuo za IBM System R bazu podataka, također zasnovanu na Coddovim teorijama, i želio je da Oracle postigne kompatibilnost s njom, ali IBM je to onemogućio odbijanjem dijeljenja koda System R. Prvo izdanje Oraclea 1979. godine zvalo se Oracle 2, nije postojao Oracle 1. [ potreban citat ] 1990. Oracle je otpustio 10% svoje radne snage (oko 400 ljudi) jer je gubio novac. [16] Ova kriza, koja je skoro rezultirala bankrotom kompanije, nastala je zbog Oracleove "unaprijed" marketinške strategije, u kojoj su prodavači pozvali potencijalne kupce da kupe najveću moguću količinu softvera odjednom. Prodavači su tada knjižili vrijednost buduće prodaje licenci u tekućem tromjesečju, povećavajući tako svoje bonuse. Ovo je postalo problem kada se buduća prodaja kasnije nije ostvarila. Oracle je na kraju morao dva puta prepraviti svoju zaradu, te je morao riješiti grupne tužbe koje su nastale zbog toga što je precijenio svoju zaradu. Ellison će kasnije reći da je Oracle napravio "nevjerojatnu poslovnu grešku". [17]

Iako je IBM sa svojim DB2 i SQL/DS proizvodima baze podataka dominirao na tržištu relacijskih baza podataka glavnog računara, odgodio je ulazak na tržište relacijske baze podataka o Unix i Windows operativnim sistemima. Ovo je ostavilo otvorena vrata za Sybase, Oracle, Informix i na kraju Microsoft da dominiraju sistemima srednjeg opsega i mikroračunarima. Otprilike u to vrijeme, Oracle je zaostao za Sybaseom. Od 1990. do 1993. Sybase je bila najbrže rastuća kompanija baza podataka i dragi dobavljač industrije baza podataka, ali je ubrzo postala žrtva manije spajanja. Spajanje Sybase -a 1996. sa Powersoft -om dovelo je do gubitka fokusa na osnovnu tehnologiju baze podataka. 1993. Sybase je prodala prava na svoj softver za bazu podataka koji radi pod operativnim sistemom Windows korporaciji Microsoft, koja ga sada prodaje pod imenom "SQL Server".

U prvim godinama rada u Oracleu, Larry Ellison proglašen je dobitnikom nagrade u kategoriji visoke tehnologije za program EY Poduzetnik godine. [18]

1994–2010 Urediti

Godine 1994. Informix je pretekao Sybase i postao Oracle -ov najvažniji rival. Intenzivan rat između izvršnog direktora Informixa Phila Whitea i Ellison-a tri je godine bio vijest o Silicijskoj dolini na naslovnoj strani. U aprilu 1997., Informix je najavio veliki manjak prihoda i izmjene zarada. Phil White je na kraju pao u zatvor, a IBM je apsorbirao Informix 2001. Također, 1997. godine, Ellison je postao direktor Apple Computer -a nakon što se Steve Jobs vratio u kompaniju. Ellison je dao ostavku 2002. godine. Porazom Informixa i Sybasea, Oracle je uživao godine dominacije u industriji do uspona Microsoft SQL Servera krajem 1990 -ih i IBM -ove akvizicije Informix softvera 2001. godine kako bi nadopunio svoju DB2 bazu podataka. As of 2013 [update] Oracle's main competition for new database licenses on UNIX, Linux, and Windows operating systems comes from IBM's DB2 and from Microsoft SQL Server. IBM's DB2 still dominates the mainframe database market.

In 2005, Oracle Corporation paid Ellison a $975,000 salary, a $6,500,000 bonus, and other compensation of $955,100. [19] In 2007, Ellison earned a total compensation of $61,180,524, which included a base salary of $1,000,000, a cash bonus of $8,369,000, and options granted of $50,087,100. [20] In 2008, he earned a total compensation of $84,598,700, which included a base salary of $1,000,000, a cash bonus of $10,779,000, no stock grants, and options granted of $71,372,700. [21] In the year ending May 31, 2009, he made $56.8 million. [22] In 2006, Forbes ranked him as the richest Californian. [23] In April 2009, after a tug-of-war with IBM and Hewlett-Packard, Oracle announced its intent to buy Sun Microsystems. [24] On July 2, 2009, for the fourth year in a row, Oracle's board awarded Ellison another 7 million stock options. [25] On August 22, 2009, it was reported that Ellison would be paid only $1 for his base salary for the fiscal year of 2010, down from the $1,000,000 he was paid in fiscal 2009. [22] [26]

2010–present Edit

The European Union approved Oracle's acquisition of Sun Microsystems on January 21, 2010, and agreed that Oracle's acquisition of Sun "has the potential to revitalize important assets and create new and innovative products". [27] The Sun acquisition also gave Oracle control of the popular MySQL open source database, which Sun had acquired in 2008. [28] On August 9, 2010, Ellison denounced Hewlett-Packard's board for firing CEO Mark Hurd, writing that "the HP board just made the worst personnel decision since the idiots on the Apple board fired Steve Jobs many years ago." (Ellison and Hurd were close personal friends.) [29] Then on September 6, Oracle hired Mark Hurd as co-president alongside Safra Catz. Ellison remained in his current role at Oracle. [30]

In March 2010, the Forbes list of billionaires ranked Ellison as the sixth-richest person in the world and as the third-richest American, with an estimated net worth of US$28 billion. [23] On July 27, 2010, The Wall Street Journal reported that Ellison was the best-paid executive in the last decade, collecting a total compensation of US$1.84 billion. [31] In September 2011, Ellison was listed on the Forbes list of billionaires as the fifth richest man in the world and was still the third richest American, with a net worth of about $36.5 billion. In September 2012, Ellison was again listed on the Forbes list of billionaires as the third richest American citizen, behind Bill Gates and Warren Buffett, with a net worth of $44 billion. In October 2012, he was listed just behind David Hamilton Koch as the eighth richest person in the world, according to the Bloomberg Billionaires Index. [32] Ellison owns stakes in Salesforce.com, NetSuite, Quark Biotechnology Inc. and Astex Pharmaceuticals. [33] [34] In June 2012, Ellison agreed to buy 98 percent of the Hawaiian island of Lana'i from David Murdock's company, Castle & Cooke. The price was reported to be between $500 million and $600 million. [35] In 2005, Ellison agreed to settle a four-year-old insider-trading lawsuit by offering to pay $100 million to charity in Oracle's name. [36]

In 2013, according to the Wall Street Journal, Ellison earned $94.6 million. [37] On September 18, 2014, Ellison appointed Mark Hurd to CEO of Oracle from his former position as President Safra Catz was also made CEO, moving from her former role as CFO. Ellison assumed the positions of chief technology officer and executive chairman. [38] [39]

In November 2016, Oracle bought NetSuite for $9.3 billion. Ellison owned 35% of NetSuite at the time of the purchase making him $3.5 billion personally. [40]

In 2017, Forbes estimated that Ellison was the 4th richest person in tech. [41]

In June 2018, Ellison's net worth was about $54.5 billion, according to Forbes. [42]

In December 2018, Ellison became a director on the board of Tesla, Inc., after purchasing 3 million shares earlier that year. [43] [3]

As of December 31, 2019, Ellison owns 36.2% of the shares of Oracle Corporation, [44] and 1.7% of the shares of Tesla.

In April 2020, he launched a wellness company Hawaiian Island Lanai called Sensei. [45]

As of June 2020, Ellison is said to be the seventh wealthiest person in the world, with a net worth of $66.8 billion. [46]

In December 2020, his net worth increased by $2.5 billion in a single week as Oracle's stock jumped by 4% between November 27 and December 4. [47]

Ellison has been married and divorced four times: [48]

  • Adda Quinn from 1967 to 1974.
  • Nancy Wheeler Jenkins from 1977 to 1978. They married six months before Ellison founded Software Development Laboratories. In 1978, the couple divorced. Wheeler gave up any claim on her husband's company for $500.
  • Barbara Boothe from 1983 to 1986. Boothe was a former receptionist at Relational Software Inc. (RSI). [potreban citat] They had two children, David and Megan, who are film producers at Skydance Media and Annapurna Pictures, respectively. [49]
  • Melanie Craft, a romance novelist, from 2003 to 2010. They married on December 18, 2003, at his Woodside estate. Ellison's friend Steve Jobs, former CEO and co-founder of Apple Inc., was the official wedding photographer, [50] and Representative Tom Lantos officiated. They divorced in 2010. [51]

Ellison made a brief cameo appearance in the 2010 movie Iron Man 2. [52] In 2010, Ellison purchased a 50% share of the BNP Paribas Open tennis tournament. [53] Ellison owns many exotic cars, including an Audi R8 and a McLaren F1. His favorite is the Acura NSX, which he was known to give as gifts each year during its production. [34] Ellison is also reportedly the owner of a Lexus LFA. [54]

Controversies Edit

Ellison has courted controversy in the past with not always good natured statements about rival businessmen & firms [55]

His habit of hiring private detectives against rival firms & allegedly ex-partners has also made news. [56]

Yachts Edit

With the economic downturn of 2010, Ellison sold his share of Rising Sun, the 12th largest yacht in the world, making David Geffen the sole owner. [57] The vessel is 453 feet (138 metres) long, [58] and reportedly cost over $200 million to build. He downsized to Musashi, a 288-foot (88-metre) yacht built by Feadship. [59]

Yacht racing Edit

Ellison competes in yachting through Oracle Team USA. [60] Following success racing Maxi yachts, Ellison founded BMW Oracle Racing to compete for the 2003 Louis Vuitton Cup.

In 2002, Ellison's Oracle's team introduced kite yachting into the America's Cup environment. Kite sail flying lasting about 30 minutes was achieved during testing in New Zealand. [61]

BMW Oracle Racing was the "Challenger of Record" on behalf of the Golden Gate Yacht Club of San Francisco for the 2007 America's Cup in Valencia, Spain, until eliminated from the 2007 Louis Vuitton Cup challenger-selection series in the semi-finals. On February 14, 2010, Ellison's yacht USA 17 won the second race (in the best of three "deed of gift" series) of the 33rd America's Cup, after winning the first race two days earlier. Securing a historic victory, Ellison and his BMW Oracle team became the first challengers to win a "deed of gift" match. The Cup returned to American shores for the first time since 1995. Ellison served as a crew member in the second race. [62] Previously, Ellison had filed several legal challenges, through the Golden Gate Yacht Club, against the way that Ernesto Bertarelli (also one of the world's richest men) proposed to organize the 33rd America's Cup following the 2007 victory of Bertarelli's team Alinghi. [62] [63] The races were finally held [ potrebno pojašnjenje ] in February 2010 in Valencia.

On September 25, 2013, Ellison's Oracle Team USA defeated Emirates Team New Zealand to win the 34th America's Cup in San Francisco Bay, California. [64] Oracle Team USA had been penalized two points in the final for cheating by some team members during the America's Cup World Series warm-up events. [65] The Oracle team came from a 1–8 deficit to win 9–8, in what has been called "one of the greatest comebacks in sports history". [66]

Oracle Racing lost the 2017 America's Cup to Team New Zealand.

In 2019, Ellison, in conjunction with Russell Coutts, started the SailGP international racing series. [67] The series used F50 foiling catamarans, the fastest class of boat in history with regattas held across the globe. Ellison committed to five years of funding to support the series until it could become self sustaining. The first season was successful with global audiences of over 1.8 billion. [68] [69] [70]

Aviation Edit

Ellison is a licensed pilot who has owned several aircraft. [9] He was cited by the city of San Jose, California, for violating its limits on late-night takeoffs and landings from San Jose Mineta International Airport by planes weighing more than 75,000 pounds (34,019 kg). In January 2000, Ellison sued over the interpretation of the airport rule, contending that his Gulfstream V aircraft "is certified by the manufacturer to fly at two weights: 75,000 pounds, and at 90,000 pounds for heavier loads or long flights requiring more fuel. But the pilot only lands the plane in San Jose when it weighs 75,000 pounds or less, and has the logs to prove it." [71] US District Judge Jeremy Fogel ruled in Ellison's favor in June 2001, calling for a waiver for Ellison's jet, but did not invalidate the curfew. [72]

Ellison also owns at least two military jets: a SIAI-Marchetti S.211, a training aircraft designed in Italy, and a decommissioned MiG-29, which the US government has refused him permission to import. [9]

Tenis Edit

In 2009, Larry purchased the Indian Wells Tennis Garden tennis facility in California's Coachella Valley and the Indian Wells Masters tournament, both of which he still owns.

Homes Edit

Ellison styled his estimated $110 million Woodside, California, estate after feudal Japanese architecture, complete with a man-made 2.3-acre (0.93 ha) lake and an extensive seismic retrofit. [73] In 2004 and 2005 he purchased more than 12 properties in Malibu, California, worth more than $180 million. The $65 million Ellison spent on five contiguous lots at Malibu's Carbon Beach made this the most costly residential transaction in United States history until Ron Perelman sold his Palm Beach, Florida, compound for $70 million later that same year. [74] His entertainment system cost $1 million, and includes a rock concert-sized video projector at one end of a drained swimming pool, using the gaping hole as a giant subwoofer. [75]

In early 2010, Ellison purchased the Astor's Beechwood Mansion – formerly the summer home of the Astor family – in Newport, Rhode Island, for $10.5 million. [76]

In 2011 he purchased the 249-acre Porcupine Creek Estate and private golf course in Rancho Mirage, California, for $42.9 million. [76] The property was formerly the home of Yellowstone Club founders Edra and Tim Blixseth, and was sold to Ellison by creditors following their divorce and bankruptcy. [77]

On June 21, 2012, the governor of Hawaii, Neil Abercrombie, declared that Ellison had signed an agreement to buy most of the island of Lanai from the Castle & Cooke company, owned by David H. Murdock. Following the purchase Ellison owns 98% of Lanai, Hawaii's sixth-largest island. [78]

In December 2020, he left California and moved to Hawaii. [79]

Uredi filantropiju

In 1992 Ellison shattered his elbow in a high-speed bicycle crash. After receiving treatment at University of California, Davis, Ellison donated $5 million to seed the Lawrence J. Ellison Musculo-Skeletal Research Center. In 1998, the Lawrence J. Ellison Ambulatory Care Center opened on the Sacramento campus of the UC Davis Medical Center. [80]

To settle an insider trading lawsuit arising from his selling nearly $1 billion of Oracle stock, a court allowed Ellison to donate $100 million to his own charitable foundation without admitting wrongdoing. A California judge refused to allow Oracle to pay Ellison's legal fees of $24 million. Ellison's lawyer had argued that if Ellison were to pay the fees, that could be construed as an admission of guilt. His charitable donations to Stanford University raised questions about the independence of two Stanford professors who evaluated the case's merits for Oracle. [81] In response to the September 11 terrorist attacks of 2001, Ellison made a controversial offer to donate software to the federal government [82] that would have enabled it to build and run a national identification database and to issue ID cards. [83]

Forbes ' 2004 list of charitable donations made by the wealthiest 400 Americans stated that Ellison had donated [ kada? ] $151,092,103, about 1% of his estimated personal wealth. [84] In June 2006, Ellison announced he would not honor his earlier pledge of $115 million to Harvard University, claiming it was due to the departure of former President Lawrence Summers. Oracle spokesman Bob Wynne announced, "It was really Larry Summers' brainchild and once it looked like Larry Summers was leaving, Larry Ellison reconsidered . [I]t was Larry Ellison and Larry Summers that had initially come up with this notion." [85] In 2007 Ellison pledged $500,000 to fortify a community centre in Sderot, Israel, after discovering that the building was not fortified against rocket attacks. [86] Other charitable donations by Ellison include a $10 million donation to the Friends of the Israel Defense Forces in 2014. [87] In 2017 Ellison again donated to the Friends of the Israel Defense Forces, this time for $16.6 million. His donation was intended to support the construction of well-being facilities on a new campus for co-ed conscripts. [88]

In August 2010 a report listed Ellison as one of the 40 billionaires who had signed "The Giving Pledge". [89] [90]

In May 2016 Ellison donated $200 million to the University of Southern California for establishing a cancer research center: the Lawrence J. Ellison Institute for Transformative Medicine of USC. [91]

Ellison was critical of NSA whistle-blower Edward Snowden, saying that "Snowden had yet to identify a single person who had been 'wrongly injured' by the NSA's data collection". [92] He has donated to both Democratic and Republican politicians, [93] and in late 2014 hosted Republican Senator Rand Paul at a fundraiser at his home. [94] [95]

Ellison was one of the top donors to Conservative Solutions PAC, a super PAC supporting Marco Rubio's 2016 presidential bid. As of February 2016, Ellison had given $4 million overall to the PAC. [96] In 2020, Ellison allowed Donald Trump to have a fundraiser at his Rancho Mirage estate, [97] [98] but Ellison was not present. [99]

In 1997, Ellison received the Golden Plate Award of the American Academy of Achievement. [100] [101]

In 2013, Ellison was inducted into the Bay Area Business Hall of Fame. [102]

In 2019, the Lawrence J. Ellison Institute for Transformative Medicine of USC honored Ellison with the first Rebels With A Cause Award in recognition of his generous support through the years. [103]


August 16, 1944 – Eva Ginzova

Eva Ginzova is one of the few teenage diarists from the Holocaust to have had a sibling who also wrote. Petr Ginz, her brother, was a prolific author and artist in his own right. Eva was proud of his education and his accomplishments. He appears as a subject in many of her diary entries and it is clear that his well-being was as important to her as her own.

Eva was younger than Petr, and it is obvious that she looked up to him. Because he was older, he had been sent to the Theresienstadt “camp-ghetto” two years earlier. When she arrived, she discovered that Petr had already established a reputation among his peers. On August 16, 1944, she wrote, “When I arrived, one girl asked me whether Petr was my brother, and said that he was the most intelligent boy from the heim [children’s home]. I was very pleased and very proud of him.”

Petr’s presence in Theresienstadt was a great comfort to Eva, but one that would not last. On September 28, 1944, they were separated when Petr was sent to Auschwitz. After the war was long over, Eva wrote one last entry in her diary. It was the heartbroken observation that Petr had not come home. Eva survived the Holocaust, Petr did not.

Eva’s diary reminds us that no one lives apart from the influences of others. Our parents, siblings, and friends help to make us who we are. Their lives and legacies stay with us as long as we live. One of the greatest crimes of the Holocaust was the splitting of families, especially when murder made the separation permanent.

Read more about Theresienstadt (Terezin Ghetto).

Learn more about Eva Ginzova (now Chava Pressberger), her career as an artist, and the publication of her brother’s diary.


555th Parachute Infantry Battalion [Triple Nickles] (1944-1947)

On August 6, 1945, Private First Class Malvin L. Brown was killed after falling 140 feet during a “let-down” from a tree while fighting a forest fire in the Umpqua National Forest in southern Oregon. Brown was the first smokejumper to die while fighting a wildfire since the program’s inception by the U.S. Forest Service in 1939. He was also the only member of the “Triple Nickles” 555th Parachute Infantry Battalion to die in the line of duty during World War II.

The 555th Parachute Infantry Battalion was nicknamed “Triple Nickles” because of its numerical designation and because 17 of its original 24 “colored test platoon” were from the 92nd Infantry (“Buffalo Soldiers”) Division of the U.S. Army. Their identifying symbol is three buffalo nickels joined in a triangle and the oddly-spelled “Nickle” is one of their trademarks.

During the winter of 1943-1944, the first black paratroopers in army history began training at Fort Benning, Georgia. After several months, the segregated unit was moved to Camp Mackall, North Carolina, where it was reorganized and redesignated as Company A of the newly activated 555th Parachute Infantry Battalion. Unlike other African American infantry units officered by whites, the 555th was entirely black since six black officers also completed jump training.

By late 1944, the first platoon of Triple Nickles was fully trained, combat-ready, and alerted for European duty. The men were anxious to fight Hitler’s Nazis in Europe or the Japanese in the Pacific. Instead, racial military politics and changing war conditions kept the paratroopers home and away from the war they had been trained to fight.

On May 5, 1945, a Japanese incendiary balloon explosion killed the pregnant wife of a local minister and five young members of their church while on a Sunday picnic near Bly, Oregon. The Army kept the details of the incident a secret as they didn’t want members of the public to panic regarding the thousands of such balloon bombs that had been launched by the Japanese toward American shores, intended to start major forest fires and create just such fears.

In early 1945, the Triple Nickles had received secret orders from the War Department called “Operation Firefly.” They were sent to Pendleton, Oregon, assigned to the 9th Services Command, and trained by the Forest Service to become history’s first military smokejumpers. They were specifically designated to respond to Japanese balloon bombs.

During that year’s fire season, the Triple Nickles made more than 1,200 individual jumps and helped control at least 28 major fires although none were believed to have been caused by the Japanese. The paratroopers suffered numerous injuries but only one fatality: the day of Malvin Brown’s death, August 6, 1945, was also the day the United States dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan. Both events made the front page of the local newspaper in Roseburg, Oregon but the pioneer paratrooper’s death was barely noticed by comparison and soon forgotten.

In December 1947, the Triple Nickles were deactivated and their personnel were assigned to other Army units. One group, the 2nd Airborne Ranger Company, became the first black unit to make a combat jump during the Korean War. Ultimately, the Triple Nickles served in more airborne units, in peace and in war, than any other parachute group in history.


17 August 1944 - History

As follows is a transcript of the monthly report from the 603rd Squadron to the 1st Bombardment Division. Many names are mentioned in the report. You may wish to use your web browser's Find Command to search for a particular individual. If you are unsure about the spelling, try the first few letters.

Eighth Air Force
1st Bombardment Division
1st Combat Bombardment Wing (H)
398th Bombardment Group (H)
603rd Bombardment Group (H)

603 Bomb Squadron
istorija
August 1st to August 31st 1944

Eighth Air Force
1st Bombardment Division
398th Bombardment Group (H)

Period Covered from August 1, 1944 to August 31, 1944
Prepared by
David M. Hall, 1st Lt., A.C.

Squadron History
603rd Bombardment Squadron (H)

August 1, 1944

Target: Melun-Villaroche, France.

See attached loading list. [Not transcribed at this time.]

August 3, 1944

Target: Saarbrucken, Germany.

See attached loading list. [Not transcribed at this time.]

August 4, 1944

Target: Peenmeunde, Germany.

See attached loading list. [Not transcribed at this time.]

2nd Lt. John S. MacArthur (later promoted to 1st Lt., August 12) and his crew were hit by flak over target area and are reported missing in action.

The members of the crew were:

Editor’s Notes

August 5, 1944

See attached loading list. [Not transcribed at this time.]

August 6, 1944

Target: Brandenburg, Germany.

See attached loading list. [Not transcribed at this time.]

Captain Robert L. Hopkins, Flight Commander, let the low group.

August 8, 1944

Target: Bretteville Le Rabet, France.

See attached loading list. [Not transcribed at this time.]

Captain Meyer C. Wagner Jr., Squadron Commanding Officer and Captain Robert L. Hopkins, Flight Commander who led the 398th Group on today’s mission were hit by flak over the target and are now reported missing in action.

The crew lost included the 3rd Squadron Commanding Officer since reaching the European Theater of Operations, the last of the original Flight Commanders and the Squadron Navigator, 1st Lt. Vonn Wernecke.

The members of the crew were:

Ime Rank Position Home Address
1 Hopkins, Robert L. Capt. Pilot Mulberry Grove, Illinois
2 Wagner, Meyer C. Capt. C.A. [603rd Commanding Officer as C.A. would have sat in the Co-Pilot's seat] Warwick Hotel, Houston, Texas
3 Kushera, Frederick J. Jr. 2nd Lt. Co-Pilot (flew tail gun position) 2022 Dorland Drive, Whittier, California
4 Wernecke, Vonn (NMI) 1st Lt. [Squadron] Navigator 13005 – 8th Avenue N.W., Seattle, Washington
5 Stitz, Thomas J. 2nd Lt. Navigator 114 West High Street, Canal Fulton, Ohio
6 Arnold, Charles (NMI) 2nd Lt. Bombardier Marseilles, Illinois
7 Germiller, William J. T/Sgt. Engineer/ Top Turret Gunner 23 Hoffman Avenue, Poughkeepsie, New York
8 Gibeau, Raymond G. T/Sgt. Radio operater Bellaire, Kansas
9 Hochadel, James F. S/Sgt. Ball Turret Gunner 736 Elm Street, Youngtown, Ohio
10 Werner, John I. S/Sgt. Left Waist Gunner 1780 – 142nd Avenue, San Leandro, California

Editor’s Notes
  1. S/Sgt. James F. Hochadel, Ball Turret Gunner and 2nd Lt. Charles Arnold, Bombardier were killed in action.
  2. The remaining 8 men became Prisoners of War, with two escaping after capture. These were Captain Meyer C. Wagner, Jr. and 1st Lt. Vonnerlin Wernecke.

Captain James G. Davidson, Jr., who has been Squadron Operations Officer for over a month was made Squadron Commanding Officer. The spot for Squadron Navigator is still open.

Technical Sergeant L.D. Mason, engineer gunner on Lt. Engel’s crew at the completion of 27 missions has finished his tour in the European Theater of Operations.

August 9, 1944

Target: Saarbrucken, Germany.

See attached loading list. [Not transcribed at this time.]

Due to bad weather the Group bombed a target of opportunity instead of the primary.

August 10, 1944

1st Lt. Robert W. Kaufman came out on Special Order #20 as a Squadron Flight Commander.

August 11, 1944

Captain Harvery H. Latson, a Squadron Flight Commander led the Low Group to Brest, France.

See attached loading list. [Not transcribed at this time.]

August 12, 1944

See attached loading list. [Not transcribed at this time.]

The following officers were promoted from Second Lieutenant to First Lieutenant:

  1. Edward C. Jordan
  2. J.J. Lee
  3. W.L. Meyran
  4. L.M. Sundheim
  5. E.W. Klatte
  6. R.W. Lehner, and
  7. M.W. Magnan

Two other men, who previously have been reported missing in action also made First Lieutenant:

2nd Lt. Linder Tanksley, bombardier on 1st Lt. Dean L. Foster’s crew became the first member of the Squadron to actually complete the required number of combat missions. He flew a total 32 missions.

August 13, 1944

Captain Harvey H. Latson flew with Colonel Frank P. Hunter, Jr., in the lead ship to Le Manoir, France.

Captain James G. Davidson, Jr., Squadron Commanding Officer flew with 1st Lt. W.J. Durtschi in the group deputy lead position.

See attached loading list. [Not transcribed at this time.]

2nd Lt. J.W. Beck, navigator, completed his tour of duty in the E.T.O. with 31 missions, as did Technical Sergeant L.G. Nance, Jr., radio operator gunner, with 29 missions.

August 15, 1944

See attached loading list. (not transcribed).

2nd Lt. John F. Naoiti, Navigator, was promoted to First Lieutenant.

2nd Lt. Arthur Silverman, Co-Pilot, finished his tour with 33 missions as did 1st Lt. J. Gurney, Bombardier, with 30 missions.

August 16, 1944

See attached loading list. [Not transcribed at this time.]

The following officers were promoted from Second Lieutenant to First Lieutenant:

The following men completed their tour of duty:

  1. 1st Lt. Anthony J. Jellen, navigator – 33 missions
  2. 1st Lt. Dean L. Foster, pilot – 32 missions
  3. Technical Sergeant J.C. Bird, engineer gunner – 30 missions
  4. Technical Sergeant W. Hineman, Jr., radio operator gunner – 32 missions
  5. Staff Sergeant F. P. Devaney, ball turret gunner – 32 missions
  6. Staff Sergeant Dwight Hinkle, tail gunner – 25 missions
  7. Staff Sergeant Arthur Wilkinson, waist gunner – 29 missions

August 18, 1944

The following officers were promoted from Second Lieutenant to First Lieutenant:

  1. Carlotho Turner
  2. Robert E. Ullom
  3. Arthur Silverman
  4. Roy W. Wilkins
  5. Raymond A. Winkler
  6. William A. Wright, Jr.

August 19, 1944

The Squadron enlisted men were given a party in the combat mess hall.

Second Lieutenant John O. Hobbs was promoted to 1st Lieutenant.

August 21, 1944

Under Special Order #22 Captain Harvey H. Latson became Squadron Operations Officer and 1st Lt. L.W. Sundheim became Squadron Navigator.

The following officers were promoted from Second Lieutenant to First Lieutenant:

August 24, 1944

After seven consequitive “stand-downs” mostly due to bad weather the Group finally flew a mission to Kolleda, Germany.

See attached loading list. [Not transcribed at this time.]

1st Lt. Charles E. Khourie and crew flew 1st combat combat mission.

The other members of the crew who reported to the Squadron August 6 are:

  1. 2nd Lt. John J. Leyden, Jr.
  2. 2nd Lt. Frederico Gonzalez
  3. 2nd Lt. Jack E. Kutchback
  4. Sergeant Robert C. Mayfield
  5. Sergeant William A. Schumate
  6. Sergeant Howard E. Rogers
  7. Corporal Joseph J. Kelly, Jr.
  8. Corporal John L. Crecelius, and
  9. Corporal Paul E. Russell

August 25, 1944

Target: Neu Brandenberg, Germany.

See attached loading list. [Not transcribed at this time.]

August 26, 1944

See attached loading list. [Not transcribed at this time.]

The following officers completed their combat tours:

  1. 1st Lt. Henry Timbrook, Jr., navigator – 33 missions
  2. 1st Lt. John F. Naioti, navigator –32 missions
  3. 1st Lt. P.F. Heitman, navigator – 33 missions

August 27, 1944

The group was recalled due to weather just a short distance from the target Schonefeld, Germany. The 603rd Squadron was stood down. However, Squadron ships were used on the mission.

1st Lt. J.P. Baker, navigator, flew in a PFF ship with the 601st Squadron.

August 28, 1944

The following new men entered the Squadron as replacement:

  1. 2nd Lt. Kenneth S. Hastings
  2. 2nd Lt. Donald J. Decleene
  3. 2nd Lt. Oral B. Birch
  4. Corporal John S. Bourquin
  5. Corporal James J. Briody
  6. Corporal Wilbur F. Lucas
  7. Corporal Donald B. Colbert
  8. Corporal Oliver W. Bradford
  9. Corporal Kenneth A. Green

August 29, 1944

2nd Lt. George Potter enters the Squadron as a Mickey Navigator.

August 30, 1944

See attached loading list. [Not transcribed at this time.]

Captain Jack C. Novak, who recently was promoted from First Lieutenant, completed his tour of duty with 32 missions.


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