Ulje

Ulje

Kako je FDR očarao saudijskog kralja i osvojio američki pristup nafti

Tajni ratni sastanak. ...čitaj više

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Spindletop

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John D. Rockefeller

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Naftna industrija

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Gusher signalizira početak američke naftne industrije

10. januara 1901. bušaća bušotina na brdu Spindletop u blizini Beaumonta u Teksasu proizvodi ogromnu količinu sirove nafte, prekrivajući krajolik stotinama stopa i signalizirajući dolazak američke naftne industrije. Gejzir je otkriven na dubini od 1.000 stopa, ...čitaj više

Naftni radnici se utopili u Sjevernom moru

Plutajući stan za naftne radnike u Sjevernom moru srušio se, ubivši 123 osobe, 30. marta 1980. Na platformi Alexander Kielland bilo je smješteno 208 ljudi koji su radili na obližnjoj naftnoj platformi Edda u polju Ekofisk, 235 milja istočno od Dundeeja, Škotska. Većina Phillips Petroleuma ...čitaj više

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Ulje - POVIJEST

Zbog stanja pustinje u Libiji je bilo dosta bušenja mnogo prije nego što je bilo sumnje da ima nafte. Potraga za vodom uključivala je bušenje vrlo dubokih bunara. Još 1915. godine duboki bunari koje su izbušili Italijani ponekad su pronalazili prirodni gas. To je bilo od interesa, ali prirodni plin u to vrijeme nije bio glavna roba. U SAD -u je prirodni plin iz nafte spaljen (spaljen) kao smetnja.

Godine 1935. profesor sa Univerziteta u Milanu koji je bio zadužen za program bušenja bunara za vodu učinio je točku na koju treba obratiti pažnju da li ima nafte. Ovo je vjerovatno bilo više iz akademskog interesa nego iz ozbiljne brige za pronalaženje značajnog ekonomskog resursa. Nekoliko godina kasnije nafta je otkrivena u bušotini za vodu bušenoj u blizini Tripolija.

Ovo otkriće bilo je dovoljno da potakne geološko istraživanje u Tripolitaniji. Jedna bušotina je izbušena u potrazi za naftom, ali nije pronađena. Ipak, 1940. godine pokrenut je program istraživanja, ali raspoloživa oprema nije bila dovoljna da se nosi sa teškim uslovima pustinje Sahara. Ubrzo nakon toga u Libiju je došao rat i sva istraživanja su prestala.

Odmah nakon Drugog svjetskog rata politički status Libije, koju je kontrolirala Italija, bio je neizvjestan. Nije postojala država koja bi kompanijama za istraživanje nafte mogla jamčiti prava na ono što bi mogli pronaći. Stoga nije bilo istraživanja sve dok Libija nije postala nezavisna kraljevina 1951. Novo kraljevstvo razvilo je zakon o pravima na minerale kroz konsultacije s međunarodnim naftnim kompanijama. Godine 1953. Libija je izdala dozvole za istraživanje jedanaest naftnih kompanija. Te kompanije su izvršile geološka istraživanja. Godine 1955. naftna bušotina uspješno je izbušena u pustinjskim uvjetima odmah preko granice u Alžiru.

Lidijanski čelnici bili su odlučni u namjeri da zadrže tržište za dozvole za istraživanje u Libiji, umjesto da daju koncesiju jednoj kompaniji ili konzorcijumu od nekoliko kompanija. Nadalje, čak i kada bi jedna kompanija dobila koncesiju u određenom području, morala bi se odreći jedne četvrtine koncesije nakon pet godina. To je trebalo omogućiti vladi da dodijeli tu teritoriju novoj kompaniji u nadi da će nova kompanija uspjeti tamo gdje je druga propala.

Uvjeti su bili da će naftne kompanije morati platiti 12,5 posto tantijema na svoje prihode i 50 posto poreza na dobit. Naravno, autorski honorari i drugi operativni troškovi mogli su se odbiti pri izračunavanju profita kompanije.

Naftne kompanije bile su jako zainteresirane za razvoj izvora nafte u Libiji jer se nalazila na Sredozemnom moru. Njihove izvore iz Irana ograničila je tamošnja politička kriza u godinama 1951. do 1954. Suecka kriza 1956.-57. Rezultirala je zatvaranjem Sueckog kanala. Sav nafta iz istočnog Sueza morala se dopremati po južnom dijelu Afrike uz velike dodatne troškove. Osim toga, smatralo se da Libija ima stabilnu, prozapadnu vladu.

Do 1957. godine u Libiji je radilo desetak kompanija na šezdeset različitih koncesija. Kompanije koje tamo posluju uključivale su sedam glavnih kompanija i francusku parastatalnu Compagnie Fran & ccedilaaise des P & eacutetroles. Postojao je i Oasis, konzorcij tri kompanije koje su tek započele međunarodno istraživanje nafte, Amerada Hess, Conoco i Marathon. Postojala je i naftna kompanija Bunker Hunt -a, sina američkog naftnog magnata H.L. Hunta.

Godine 1957. Esso je odlučio bušiti u području preko granice odakle je dopremljena alžirska naftna bušotina. Izbušilo je tri bušotine i jedna od njih je uspjela. Uvezen je u januaru 1958. godine sa protokom od 500 barela dnevno. To nije bilo mnogo s obzirom na troškove bušenja.

1959. Esso je bušio u regiji Siritica, koja je sjeverni centralni dio zemlje. Dovodio je bunar sa protokom od 17.500 barela dnevno. Zatim je uslijedio još jedan bunarski protok od 15.000 barela dnevno. Kasnije 1959. dovedene su i druge naftne bušotine u Siritici. Sveukupno je šest velikih naftnih polja u Libiji otkriveno 1959. Esso i Oasis bili su lideri na tom polju.


Energetski resursi

Naftno polje Wilmington treće je najveće polje u susjednim Sjedinjenim Državama s konačnim oporavom procijenjenim na tri milijarde barela nafte. Polje se nalazi na 13 milja dugačkoj i 3 milje širokoj Wilmingtonovoj antiklinali koja se proteže od kopna San Pedra do priobalne plaže Seal i podijeljeno je okomito greškama stvarajući zasebne proizvodne cjeline nazvane Blokovi kvarova. Nafta se proizvodi iz pet velikih intervala pijeska u dubinama od 2.000 stopa do 11.000 stopa, gdje je izvađeno više od dvije i pol milijarde barela nafte. Nafta i plin se oporavljaju primarnom proizvodnjom, sekundarnim poplavama vode i plavljenjem parom. Do sada je izbušeno ukupno 6.150 bušotina.

Naftna radna područja

Naftne operacije

Na naftnom polju Wilmington, koje obuhvata i plimna i gornja područja, DOP nadgleda rad dva privatna izvođača i njihovih 300 zaposlenih. Tidelands Oil Company je terenski izvođač radova za zapadni Wilmington. Od 1932. godine izbušeno je više od 3.400 bušotina na kopnu. Pedesetih i šezdesetih godina prošlog stoljeća započelo je poplavljanje vode kako bi se povećao oporavak i kontrola slijeganja.

California Resources Corporation (CRC) je terenski izvođač radova za Long Beach Unit (LBU), istočni priobalni dio polja Wilmington. THUMS Long Beach Company (nazvan po originalnim izvođačima radova na terenu: Texaco, Humble, Union, Mobil i Shell) je agent za CRC. Godine 1964. izgrađena su četiri ostrva koja je napravio čovjek, nazvana po astronautima koji su izgubili živote tokom prvih godina američkog istraživanja svemira (Grissom, White, Chaffee i Freeman). Pier J je proširen u luku Long Beach radi razvoja LBU -a. Izbušeno je približno 1.450 bušotina. Jedinica Long Beach započela je poplave vode pri pokretanju kako bi spriječila slijeganje. Danas, proizvodnja nafte Wilmington Field iznosi približno 46.000 barela dnevno iz 1.550 aktivnih bušotina.

Shema otoka

Otok Grissom

U Uplands, Grad je i učesnik tantijema i vlasnik radnog interesa u svojim nekretninama uz Signal Hill i drugim nekretninama u cijelom Gradu. Jedinica Signal Hill West (SHWU) i Signal Hill East Unit (SHEU) dio su naftnog polja Long Beach koje se nalazi i na Long Beachu i u Signal Hillu. Struktura antiklinale izražena na površini vidljiva je miljama i lokalna je znamenitost pored aerodroma Long Beach. Signal Hill Petroleum Inc. trenutno je operater evidencije. Rekreacijski park nalazi se na sjevernoj strani 7. ulice. Ukupno 7 bušotina sada upravlja Breitburn Energy Company LLC, nezavisna naftna kompanija iz Los Angelesa. City Wasem Community Lease nalazi se u blizini stadiona Marine, koji je produžetak naftnog polja Seal Beach. Naftni bazen morskog područja otkrili su i razvili 1979. godine Elliot & amp Ten Eyck (ET). Zakup trenutno ima 16 aktivnih bušotina.


Vrijedi li moja stara zaliha nafte bilo šta?

Molimo vas da podržite ovo istraživanje! Originalno istraživanje Američkog historijskog društva za naftu i gas i popratno održavanje foruma ovisi o vašoj pojedinačnoj financijskoj podršci. AOGHS nije povezan ni sa jednom naftnom kompanijom, zagovaračkim grupama ili industrijskim lobističkim organizacijama.

Vinjeta certifikata o naftnim zalihama često je važan dio njegove vrijednosti za pisanje - kupoprodaja certifikata kao kolekcionarskih predmeta nakon što nemaju vrijednosni papir koji se može otkupiti.

Historija naftnih kompanija

Iako često kontroverzno, treba sačuvati povijest američkog istraživanja, proizvodnje i transporta nafte. Od kerozina za lampe, benzina za automobile i plastičnih polimera za svakodnevne proizvode, društvena, ekonomska i tehnološka istorija industrije nudi kontekst za razumijevanje modernih energetskih debata.

U žurbi sa štampanjem certifikata o zalihama tokom naftnih eksplozija, nove kompanije često su odlučile da štampaju certifikate pomoću vinjete od derrika!

Sakupljači su otkrili iznenađujući broj primjera gdje su brzo osnovane istraživačke kompanije odabrale potpuno istu scenu naftnih polja za certifikate dionica. Možda biste uštedjeli vrijeme i novac odabirom uobičajene vinjete koja se danas nalazi na dionicama Centralizirane naftne i gasne kompanije Double Standard Oil & amp Gas Gas Evangeline Oil Company Teksaske proizvodne kompanije Tulsa Kompanija za proizvodnju i preradu Hecla-Wyoming Oil Company Oil Prospectors Inc. Craven Oil & amp Rafiniranje Buck Run Oil i Rafinerija ulja Oil & amp Gas Hog Creek Carruth Company Buffalo-Texas Oil Company i Champion Oil Company.

Možete li mi reći nešto o ovoj staroj naftnoj kompaniji (besplatno)? Našao sam njegov certifikat o zalihama u potkrovlju. Jesam li bogat? Vjerovatno ne. Kao što je prikazano u donjim kompanijama, od 1850 -ih godina naftna industrija SAD -a i ciklusi procvata i propadanja ostavili su mnoge žrtve. Za primjer onog koji je dospio na sudove, pogledajte Not Millionaire from Old Oil Stock.

Prva američka naftna kompanija#8211, Pennsylvania Rock Oil Company iz New Yorka, organizirala ju je 1855.

Nažalost, ovo malo historijsko društvo ne može udovoljiti zahtjevima besplatno istraživanje u vezi s istorijatom pojedinačnih kompanija i potencijalnom vrijednošću vrijednosnih papira. Kao što ste možda otkrili, financijsko istraživanje je teško i oduzima mnogo vremena. Ako imate sreće, posjetitelj ove web stranice ili volonter društva možda su objavili korisne informacije.

Ako vaš certifikat nije naveden ovdje i želite podijeliti daljnja istraživačka iskustva, pozvani ste da svoj upit pošaljete u tekućoj verziji Stock & Certificate Q & ampA Forum.

U nastavku se nalazi istraživanje vodećeg volontera Američkog povijesnog društva za naftu i gas. Prikazane istorije kompanije često pričaju fascinantne priče i jesu ekskluzivno postova Q & ampA foruma o certifikatu dionica također se nalazi na ovoj web stranici. Za više ovih rijetkih istorija provjerite ovdje.

Najnovija istraživanja – Ažurirano u svibnju 2021

Kompanija za jazavčevo ulje i gas
Bailey Gaunce Oil & amp Refining Corporation*
Barrington Oil Company
Beaumont Confederated Oil & amp Pipe Line Company
Velika indijska kompanija za razvoj nafte i pojačala
Naftna kompanija Big Six*
Naftna kompanija Black Gold*
Black Hills Petroleum Company
Blokirajte sindikat nafte i gasa*
Blue Ridge Natural Gas & amp Oil Corporation*
Bluebird Oil & Amp Gas Gas Association*
Boulder Petroleum Company
Kompanija Buck Run Oil and Refining Company
Buffalo Oil Company
Buffalo-Texas Oil Company
Kompanija za bušenje bugova*
Naftna kompanija Burkburnett-Center*
Burkburnett-Claiborne Oil Company*
Burk Imperial Oil Company*
Kompanija za proizvodnju Burk-Tex*
Busseyville Oil & amp gas*
Interesi Butlera Perrymana*
* Istraživanje u toku

D.M. Simon Oil & Amp Gas Gas Company*
Dallas Oil Company iz Teksasa*
Naftna kompanija Delaware Union*
Delhi Oil Company
Denton-Eastland Oil Company*
Naftna kompanija Desoto*
Naftna kompanija DeSoto*
Kompanija za preradu nafte i pojačala u Detroitu*
Dominion Oil Company*
Double Standard Oil & Amp Gas Gas Company
Doughboy Oil Company
Dysart Oil Company
* Istraživanje u toku

Fairchild Petroleum*
Farmers Oil & amp Gas Company*
Federalna konsolidirana naftna kompanija*
Federalna kompanija za naftu i gas
Naftna kompanija Fifty-Seven*
Naftna kompanija Fort Stockton*
Foster Farm Oil Company
Franklin Oil & amp Refining Company*
* Istraživanje u toku

Garfield Oil & amp Refining Company*
Gate City-Wyoming Oil & amp Gas Company*
Gatex Oil Company*
Galloway Oil Corporation
Kompanija za gas, naftu i razvoj (The)
General Oil Company*
General Resources Corporation*
Gin Site Oil Company*
Gladys City kompanija za proizvodnju nafte, plina i pojačala
Gladys Oil Company
Glenn McCarthy, Inc.
Globe kompanija za prirodni gas*
Naftna kompanija za zlatne medalje*
Naftna kompanija Golden Gate
Kompanija Golden Goose Oil and Refining Company
Golden Valley Oil & amp Gas Company
Sretno naftna kompanija*
Goshen Oil & amp Gas Company*
Grand County Company za preradu nafte i pojačala*
Great Basin Oil Company*
Velike vrijednosnice za naftne bazene*
Veliko južno udruženje za preradu nafte i pojačala*
Velika jugozapadna naftna kompanija*
Odlična ulja slatke trave*
Great Western Oil & amp Gas Gas Company
Naftna kompanija Greater Great Falls*
Green River Oil & Amp Uranium Company*
Gypsy-Burke Oil Company*
* Istraživanje u toku

Hamilton Oil & Amp Gas Gas Company*
Hale Petroleum Company*
Harris-Fisher Oil Company*
Havana Oil Company
Hayden-Burk Petroleum Company*
Naftna kompanija Hecla-Wyoming*
Hesperian Petroleum Company*
Higgins Wonder Oil Company
Naftna kompanija Hiram Wilson*
Hoffman Oil & amp Refining Corporation
Hog Creek Carruth Oil Company
Holiday Oil & amp Gas Gas Company*
Holly Oil Company
Homa Oil & amp Gas Gas Company*
Početna Kompanija za razvoj nafte i pojačala
Početna Naftna kompanija*
Homestead Oil Company
Kopačka potkovica Četverolisno rudarstvo i naftna kompanija*
Potkovica-Western Oil Company
Kompanija Humble Oil Ridge*
Huntsville Consolidated Gas Company*
* Istraživanje u toku

Imperial Drilling Company*
Indijska kompanija za proizvodnju nafte i gasa*
Industrijsko poduzeće za preradu ulja i pojačala*
Intercontinent Petroleum*
Međunarodna korporacija za naftu i gas
Međudržavna naftna kompanija*
Iowa i California Oil & amp Gas Company*
Naftna kompanija Iowa-Beaumont
* Istraživanje u toku

Kantexo Oil & Amp Gas Gas Company*
Keck Oil Company*
Ken-Saw Petroleum Corporation*
Naftna kompanija King George*
Naftna kompanija Kokernot
Kutz Canon Oil & Amp Gas Gas Company*
* Istraživanje u toku

La Lomita Oil Syndicate*
Lewis Oil Corporation
Lewiston-Clarkston Oil & Amp Gas Gas Company*
Lexa Oil Company*
Naftna kompanija Lincoln-Idaho
Kompanija za proizvodnju ulja Lincoln*
Kompanija za proizvodnju tečnog zlata*
Louisiana Consolidated Petroleum Company*
Love Petroleum Company*
Loy Oil Company*
Lucky Jim Oil Company
Lucky Long Oil Company*
* Istraživanje u toku

Kako se ova najprodavanija knjiga iz 1950-ih odnosi prema neopreznim investitorima i ljudima koji stoje iza sjenovite istraživačke kompanije? Pročitajte Oil Prospectors, Inc.

Mahala Oil & amp Gas Company*
Naftna kompanija Mary Owens*
McKeesport Gas Company
McTon Oil Company*
Meridian Petroleum Company
Meksička kompanija za proizvodnju nafte i uglja*
Mid-Central Oil & amp Minerals Company*
Middle States Oil Corporation
Midfields Oil Company
Mid-Texas Petroleum Company*
Minnesota-Western Oil Company
Minnesota Victoria Oil Company*
Milwaukee Electra Oil Development Company*
Naftna kompanija Mississippi*
Monarch Vacuum Petroleum Company*
Monroe Prospect Company*
Montana-Canadian Oil Company*
Montrose kompanija za gas, naftu i ugalj
Sindikat nafte i plina Morris-Van Keuren
Motex Oil Company*
Mountain States Resources Corporation
Multiple Dome Oil Company*
Murdock Oil & amp Gas Company
Muskogee Oil & Amp Gas Gas Company*
Međusobna konsolidirana naftna korporacija*
Uzajamna kompanija za razvoj nafte i pojačala*
Uzajamna naftna sindikalna kompanija*
* Istraživanje u toku

Nanticoke Oil Company*
Nacionalna konsolidirana naftna kompanija*
Nacionalna energetska korporacija*
Nacionalna naftna kompanija*
Nacionalna naftna kompanija iz New Jerseya
Nacionalna kompanija za preradu i proizvodnju nafte*
Nacionalna naftna kompanija*
National Petroleum Lease Corporation*
National Union Oil & Amp Gas Gas Company
New Mexico Oil Properties Association
Neilan Oil & amp Refining Company
Naftna kompanija New England*
Novi englesko-teksaški sindikat za preradu nafte
Newfield Gas & amp Oil Company*
Nordon Corporation*
Kompanija za preradu nafte i pojačala Sjeverne obale*
Naftna kompanija North Counties
Northern Oil Company*
Northwest Petroleum*
Northwestern Oils Inc.
Nova Petroleum Corporation
* Istraživanje u toku

Occident Oil Company*
Oktobarska naftna kompanija*
Naftna kompanija Ohio (maraton)
Ohio-Kansas Oil & amp Gas Company
International Exploration International*
Oil Prospectors Inc.
Kompanija za razvoj naftnih leasinga*
Naftna kompanija Okla-Queen*
Oklahoma-Gulf Royalty Corporation*
Okmulgee kompanija za proizvodnju i oplemenjivanje pojačala*
Old Colony Oil Company
Omaha Oil & amp Refining Company
Naftna kompanija Omaha-Lusk*
Naftna kompanija okruga Orange*
Oregon i Wyoming Oil & Amp Gas Gas Company*
Otter Creek Oil & amp Gas Company
Overland Oil Inc.*
Over the Top Oil Company
Owl Petroleum Company*
Naftna kompanija Ozena*
* Istraživanje u toku

Pacifička zemlja i nafta*
Naftna kompanija Pacific States*
Pacific States Petroleum Company*
Naftna kompanija Palmer Union
Paramount Petroleum Company
Pawnee Bill Oil Company
Pelican Petroleum Company
Narodna naftna i proizvodna kompanija*
Petroleum Maatschappij Salt Creek Company
Udruženje proizvođača nafte
Penn Bayless Oil & Amp Gas Gas Company*
Penn Royal Oil Company*
Pennsylvania Oil & amp Development Company
Kompanija za konsolidaciju nafte*
Američka kompanija za proizvodnju nafte*
Phenix Oil and Gas Company*
Filipinska kompanija za razvoj nafte*
Phoenix Oil Company*
Naftna kompanija Pine Valley*
Pioneer Oil & amp Gas Company*
Pittsburgh-Youngstown Oil & Amp Gas Gas Company*
Plateau Oil & Amp Gas Gas Company*
Plateau Petroleums Limited*
Naftna kompanija Pongratz*
Poštanski djelatnici kompanije Oil & Amp Gas Gas Company*
Power Petroleum Trust Estate*
Powers Manufacturing Company*
Naftna kompanija Prescott-Peoria*
Price River Petroleum Company
Korporacija proizvođača i rafinerija
Providentna kompanija za preradu ulja i pojačala*
Prudential Oil and Refining Company
Puente Crude Oil Company
Naftna kompanija Puente
* Istraživanje u toku

Sable Oil & Amp Gas Gas Company*
Elco Oil & amp Gas Gas Company*
St. Martins Oil & Amp Gas Gas Company*
Sammies Oil Corporation (Choate Oil)
Naftna kompanija rijeke San Jacinto*
San Mateo Oil and Refining Company*
Sanger Oil & amp Refining Company
Naftna kompanija Santa Fe Dome
Santa Fe Western Gas & amp Uranium Corporation*
Sawyer Petroleum Company
Sawyer-Adecor International
Scofield, Shurmer & amp Teagle*
Seaboard Oil & Amp Gas Gas Company
Naftna kompanija Seattle Toledo*
Sigurnosna naftna kompanija*
Security Oil Syndicate No. 2*
Sen-Burk Oil Company*
Naftna kompanija sedam država*
Sherman Benzinska kompanija*
Shoe & amp Leather Petroleum Company
Shoshone Oil Company
Signal Oil Company and Gas Company*
Solar Oil Corporation*
Sound Cities Gas & amp Oil Company
Naftna kompanija Sour Lake Texas*
Southeastern Limited Oil Company*
Naftna kompanija Southern Montana*
Southern Rose Oil & amp Gas Company
Kompanija za bušenje južnih država*
Naftna kompanija južnih država*
Corporation Southwest Oil Corporation*
Southwestern Oil Development Company
Kompanija Southwestern Petroleum & amp Pipe Line Company*
Spear Oil Company
Naftna kompanija Square Deal*
Standardna konsolidirana kompanija za naftu i zemljište*
Standardna istraživačka kompanija*
Star Oil Company
Tvrtka tenkovskih cijevi i amortizera
Steelman Realty Gas & amp Oil Company
Sterling Oil Company iz Oklahome*
Studebaker kompanija za preradu ulja i pojačala*
Sumpor Oil Company*
Sunset Pacific Oil Company
Sunshine State Oil Oil & amp Refining Company
Sigurna naftna kompanija*
Američka korporacija Syndicate Oil Corporation*
* Istraživanje u toku

Tapo Oil Company*
Kompanija Texas-Bunger Oil and Refining Company*
Naftna kompanija Texas-Rotan*
Naftna kompanija Texas-Washington*
Texas Control Consolidated Oil Company*
Texas Crude Oil Company*
Texas Eastern Transmission Corporation
Texas Independent Pipe Line Company*
Texas Oil & amp Refining Company
Kompanija Texas Oil, Gas & Amp Mineral Products*
Texas Oil Products Company
Naftna kompanija Texas Producers*
Texas Production Company
Texas United Oil Company
Naftna kompanija 1919. godine*
Tideland Oil & amp Gas Corporation Corporation*
Toltec Oil Company*
Trans-World Oil Company
Treasure State Oil & amp Gas Company
Triangle Petroleum Company*
Tri-državna kompanija za bušenje*
Tulsa kompanija za proizvodnju i oplemenjivanje
Twentieth Century Oil & Amp Gas Gas Company*
Twentymile Oil & Amp Gas Gas Company*
* Istraživanje u toku

Ulja Sam Naftna kompanija*
Union Oil & Amp Gas Gas Company*
Union kompanija za preradu nafte, plina i pojačala*
United Cuban Oil Inc.
United Plains Oil Company*
United Southern Oil Company*
Naftna i plinska kompanija Sjedinjenih Država
United Sulphur & amp Oil Company*
United Texas Petroleum Company*
Uranijumsko-naftna kompanija*
Američka naftna kompanija*
Ute Oil Company – Pionir uljnih škriljaca
* Istraživanje u toku

Ventura Oil Development Company*
Vernon Winner Oil Company*
Vista Petroleum*
Volonterska naftna kompanija*
* Istraživanje u toku

Wallace Oil CompanyWarren Oil & amp Uranium Mining Company*
Naftna kompanija Washington-Montana*
Wellington Oil Company
Wellmington Oil Corporation*
West Coast Pipeline Company
Western Giant Oil Company*
Zapadna kompanija za prirodni gas*
Naftna kompanija Zapadne Nebraske*
Naftna kompanija zapadnih država*
Wichita Oil & amp Gas Company
Winona Oil Corporation
Wolf Butte Oil & Amp Gas Gas Company*
Ženska federalna naftna kompanija Amerike
Ženska nacionalna kompanija za razvoj ulja i pojačala
Svjetska naftna kompanija
Glavna kompanija za preradu nafte u Wyomingu*
Konsolidirana naftna kompanija Wyoming*
Naftna kompanija Wyoming-Dakota
Wyoming Oil & amp Coal Company*
Wyoming Peerless Oil Company
Wyoming Prairie Oil & amp Gas Company
Druga standardna naftna kompanija Wyoming*
* Istraživanje u toku


Lož ulje - istorija

Oko 1847. godine stanovnik Pittsburga Samuel Keir smislio je način destiliranja nafte u gorivo za svjetiljke koje je nazvao "ugljično ulje". Izum kerozinske lampe sredinom 1850 -ih doveo je do osnivanja prve američke naftne kompanije, Pennsylvania Rock Oil Company. Američka naftna industrija rođena je blizu Titusvillea na sjeverozapadu Pensilvanije 1859. Tu je Edwin L. Drake izbušio prvu komercijalno uspješnu naftnu bušotinu u Sjedinjenim Državama. Međutim, prva velika naftna kompanija bila je Standard Oil Company koju je osnovao John D. Rockefeller 1870. Standard Oil je sagradio svoju prvu rafineriju nafte u Pensilvaniji, a kasnije je proširio svoje opsežne operacije širom zemlje.

Od prvog uvođenja nafte kao iluminatora, a zatim i njenog obilja i posljedične jeftinoće, napravljene su razne dopune da se ona koristi kao gorivo kao zamjena za ugalj, posebno za proizvodnju pare. Prednosti i nedostaci lako su se shvatili. Među prvima je manji prostor koji zauzima, s manjom težinom i lakoćom kojom se njime može manipulirati bez rešetki, bez pepela, bez grabljenja itd. Umjesto vatrogasaca potrebnih za rukovanje čvrstim komadima ugljena, gledajte njegovim sagorijevanjem i održavanjem peći u ispravnom stanju zagrijavanjem vatre, čišćenjem pepeljare itd., sagorijevanjem tekućeg goriva, natopljenog kao nafta, može se jednostavno upravljati promjenom opskrbe odgovarajućim zapornim slavinama, jednostavno povremeno promatranje i regulacija opskrbe dovoljna je, približavajući velikom desideratumu svi dobri izumi dovode do: ukidanja svakog teškog mehaničkog rada od strane ljudskih bića, svima kojima izdašna priroda nije dala toliko velike količine mozga za ništa, da se uzalud troši na obavljanje poslova koje životinje ili mašine bez mozga mogu obaviti ako ne i bolje.

Nedostaci univerzalne upotrebe nafte kao goriva bili su, prvo, nevolje i rad povezani s njegovim transportom i skladištenjem, dok se čvrsti ugalj može utovariti u otvorena vozila i pretočiti u gomile, tečni nafta se mora skladištiti prije transporta u nepropusna plovila koja uključuju mnogo više troškova i ulaganja kapitala nego što je slučaj sa transportom i skladištenjem uglja. Još jedan nedostatak je njegova velika zapaljivost i posljedična opasnost povezana s skladištenjem u količini, dok je ugalj u tom pogledu savršeno siguran, doista toliko siguran da se na njega može baciti zapaljena šibica, pa čak i zapaljeni štap ili komad drva hrpa uglja i izgorjet će bez paljenja ugljena, dok su nafta, pa čak i ponekad njezine pare, toliko zapaljive da je opasno prići im u blizini s bilo kojim plamenom, te pare, pomiješane sa zrakom, proizvode eksplozivnu smjesu. Kada se jednom zapali, voda neće ugasiti petroj, jer pluta po njemu.

Ovaj prvi eksperiment napravljen je oko 1864. godine u jednom od brodova Mornarice Sjedinjenih Država, u Brooklynu ili Pidladelphiji, gdje je inženjer smislio ideju da veliki broj petrolejskih svjetiljki postavi ispod parnog kotla. Posmatrao je veliku toplinu koju ispušta petrolejka, i pretpostavio je da će, ako je samo taj broj dovoljno velik da ispuni cijelu prostoriju za loženje u kotlovskoj peći, podignuti paru. On je previdio činjenicu da se velika toplina koju proizvodi takva svjetiljka ne proteže daleko izvan dimnjaka, te da se za podizanje pare mora provesti dugačak tok gorućih ili zagrijanih plinova ispod kotla i kroz dimnjake, te da samo dovoljna masa uglja ili drugog prikladnog materijala mora biti u stanju paljenja, a sagorijevanje, potpomognuto propuhom, projicira dugi tok topline, koji se raspršuje gdje je potrebno, dok svjetiljke umjereno zagrijavaju mjesto pod kojim se nalaze direktno postavljeno. Bolja ideja bila je projicirati kontinuirano prskanje nafte po komadima cigle i zapaliti ih, a između njih prošao eksplozija. To je pokušano, međutim sa sumnjivim uspjehom.

Sljedeće suđenje je bilo u Battery -u, New York, 1865. godine. Izumitelj je spalio mlaz nafte koji je potekao iz perforiranih cijevi, dok su dvije eksplozije, jedna u nizu malih zračnih eksplozija i jedna u nizu pregrijanih para, pomogle sagorijevanju . Ovo je funkcioniralo daleko bolje, jer je moglo progurati plamen kroz povratne kanale. Od tada je napravljeno nekoliko pokušaja, ali većina njih prihvaća isti plan finog prskanja nafte i mlaza zraka i pregrijane pare. Ubrzo je otkriveno da je mlaz pare, iako je pomogao raspršivanju nafte (to jest, snažno pomogao u podjeli mlaza na bezbroj malih kapljica poput prašine), također smanjio temperaturu ako nije bio jako pregrijan , zaista toliko visoko da je isparilo ulje kada je došlo u dodir s njim. Takođe je utvrđeno da je vremenska količina vazduha potrebna za savršeno sagorevanje ogromna, ne manje od 50 zapremina vazduha za 1 zapreminu naftne pare. Ali to nije cilj, jer zrak ne košta ništa.

Što se tiče metalurgije, problem je bio prilično dobro riješen, polirani lim i čelik su uspješno i ekonomično izrađeni pomoću nafte kao goriva, dok bi se za ostale metalurške operacije to činilo jasnim, ali ono što se htjelo je dobar kotao na paru peć namijenjena korištenju nafte kao goriva. Pokušavanjem poboljšanja spomenutih metoda utvrđeno je da se nafta može koristiti s velikom prednošću umjesto ugljena za proizvodnju željeza, čelika, stakla itd., Te da čak i ako košta 10 USD po barelu, a ugalj 5 USD po toni, prednost je bila ukupno na strani petroleja u iznosu od 50 posto, dok će pod parnim kotlovima 1 kilogram ulja ispariti gotovo 15, 16 kilograma ili više vode. Ovaj vrlo povoljan rezultat nesumnjivo je posljedica činjenice da je sagorijevanje ugljena prirodno i nužno rasipnije, dok se tekuće gorivo može sagorijevati s daleko većom ekonomičnošću, pod uvjetom da je osmišljen samo pravi način.

Što se tiče drugih suparničkih metoda, krajem 1878. jedna je bila u Mornaričkom dvorištu Sjedinjenih Država u Brooklynu i pokazala je da je izum užasno iscrpljen, što su dokazale nepraktične i grube ideje na kojima je zasnovan. Do 1880. godine umjetnost sagorijevanja nafte kao goriva, kako bi se dobila maksimalna raspoloživa toplina, bila je još u povojima.

Do 1882. jedan je posmatrač tvrdio da su Rusi bili znatno ispred Amerike u primjeni nafte kao goriva. Uspješno su ga upotrijebili na nekoliko svojih željeznica za vožnju lokontinaca, koristeći u tu svrhu sirovu naftu koja dolazi iz bušotina. Većina parobroda koji su plovili Kaspijskim morem koristili su tečno gorivo, koje je bilo mnogo jeftinije od uglja. Potrošen je s injektorima, a sagorijevanje je regulirano s najvećom lakoćom. Za tekuće gorivo tvrde se brojne prednosti. Peći traju duže zbog nedostatka sumpora, nije bilo pepela, dima ili varnica. Posjetioci su uvelike pojednostavljeni, a učinak zagrijavanja goriva znatno veći od onog na drva ili ugalj.

Talijanska mornarica predvodila je eksperimentiranje s naftom počevši od 1890. godine, a do 1900. godine većina njezinih torpednih čamaca radila je na naftu. Početkom 1890-ih bilo je jasno da se pomorski umovi posvuda otvrdnjuju po pitanju izdržljivosti ugljena. Do 1893. neki su smatrali da će dolazak tekućeg goriva biti nadohvat ruke, a budući da se brodovi mogu napajati gorivom (adm. PH Colomb iz mornarice Royaal tvrdio je da je skovao ovaj glagol) na moru s tekućim gorivom kada bi bilo nemoguće prihvatiti ugljen, na ubrzanje tog dolaska trebalo je računati. With coal, the experience of such ships as the HMS Amphion, with a nominal extreme speed of 17 knots and a nominal coal endurance of 11,000 miles at 10 knots, on a displacement of 4,300 tons, appeared to give more satisfaction to the naval mind as a combination than the HMS Blenheim's 21.6-knot speed with 15,000 miles coal-endurance on a displacement of 9,000 tons. An Amphion would not be justified in running away from a Blenheim, so that the extra speed was not so far called for and while the nominal 4,000 miles greater coal-endurance may be an advantage, it would seem to be much more than balanced by the displacement of the Blenheim. While, therefore, great stress must be laid on coal-endurance so long as coal is the fuel, it may be easy to overdo it in sacrificing other elements.

Oil offered many benefits compared to coal. With twice the thermal content of coal, boilers could be smaller and ships could travel further at greater speed. Oil burned with less smoke, so the location of the fleet would not be so readily compromised. Oil could be stored in tanks anywhere on the ship, allowing more efficient designs. Oil could be transferred through pipes without reliance on stokers, reducing manning. Refueling at sea was feasible, which provided greater operational flexibility. When coal fired boilers are compared with oil fired ones, the biggest differences exist in the combustion equipment. As oil can be combusted in burners of rather simple design, extensive equipment is needed in combustion of coal. In the rest of the boiler, however, there are only a few minor differences in design between boilers fired with solid fuels and those fired with oil. One major difference is that generally more combustion air is needed with solid fuels than with oil, which leads to bigger amounts of flue gases and also to a bigger boiler volume. To turn it the other way round, with a given boiler a bigger output is obtained by oil firing than by coal firing, presuming that combustion of both is possible. The US Navy had conducted significant experiments with oil as fuel almost continuously after 1864. George Wallace Melville, a graduate of Brooklyn Collegiate and Polytechnic Institute, worked in the engineering field until July 1861, when he joined the Navy in the rank of Third Assistant Engineer. In August 1887, President Grover Cleveland appointed Commodore Melville as the Navy's First Chief of the Bureau of Steam Engineering. He rapidly realized the urgent need for the establishment of a test and evaluation station where naval machinery and components could undergo examination and trial for reliability before being placed aboard Navy ships. Submitting a Congressional request for funds to establish an experiment station and test laboratory, Melville's arguments finally convinced Congress to authorize a modest $400,000 for the buildings and equipment which became the US Naval Engineering Experiment Station when it was completed in 1908.

During his administration of over 16 years, Melville superintended the design of 120 ships of the "New Navy" and introduced such widely acclaimed innovations as the water tube boiler, vertical engines, and the repair ship. Promoted to Rear Admiral (RADM) in 1899, Melville was appointed Engineer in Chief of the Navy in 1900. Melville worked to create an oil-burning fleet.

The mixed-firing method of spraying oil on coal was routine by the early 1900s. By 1900 natural gas still provided a significant amount of illumination and some heating. Coal and fuel oil provided most of the energy for heating of homes and offices in cities. Wood was still the dominant source of heat energy in rural areas.

The Royal Navy laid down [Dec 05], built [Dec 05-Oct 06], and commissioned [Dec 06] the first all big-gun battleship, HMS Dreadnought, which revolutionized naval architecture (in spite of the fact that the US Navy already had the USS South Carolina class approved in 1905, they were not laid down until December 1906, hence, the failure to complete in a timely manner gave Dreadnought the honors). This opened up a frantic naval construction race between all of the great naval powers, since all of their ships were now obsolete. HMS Dreadnought mounted 10x12-inch naval rifles in five dual barbettes, three on the center line and one on each side of the forward structure, giving her an 8-gun broadside she turned 21-knots max. with a radius of operations of 6600 miles at 10 kts and 5000 at 19 kts her power plant was a hybrid in as much as she burned both coal and oil. The transition by the Royal Navy from coal to oil was stimulated by First Lord of the Admiralty Winston Churchill and Admiral Sir John (Jacky) Fisher. The Royal Navy had already adopted oil for submarines and destroyers, as had the American Navy. When Churchill went to Whitehall in 1911, coal was still the primary source of power for naval vessels. Ordered in 1912 to outmaneuver and cross the T of the German fleet, the Queen Elizabeth-class battleships were built to burn oil only. Once this decision was made, it followed that the rest of the Royal Navy would turn to oil. This technological change was a great success, and every navy soon switched to oil. An extensive investigation of petroleum as fuel by the Liquid Fuel Board in 1902-03 proved tremendously important to the entire naval and commercial world. The Board recommended using oil as a standalone fuel in 1904. The first oil-burning American destroyer, USS Paulding, was commissioned in 1910. The BB-34 New York Class battleships, laid down in 1911, were the first US Navy battleships armed with 14-inch guns, and the last to be built with more than four main battery turrets, intermediate weight side armor and coal-fired boilers. The BB-36 Nevada Class were the last US Navy battleships to have reciprocating engines, and the last to have two propellers. At the same time they were the first of the ships to carry fourteen-inch guns, and the US Navy's first to have oil as their primary fuel. The US Navy began to establish fuel oil depots in 1910 to supply the needs of submarines and destroyers. Its first fuel oil facilities were located on the East Coast at Key West, Charleston, Norfolk, and Narragansett Bay.


Oil is a natural resource formed by the decay of organic matter over millions of years, and like many other natural resources, it can only be extracted from reserves where it already exists. The only difference between oil and every other natural resource is that oil is well and truly the lifeblood of the global economy.

The world derives over a third of its total energy production from oil, more than any other source by far. As a result, the countries that control the world’s oil reserves often have disproportionate geopolitical and economic power.

According to the BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2020, 14 countries make up 93.5% of the proven oil reserves globally. The countries on this list span five continents and control anywhere from 25.2 billion barrels of oil to 304 billion barrels of oil.


Oil and Gas Industry in Alabama

Mobile Bay Gas Platforms Alabama is among the top 17 producers of oil and among the top 16 producers of natural gas in the United States. Oil and gas are found in many counties as well as in Mobile Bay. The state has developed some of the most stringent environmental regulations regarding drilling in its offshore waters. Alabama's oil production has steadily increased from an average of just over five million barrels in 2009 to nine million barrels in 2015. Alabama's natural gas production has steadily declined since 2005 but has leveled since 2012 at about 200 billion cubic feet per year. In 2015, the state the oil and gas industry contributed $11.3 billion to the Alabama economy, which was 6.4% of the state's GDP. Alabama Oil and Gas Regions Oil in Alabama generally occurs in the state's two sedimentary basins, the Interior Salt Basin in the southwest and the Black Warrior Basin in the northwest, both of which extend westward into Mississippi. Geologists use the term "basin" to describe a broad area where layered sedimentary rocks sag thousands of feet downward into a "bowl" shape, although there is often no evidence of this at the surface. The Interior Salt Basin consists of Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks, which date back 200 million years. The Black Warrior Basin is composed of Paleozoic rocks, some of which date back 580 million years. This region is also famous for its vast coal reserves, such as the Warrior Coal Field. Oil Rig Petroleum forms in the microscopic pores of rocks such as sandstone and limestone and slowly makes its way to the surface. When the petroleum becomes trapped in its migration, it forms an oil or gas field. Common traps are geologic features known as faults and anticlines. Faults are cracks in layers of rock in which the rocks on either side of the crack move in relation to each other. This can be envisioned by thinking of a knife slicing through a layer cake and seeing one side of the cake slump downward. Anticlines are dome-shaped folds in sections of layered rock. Geologists search for these traps with machines that measure gravity, magnetic, and seismic data, all of which tell them critical properties of buried rock layers. Geologists refer to a likely place for oil or gas as a "prospect." When a prospect is identified, "landmen" are sent in to lease the mineral rights from property owners, who retain a royalty, which is a share of the revenue generated by the oil and gas produced from the owner's property. After the leases are acquired, drilling rigs are brought in to drill and test the prospect. Chesley Pruet and Dudley Hughes Knowing the geology of the state extremely well, Jones became convinced that Alabama would one day become a significant petroleum producer. He continued to lobby the legislature for laws to encourage oil men to come to Alabama with their drilling rigs. But it was not until World War II broke out in 1939 that Jones saw his wishes come true, when demand for oil rose and Alabama's fortunes changed. In 1944, Texas oilman Haroldson "H. L." Hunt drilled beside a fault in Choctaw County and discovered the Gilbertown Field in the Eutaw Sand at a depth of 3,700 feet. That field produced 15 million barrels of oil (1 barrel = 42 gallons), not a lot by modern standards but enough to make "oil fever" spread rapidly. Other companies, many of which were run by independent prospectors popularly known as "wildcatters," followed Hunt's lead, but 11 years passed before they found the next significant discovery. Early Jurassic Landscape Reconstruction As oil drilling boomed in south Alabama in the late 1960s and 1970s, wildcatter Walter Sistrunk struck gas in the Black Warrior Basin in Lamar County, as did engineer William Tucker in Fayette County. Both men, as well as Pruet and Hughes, headed small but aggressive companies called "Independents" that used investment money from various other oil industry sources. These pioneers lured many more companies, which spread natural gas development through the northwest Alabama region. Gas Rig in the Gulf of Mexico In 1978, with protections in place to preserve the bay's ecology, Mobil moved in a huge offshore rig. They drilled more than 21,000 feet into an ancient desert called the Norphlet Sandstone and discovered the largest natural gas field east of the Mississippi, the Lower Mobile Bay–Mary Ann Field. The discovery formed the core of offshore development that eventually located six trillion cubic feet of reserves and as of 2007 has sent $2.1 billion worth of royalties to Alabama's Heritage Trust Fund, which uses the interest from the funds to help pay for the state's education and infrastructure needs. The fund was the first of its kind in U.S. history. Oil and gas activity in Mobile Bay and the nearby Gulf of Mexico waters stands today as a global environmental standard for offshore drilling and production operations. Choctaw Ridge Oil Field Walter B. Jones's vision for Alabama has come true. Alabama now ranks 10th among the states in natural gas production and 15th in liquid petroleum. Since the first meager gas discovery at Hazel Green, thousands of wells have been drilled across the state. Most have produced nothing, but by 2007 the successful ones were producing nearly $2.5 billion worth of oil and gas annually, $500 million of which goes to Alabama's citizens in the form of taxes, royalties, and trusts. Alabama's several locally owned and operated companies join many others from across the nation and abroad to employ thousands of local workers in finding, extracting, refining, and transporting the state's petroleum resources.

Oil and gas is still being found in Alabama, and geologists believe new opportunities exist in the hard shales of the deep Black Warrior Basin beneath Pickens and Tuscaloosa Counties and in the thick fractured shales of St. Clair and neighboring counties.

Cockrell, Alan. Drilling Ahead: The Quest for Oil in the Deep South, 1945-2005. Oxford: University Press of Mississippi, 2005.


Our history

Today we operate in most of the world's countries and are best-known by our familiar brand names: Exxon, Esso and Mobil. We make the products that drive modern transportation, power cities, lubricate industry and provide petrochemical building blocks that lead to thousands of consumer goods.

Colonel Edwin Drake and Uncle Billy Smith drill the first successful oil well in Titusville, Pennsylvania. The colonel's discovery triggers an oil boom that parallels the gold rush of a decade earlier.

Rockefeller and his associates form the Standard Oil Company (Ohio), with combined facilities constituting the largest refining capacity of any single firm in the world. The name Standard is chosen to signify high, uniform quality.

Standard Oil Co. purchases a three-quarters interest in Vacuum Oil Company for $200,000. As a lubricants pioneer, Vacuum Oil introduces a number of popular products, including the revolutionary Gargoyle 600-W Steam Cylinder Oil.

Standard Oil lubricates Thomas Edison's first central generating system. Also in this year, Standard Oil Trust forms to include the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey (Jersey Standard) and the Standard Oil Company of New York (Socony).

The Standard Oil Trust moves its headquarters to 26 Broadway, New York City. The nine-story office building becomes a landmark. The same year, Vacuum develops Gargoyle Arctic engine oils for newly designed generators and motors that operate at speeds of up to 1,000 rpm.

The Wright brothers, Wilbur and Orville, use both Jersey Standard fuel and Mobiloil (Vacuum) lubricants for their historic first flight at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.

Socony gains a strong foothold in the vast market for kerosene in China by developing small lamps that burned kerosene efficiently. The lamps become known as Mei-Foo, from the Chinese symbols for Socony, meaning "beautiful confidence."

Following a landmark U.S. Supreme Court decision, Standard Oil breaks up into 34 unrelated companies, including Jersey Standard, Socony and Vacuum Oil. The year also marks the first time Jersey Standard's sales of kerosene are surpassed by gasoline, a product that in the early days had often been discarded as a nuisance.

Ralph De Palma, winner of the Indianapolis 500, is the first of many Indy winners to use Mobil products. His average speed: 89.84 mph.

Jersey Standard acquires a 50-percent interest in Humble Oil & Refining Company of Texas. It was during this year that Humble, led by its pioneering Chief Geologist Wallace Pratt, employed micropaleontology, the study of microscopic fossils contained in cuttings and core samples from drilling, as an aid in finding oil.

Jersey Standard researchers produce rubbing alcohol, or isopropyl alcohol &mdash the first commercial petrochemical.

Embodying the phonetic rendition of the initials &lsquoS&rsquo and &lsquoO&rsquo in Standard Oil, Jersey Standard brings out a new blend of fuel under the trade name Esso.

Humble geophysicists use a refraction seismograph and discover an oil field in Sugarland, Texas.

Amelia Earhart uses Mobiloil to protect Friendship when she makes her historic solo flight across the Atlantic. The previous year, Charles Lindbergh used Mobiloil in the Spirit of St. Louis on the first solo flight across the Atlantic.

First commercial unit in a cat-cracking refinery begins operation at Socony-Vacuum&rsquos Paulsboro, New Jersey, refinery. The unit used a process developed by French scientist Eugene P. Houdry with the financial backing of Socony-Vacuum. The process added a clay-like catalyst to the cracking process to boost gasoline yields and octane rating.

Harlem postman Victor Green creates the Green Book. Often referred to as the &ldquoBible of Black travel,&rdquo the Green Book listed service stations, hotels, restaurants and other establishments where Black travelers would be welcomed. Jersey Standard was the only major retail distributor of the Green Book through its network of Esso service stations, which welcomed Black motorists and also provided business opportunities for Black franchisees. The Green Book was published and distributed nationwide until 1967.

Jersey Standard researchers produce an artificial rubber, butyl. Today, butyl is used in the creation of tires, surgical tapes, protective coatings and more.

The world's first commercial production of alkylate begins at a Humble plant in Baytown, Texas. Alkylation made possible the manufacturing of iso-octane, used as a blending agent to produce 100-octane aviation gasoline.

The world&rsquos first fluid catalytic cracker goes onstream at Louisiana Standard&rsquos Baton Rouge refinery. The process, developed by four Jersey Standard researchers known as the &ldquofour horsemen,&rdquo improved on the Houdry method for cat cracking and eventually became the industry standard for producing gasoline. Fortune magazine called it &ldquothe most revolutionary chemical-engineering achievement of the last 50 years.&rdquo

Jersey Standard introduces Uniflo motor oil, the first multigrade motor oil recommended for both summer and winter use.

Jersey Standard establishes the Esso Education Foundation, a program that gives financial aid to private colleges and universities.

Pan American Airways flies its first trans-Atlantic Boeing 707 flight from New York to London. The flight is fueled by Mobil aviation fuel.

An advertising copywriter in Chicago comes up with the advertising slogan &ldquoPut a tiger in your tank.&rdquo

Humble invents 3-D seismic technology, a revolution that completely changes the way the industry searches for oil and gas resources. (This breakthrough technology, coupled with the use of massive parallel computers in seismic imaging, has helped our geologists sharply reduce finding costs since the 1980s while increasing new field resource additions.)

Mobil celebrates 100 years since the founding of the Vacuum Oil Company in 1866 and changes its name to Mobil Oil Corporation. The company launches a wide-reaching identity program to emphasize the Mobil trade name.

Jersey Standard officially changes its name to Exxon Corporation. The name change is approved by Jersey Standard shareholders in a special shareholders&rsquo meeting.

Mobil introduces a synthetic automotive engine lubricant &mdash Mobil 1. Today, Mobil 1 is the world&rsquos leading synthetic motor oil.

Mobil participates in completion of Beryl A, the world's first concrete production platform. The 50-story-high structure was the prototype for other concrete deepwater facilities operating in the North Sea.

Mobil invents a process for converting methanol into high-octane gasoline through the use of the company&rsquos versatile ZSM-5 catalyst.

Exxon opens its own facility for environmental health research at East Millstone, New Jersey. Exxon Biomedical Sciences, Inc. conducts research to further assure the safety of Exxon operations and products.

Exxon celebrates 100 years since the formation of the Standard Oil Trust in 1882. In its first 100 years, the company evolved from a domestic refiner and distributor of kerosene to a large multinational corporation, involved at every level of oil and gas exploration, production, refining and marketing, and petrochemicals manufacturing.

Exxon Research and Engineering invents a powerful new imaging technique called 3-D microtomography to study the internal structure of opaque objects without damaging them.

On March 24, 1989, the tanker Exxon Valdez runs aground in Prince William Sound in Alaska. The Valdez oil spill was a tragic accident that ExxonMobil deeply regrets. The company took immediate responsibility for the spill, cleaned it up and voluntarily compensated those who claimed direct damages. Learn more about the Exxon Valdez.

Exxon introduces Exxpol, a single-site metallocene catalyst used to produce consistent, controllable molecular structures that make plastic and rubber products tougher and impact-resistant, with less haze and with excellent organoleptics (low off-taste and odor).

Exxon establishes the Save The Tiger Fund in partnership with the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation. The Save The Tiger Fund is dedicated to supporting the conservation of Asia&rsquos remaining wild tigers. Since its establishment, ExxonMobil has provided $1 million annually in support of the Save The Tiger Fund.

Mobil introduces Speedpass, an electronic system which automatically activates the pump and charges purchases to a credit card. Speedpass is similar to the electronic toll technology successfully used on subway, bus and highway systems around the world.

On November 30, 1999, Exxon and Mobil join to form Exxon Mobil Corporation. &ldquoThis merger will enhance our ability to be an effective global competitor in a volatile world economy and in an industry that is more and more competitive,&rdquo said Lee Raymond and Lou Noto, chairmen and chief executive officers of Exxon and Mobil, respectively.

ExxonMobil Research & Engineering Company (EMRE) develops the SCANfining process, which uses a new proprietary catalyst to selectively remove more than 95 percent of the sulfur from gasoline while minimizing octane loss.

ExxonMobil, joined by other sponsors, initiates the Global Climate and Energy Project (GCEP) at Stanford University &mdash a pioneering research effort to identify technologies that can meet energy demand with dramatically lower greenhouse gas emissions.

ExxonMobil partners with professional golfer Phil Mickelson and his wife, Amy, to launch the Mickelson ExxonMobil Teachers Academy. The academy is designed to provide third- through fifth-grade teachers with the knowledge and skills necessary to motivate kids to pursue careers in science and math.

ExxonMobil and Qatar Petroleum, with other joint-venture partners, expand development of the giant North Field offshore Qatar, the largest nonassociated gas field in the world.

Exxon Neftegas Limited (a subsidiary of Exxon Mobil Corporation) completes the drilling of the Z-11 well, the longest measured depth extended-reach drilling (ERD) well in the world. (Located on Sakhalin Island offshore eastern Russia, the record-setting Z-11 achieved a total measured depth of 37,016 feet [11,282 meters], or more than seven miles.)

ExxonMobil's donation through &ldquoIdol Gives Back&rdquo enables the distribution of hundreds of thousands of bed nets throughout disease-stricken communities in Angola.

Exxon Mobil Corporation (NYSE:XOM) and Synthetic Genomics Inc. (SGI) announced the opening of a greenhouse facility enabling the next level of research and testing in their algae biofuels program. In 2017, these efforts will yield a breakthrough involving modification of an algae strain that more than doubles its oil content without significantly inhibiting the strain&rsquos growth.

ExxonMobil finalizes its agreement with XTO Energy Inc., creating a new organization to focus on global development and production of unconventional resources. A plan to build and deploy a rapid response system that will be available to capture and contain oil in the event of a potential future underwater well blowout in the deep-water Gulf of Mexico is announced by Chevron, ConocoPhillips, ExxonMobil and Shell. ExxonMobil leads the containment system efforts on behalf of the sponsor companies.

Exxon Mobil Corporation announced two major oil discoveries and a gas discovery in the deep-water Gulf of Mexico after drilling the company's first post-moratorium deep-water exploration well. This is one of the largest discoveries in the Gulf of Mexico in the last decade.


The Complete History Of Oil Markets

Like most other commodities in the markets, crude oil prices have routinely experienced wild price swings alternating between times of great shortages, high demand and high prices and periods of oversupply, low demand and depressed prices. These so-called crude oil &ldquoPrice Cycles&rdquo tend to last several years, depending on variables such as oil demand, volume of oil drilled, processed and sold by the major producers.

Since the early days of commercial production in Baku, Azerbaijan, these price swings have been triggered by economic and political events, technological advancements and changes within the petroleum industry, and continue to influence prices in the present day.

Crude Oil Price History: 1861-Present


Source: IG Group

1800-1869: Early black gold rush

The modern oil industry traces back its roots to Baku where the first commercial refinery was established in 1837 to distil oil into paraffin for heating and lighting purposes.

The first modern oil well was sunk in Baku in 1846 and reached a depth of 21 meters. The single oil field accounted for more than 90% of global production, with most of the oil finding its way to Persia (present-day Iran).

Several commercial oil wells soon followed:

Pennsylvania was the epicenter of the first black gold rush, producing nearly 50% of the world&rsquos oil. Prices shot up rapidly from .49 per barrel in 1861 to $6.59 a barrel in 1865, representing a massive 1,245% climb in the space of just four years.

1870-1913: The auto revolution

Whereas some economists contend that the modern oil industry only took off after WWII with the creation of the Marshall Plan - part of which was an agreement for a Free On Board price for all players - others argue that the incorporation of Standard Oil Co by John D. Rockefeller in 1870 in Ohio was the true launchpad for the industry. Related: EIA Sharply Cuts Oil Price Forecast

Standard Oil quickly rose to prominence over the next two decades, driving down prices and buying up the competition. The company was so successful that it controlled nearly 90% of refined oil in the United States by 1890. As production continued to expand both in the US and in Russia, global oil prices fell from an average of $2.56 a barrel in 1876 to just .56 in 1892. This was further accelerated with the launch of the first commercial cars in Germany and the US in 1896, a technological revolution that would fuel unprecedented growth for the industry.

1901-1911: Rise of the oil majors

Many of the modern oil majors can trace their origins to the early 20th century.

- The discovery of oil at Spindletop, Texas, led to the creation of Texaco and Gulf Oil in 1901

- Increasing competitive pressure led to Shell and Royal Dutch merging in 1907 to form Royal Dutch/Shell

- BP, formerly known as the Anglo-Persian Oil Company, was incorporated in 1908 following the discovery of oil in Iran

- Chevron, Exxon and Mobil (now Exxon Mobil) came into being in 1911 after the split of Standard Oil Co following an antitrust ruling by the US Supreme Court

The seven oil majors went on to control 85% of the world&rsquos oil reserves during their golden years in the 1970s.

1914-1949: Oil discoveries, wars, crises

The discovery of oil in Cushing, Oklahoma, in 1912 is considered an important milestone for the US oil industry because the region grew to become one of the most important oil fields in the country. Notably, it also became the settlement point for the West Texas Intermediate (WTI) oil price, a leading global oil price benchmark.

The next four and a half decades were a turbulent period marked by a series of major wars and economic crises, all of which would have an important bearing on oil prices.

First was WWI (1914-1918) which drove up global demand for oil that more than doubled oil prices from .81 per barrel in 1914 to $1.98 by the end of the war. Demand continued to grow even after the war ended mainly fueled by the ever-increasing popularity of the automobile and a gasoline shortage in the US west coast. At first, prices surged to $3.07 per barrel before retreating and stabilizing around $1.61 as production increased.

Around this time, oil companies started researching other applications for the commodity including commercial production of plastics. However, prices remained relatively low despite the extra demand created by these applications mainly due to a combination of stiff competition and plentiful supply. Meanwhile, major oil discoveries elsewhere continued to keep the markets awash with the commodity including Venezuela, Iraq, the USSR, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and the Gulf of Mexico.

The discovery of oil in East Texas in 1930 was one of the major highlights of this period because it helped create an oil glut that happened to coincide with the Great Depression that consequently depressed prices from $1.19 in 1930 to .65 in 1931. It took the intervention of the Texas Railroad Commission which enforced production quotas to stabilize prices and prevent further declines.

Just like WWI, the beginning of WWII in 1939 also helped drive demand and goose prices. However, the effect was less pronounced this time around due to bountiful global supply. Nevertheless, the war made governments acutely aware of the need to control reserves, and it would clearly show in their actions over the next couple of decades.

1950-2003: Battle to control production

The ending of the second world war would usher in a period whereby many countries made concerted efforts to hold sway in global oil production, with several governments nationalizing their oil infrastructure.

Between 1950 and1960, Iran, Indonesia and Saudi Arabia all partly nationalized their oil industries. The Suez crisis of 1956-57 saw Egypt seize the Suez Canal through which nearly five percent of the world&rsquos oil flowed.

However, it was the US and USSR that would emerge as the biggest heavyweights in terms of production control. In the late 1950s, the USSR started to flood the market with cheap oil leading to price cuts by the majors in a bid to remain competitive. In response to these developments, Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait and Venezuela teamed up and formed OPEC as a means to lower competition between their countries and also as a means to have a bigger impact in controlling supply.

OPEC went on to expand its membership over the next two decades with UAE, Libya, Indonesia, Qatar, Nigeria, Algeria, Gabon and Ecuador joining the organization. Between 1960 and 1976, most of these countries took control of their oil reserves by buying out or forcibly taking shares from the oil majors.

The US and the USSR continued to throw their weight around but soon the influence shifted to OPEC. In 1973, OPEC members embargoed countries supporting Israel in the Yom Kippur war. Consequently, oil prices shot up to levels never witnessed before, from $2.48 per barrel in 1972 to $11.58 by 1974 and even higher in parts of the US. Related: Is The U.S. Gas Boom Already Over?

It was around this time when oil was discovered in the North Sea in a region controlled by the UK and Norway. Oil from this area is referred to as Brent crude and is used alongside WTI to benchmark prices.

Iran sharply cut production during the Iranian revolution (1970-1980) and also during the Iran-Iraq war of 1980-1988 leading to a spike in prices to $36.83. However, prices fell again due to demand shocks as well as increased production by the USSR, which became the world&rsquos largest producer in 1988. Iraq invaded Kuwait in 1990, leading to the Gulf War. This created a major supply shock that led to prices shooting up from $14.98 per barrel before the war to $41.00 in September 1991.

The 1990s witnessed wild price fluctuations. The Soviet Union fell in 1991, precipitating the collapse of the Russian oil sector with production halving over the next decade mainly due to reduced investments. However, global demand also tumbled in 1997 due to the Asian financial crisis but managed to recover by the turn of the century after the region&rsquos economic outlook improved.

2003-Present: Hydraulic fracturing and a changing landscape

This next decade witnessed some of the most spectacular explosions in oil prices.

The US invaded Iraq in 2003 leading to supply uncertainties. This was further compounded by massive demand growth by Asia and China. Consequently, prices jumped from $28.38 per barrel in July 2000 to $146.02 in July 2008.

From here prices fell due to the global financial crisis of 2008 before staging a comeback. The Arab Spring of 2011 created supply shortages and helped push prices to $126.48 per barrel.

Technological advancements in recent times have significantly altered the global oil landscape. Hydraulic fracturing has pushed the US to the top of the pack once again, reducing the influence of OPEC and depressing prices. Flooding of the market by US shale has led to a sharp drop in global oil prices, from $114.84 per barrel in June 2014 to $28.47 in January 2016. OPEC has tried to ameliorate the glut by teaming up with non-OPEC countries such as Russia to implement production cuts. Consequently, prices have recovered somewhat but have never approached levels seen in the past decade.

With the US now acting as the new &lsquoswing producer&rsquo OPEC&rsquos influence and ability to control prices is likely to remain diminished. The unresolved trade war between the US and China as well as geopolitical uncertainty in Iran, Syria and other countries has helped goose prices from their 2016 lows of below $30 per barrel to $54.70 in October 2019. But with continued high levels of shale production and a weakening global economy, prices are expected to remain subdued with prices projected to average $66 a barrel in 2019 and $65 a barrel in 2020.


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