Nathaniel Hawthorne

Nathaniel Hawthorne


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Uz djela Washington Irvinga i Edgara Allena Poea, Hawthornove zbirke kratkih priča, Dva puta ispričane priče (1837), Mahovine iz starog mansa (1846), i Snježna slika i druge dvostruko ispričane priče (1851), pomogli su u formiranju prvog značajnog kratkog romana u Americi. Iako je njegov životni osjećaj bio tragičan, Hawthorne je želio biti optimističan. Privlačio ga je romantični svijet sanjarenja, ali je snažno osjećao da bi se stvarni svijet mogao činiti nestvarnim, na opasan način, ako mu se prepustite.Prve godineNathaniel Hawthorne rođen je u Salemu, Massachusetts, na Dan neovisnosti, 1804. Zanimljivo je napomenuti da je jedan od njegovih predaka bio sudac na suđenjima vješticama u Salemu 1692-93. Hawthorne je bio jedan od prvih cijenjenih diplomaca Bowdoin koledža, koji se nalazi u Brunswicku, Maine, u onoj čuvenoj klasi 1825. - Henry Wadsworth Longfellow je drugi. Osim toga, Harriet Beecher Stowe, čiji je suprug bio profesor na Bowdoinu, napisala je većinu njene knjige, Ujna Tomina koliba, u studiji u Appleton Hallu.*Rana karijeraHawthornov prvi roman bio je samostalno objavljen, neugledan rad pod naslovom Fanshawe, 1828., koju je napisao dok je živio u kući svoje majke i još uvijek učio pisački zanat. Od tada je Hawthorne počeo objavljivati ​​kratke priče u novinama i časopisima. Bavio se brojnim književnim aktivnostima, uključujući uređivanje Američki časopis korisnog i zabavnog znanja i Univerzalna istorija Pitera Parlija. Volio je prepričavati grčke mitove za djecu i objavio dječju knjigu, Dedina stolica, 1841. Nakon trogodišnjeg zaruka sa Sophiom Peabody, vjenčali su se 1842. Njegov brak i karijeru najbolje bi se mogli opisati kao "bez korijena", živeći neko vrijeme na farmi Brook, koju su vodili Transcendentalisti. U skladu s tim, on je živio je u dva poznata prebivališta, Old Manseu i Waysideu, gdje se trljao uz Ralpha Walda Emersona i Henryja Davida Thoreaua. Upoznao je i sprijateljio se s Hermanom Melvilleom, koji mu se posvetio Moby Dick za njega.Njegovi romaniHawthorne je završio samo četiri dugometražna romana. Njegov prvi, Grimizno pismo (1850) bio je kontroverzan, zbog tretmana preljuba, ali je čvrsto uspostavio njegovu reputaciju cijenjenog pisca svog vremena. Njegovo lično mišljenje o knjizi bilo je međutim da je bila previše "mračna." Hawthorneov omiljeni komad bio je Kuća Sedam zabata (1851), sa svojim sretnim završetkom, koji je odražavao pobožnost ljubavi prema prirodi i vjere u evoluciju iz viktorijanskog doba.Blithedale Romansa (1852) zasnovan je na Hawthorneovom iskustvu i doživotnom udvaranju njegove ljubavne supruge na farmi Brook. Njegov završni rad, Mermerni faun (1860), istraživao je temu "Čovjekovog pada", mita koji je od početka bio sveprisutna tema u njegovoj fikciji.Prolaz, stilDok je bio u posjeti svom prijatelju, Franklinu Pierceu, u Plymouthu, New Hampshire, Hawthorne je umro 19. maja 1864. Kapsula Hawthornovih ponekad dihotomičnih tema pisanja mogla bi se sažeti ovako: U svojoj najvećoj fikciji on stvara likove koji su svjesni njihove izolacije od drugih ljudi i onih sistema vrijednosti ili institucija koji izgleda čine život vrijednim življenja. Unutrašnji životi Hawthornovog lika tjeraju ih da reagiraju na vlastite postupke: njegovu veliku temu.


*Drugi uglednici sa koledža su Robert E. Peary, klasa 1877, koji je 1909. godine stigao do Sjevernog pola; Alfred C. Kinsey, klasa 1916, napisao je Seksualno ponašanje kod muškarca; i Joan Benoit Samuelson, 1979., osvojile su zlatnu medalju na prvom ženskom olimpijskom maratonu.


Biografija Nathaniela Hawthornea

Nathaniel Hawthorne bio je jedan od najcjenjenijih američkih autora 19. stoljeća, a njegov ugled opstao je do danas. Njegovi romani, uključujući Grimizno pismo i Kuća Sedam zabata, čitaju se u školama.

Rođen u Salemu, Massachusetts, Hawthorne je često u svoje spise ugradio istoriju Nove Engleske i neka znanja vezana za svoje pretke. Fokusirajući se na teme poput korupcije i licemjerja bavio se ozbiljnim pitanjima u svojoj fikciji.

Često se boreći za finansijski opstanak, Hawthorne je u različito vrijeme radio kao službenik u vladi, a tokom izbora 1852. napisao je biografiju za kampanju za prijatelja sa fakulteta, Franklina Piercea. Za vrijeme Pierceova predsjedništva Hawthorne je osigurao radno mjesto u Evropi, radeći za State Department.

Drugi prijatelj sa fakulteta bio je Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. Hawthorne je bio i prijatelj s drugim istaknutim piscima, uključujući Ralpha Walda Emersona i Hermana Melvillea. Tokom pisanja Moby Dick, Melville je tako duboko osjetio Hawthornov utjecaj da je promijenio pristup i na kraju posvetio roman njemu.

Kada je umro 1864., New York Times ga je opisao kao "najšarmantnijeg američkog romanopisca i jednog od najistaknutijih pisaca na jeziku".


Sadržaj

Rani život Edit

Nathaniel Hawthorne rođen je 4. jula 1804. u Salemu u Massachusettsu, gdje je njegovo rodno mjesto sačuvano i otvoreno za javnost. [3] William Hathorne, autorov pra-pra-pradjed, bio je Puritanac i prvi u porodici koji je emigrirao iz Engleske. Nastanio se u Dorchesteru, Massachusetts, prije nego što se preselio u Salem. Tamo je postao važan član kolonije u zaljevu Massachusetts i obnašao je mnoge političke funkcije, uključujući suca i suca, postajući zloglasan zbog oštrih kazni. [4] Williamov sin i autorov pradjed John Hathorne bio je jedan od sudija koji su nadgledali suđenja vješticama u Salemu. Hawthorne je svom prezimenu vjerovatno dodao "w" u ranim dvadesetim godinama, ubrzo nakon završetka fakulteta, u pokušaju da se distancira od svojih ozloglašenih predaka. [5] Hawthornov otac Nathaniel Hathorne stariji bio je kapetan mora koji je umro 1808. od žute groznice u holandskom Surinamu [6], bio je član Istočnoindijskog pomorskog društva. [7] Nakon njegove smrti, njegova udovica se preselila s mladim Nathanielom i dvije kćerke da žive kod rođaka po imenu Mannings u Salemu, [8] gdje su živjeli 10 godina. Mladi Hawthorne je 10. novembra 1813. godine udario u nogu dok je igrao "palicu i loptu" [9], pa je ostao hrom i prikovan za godinu dana, iako nekoliko ljekara nije moglo pronaći ništa loše u tome. [10]

U ljeto 1816. porodica je živjela kao graničari sa poljoprivrednicima [11] prije nego što se preselila u kuću koju su im za njih nedavno izgradili Hawthornovi ujaci Richard i Robert Manning u Raymondu, Maine, blizu jezera Sebago. [12] Godinama kasnije, Hawthorne se s ljubavlju osvrnuo na svoje vrijeme u Maineu: "To su bili divni dani, jer je taj dio zemlje tada bio divlji, sa samo raštrkanim čistinama i devet desetina prašume." [13] 1819. vraćen je u školu u Salema i ubrzo se požalio na čežnju za domom i previše se udaljio od majke i sestara. [14] Distribuirao je sedam brojeva časopisa The Spectator svojoj porodici u avgustu i septembru 1820. radi zabave. Domaće novine pisane su ručno i sadržavale su eseje, pjesme i vijesti o adolescentnom humoru mladog autora. [15]

Hawthornov ujak Robert Manning insistirao je da dječak upiše fakultet, uprkos Hawthornovim protestima. [16] Uz finansijsku podršku svog ujaka, Hawthorne je 1821. poslan na Bowdoin College, dijelom zbog porodičnih veza u tom području, a i zbog relativno niske cijene školarine. [17] Hawthorne je upoznao budućeg predsjednika Franklina Piercea na putu za Bowdoin, na stanici u Portlandu, i njih dvoje su postali brzi prijatelji. [16] Jednom u školi upoznao je i budućeg pjesnika Henryja Wadswortha Longfellowa, budućeg kongresmena Jonathana Cilleyja i budućeg pomorskog reformatora Horatia Bridgea. [18] Diplomirao je 1825. godine, a svoje fakultetsko iskustvo kasnije je opisao Richardu Henryju Stoddardu:

Obrazovao sam se (što je izraz) na Bowdoin koledžu. Bio sam besposlen student, nemaran prema fakultetskim pravilima i prokrustovskim detaljima akademskog života, radije sam se odlučio negovati svoja mašta nego kopati po grčkim korijenima i biti uvršten među učene Tebane. [19]

Edit u ranoj karijeri

Godine 1836. Hawthorne je bio urednik časopisa Američki časopis korisnog i zabavnog znanja. U to vrijeme ukrcao se sa pjesnikom Thomasom Green Fessendenom u ulici Hancock na Beacon Hillu u Bostonu. [21] Ponuđeno mu je imenovanje za vagu i mjerenje u Bostonskoj carinarnici sa plaćom od 1.500 dolara godišnje, što je prihvatio 17. januara 1839. [22] Za vrijeme svog boravka iznajmljivao je sobu od Georgea Stillmana Hillarda , poslovni partner Charlesa Sumnera. [23] Hawthorne je napisao u uporednom mraku onoga što je nazvao svojim "sovinim gnijezdom" u porodičnoj kući. Osvrćući se na ovaj period svog života, napisao je: "Nisam živio, već sam samo sanjao o životu." [24] Doprinosio je kratkim pričama u raznim časopisima i godišnjicama, uključujući "Mladi Goodman Brown" i "Ministarov crni veo", iako mu nijedna nije privukla veću pažnju. Horatio Bridge ponudio je da pokrije rizik prikupljanja ovih priča u proljeće 1837. u svezak Dvostruko ispričane priče, što je Hawthorne učinilo lokalno poznatim. [25]

Brak i porodica Edit

Dok je bio u Bowdoinu, Hawthorne se sa svojim prijateljem Jonathanom Cilleyem založio u bocu vina Madeira da će se Cilley vjenčati prije Hawthornea. [26] Do 1836. dobio je opkladu, ali nije doživotno ostao neženja. Javno je flertovao s Mary Silsbee i Elizabeth Peabody [27], a zatim je počeo proganjati Peabodyjevu sestru, ilustratorku i transcendentalisticu Sophu Peabody. Pridružio se transcendentalističkoj utopijskoj zajednici na farmi Brook 1841. godine, ne zato što se složio s eksperimentom, već zato što mu je pomogao uštedjeti novac da se oženi Sofijom. [28] Platio je depozit od 1.000 dolara i zadužen je za lopatanje brda stajskog gnoja koje se naziva "rudnik zlata". [29] Otišao je kasnije te godine, iako je njegova avantura na Brook Farmi postala inspiracija za njegov roman Blithedale Romansa. [30] Hawthorne se oženio Sophiom Peabody 9. jula 1842, na ceremoniji u salonu Peabody na West Streetu u Bostonu. [31] Par se preselio u The Old Manse u Concordu, Massachusetts, [32] gdje su živjeli tri godine. Njegov komšija Ralph Waldo Emerson pozvao ga je u svoj društveni krug, ali Hawthorne je bio gotovo patološki stidljiv i šutio je na okupljanjima. [33] U Old Manseu, Hawthorne je napisao većinu priča sakupljenih u Mahovine iz starog mansa. [34]

Kao i Hawthorne, Sophia je bila povučena osoba. Tokom svog ranog života imala je česte migrene i podvrgnuta je nekoliko eksperimentalnih medicinskih tretmana. [35] Uglavnom je bila prikovana za krevet sve dok joj sestra nije predstavila Hawthornea, nakon čega su njene glavobolje izgleda nestale. Hawthornovi su uživali u dugom i sretnom braku. Nazivao ju je svojom "golubicom" i napisao da je "ona, u najstrožem smislu, moj jedini pratilac i ne trebam drugog - nema slobodnog mjesta u mom umu, ništa više nego u mom srcu. Hvala Bogu što mi je dovoljno" za njeno bezgranično srce! " [36] Sophia se jako divila radu svog supruga. U jednom od svojih časopisa napisala je:

Uvijek sam tako zaslijepljen i zbunjen bogatstvom, dubinom,. draguljima ljepote u njegovim produkcijama koje se uvijek radujem drugom čitanju u kojem mogu razmisliti i proučiti i potpuno uzeti u obzir čudesno bogatstvo misli. [37]

Pjesnikinja Ellery Channing došla je u Old Manse po pomoć na prvu godišnjicu Hawthornesovog braka. Lokalna tinejdžerka po imenu Martha Hunt utopila se u rijeci i Hawthorneovom čamcu Pond Lily bilo je potrebno da se pronađe njeno telo. Hawthorne je pomogao u pronalaženju leša, koji je opisao kao "prizor tako savršenog užasa. Ona je bila sama slika smrtne agonije". [38] Incident je kasnije inspirisao scenu u njegovom romanu Blithedale Romansa.

Hawthornovi su imali troje djece. Prva im je bila kćerka Una, rođena 3. marta 1844. godine Vila kraljica, na nezadovoljstvo članova porodice. [39] Hawthorne je napisao prijatelju: "Smatram da je to vrlo trezvena i ozbiljna vrsta sreće koja izvire iz rođenja djeteta. Od toga više ne mogu pobjeći. Sada imam posao na zemlji i moram pogledati oko sebe kako to učiniti. " [40] U oktobru 1845. godine, Hawthornovi su se preselili u Salem. [41] 1846. rođen je njihov sin Julian. Hawthorne je 22. juna 1846. pisao svojoj sestri Louisi: "Mali troglodit pojavio se ovdje jutros u deset do šest sati, koji je tvrdio da je vaš nećak." [42] Kći Rose rođena je u maju 1851. godine, a Hawthorne ju je nazvao svojim "jesenskim cvijetom". [43]

Srednje godine Edit

U aprilu 1846. godine, Hawthorne je službeno imenovan geodetom za distrikt Salem i Beverly i inspektorom prihoda za luku Salem uz godišnju plaću od 1.200 dolara. [44] U tom je razdoblju imao problema s pisanjem, što je priznao Longfellowu:

Pokušavam nastaviti s olovkom. Kad god sjedim sam ili šetam sam, sanjam o starim pričama, ali ova podneva u Carinarnici poništavaju sve ono što su popodne i večeri radili. Trebao bih biti sretniji da mogu pisati. [45]

Ovo zaposlenje, kao i njegovo ranije imenovanje u carinarnicu u Bostonu, bilo je osjetljivo na politiku sistema plijena. Hawthorne je bio demokrata i izgubio je ovaj posao zbog promjene uprave u Washingtonu nakon predsjedničkih izbora 1848. Napisao je protestno pismo Bostonski dnevni oglašivač koju su napali Whigi i podržali demokrati, čineći Hawthorneovo otpuštanje događajem o kojem se u Novoj Engleskoj mnogo pričalo. [46] Bio je duboko pogođen smrću svoje majke krajem jula, nazivajući to "najmračnijim satom u životu". [47] Imenovan je odgovarajućim sekretarom Salemskog liceja 1848. Gosti koji su došli govoriti te sezone bili su Emerson, Thoreau, Louis Agassiz i Theodore Parker. [48]

Hawthorne se vratio pisanju i objavio Grimizno pismo sredinom marta 1850. godine [49], uključujući predgovor koji se odnosi na njegov trogodišnji rad u Carinarnici i daje nekoliko aluzija na lokalne političare-koji nisu cijenili njihov tretman. [50] Bila je to jedna od prvih masovno proizvedenih knjiga u Americi, prodala je 2.500 svezaka u roku od deset dana i zaradila Hawthorne 1.500 dolara u 14 godina. [51] Knjigu su piratizirali prodavači knjiga u Londonu [ potreban citat ] i postao bestseler u Sjedinjenim Državama [52] započeo je njegovo najunosnije razdoblje kao pisac. [51] Hawthornov prijatelj Edwin Percy Whipple usprotivio se "morbidnom intenzitetu" romana i njegovim gustim psihološkim detaljima, napisavši da je knjiga "stoga sklona postati, poput Hawthornea, previše bolno anatomska u njihovoj izložbi", [53] Pisac 20. veka DH Lawrence rekao je da ne može postojati savršenije delo američke mašte od toga Grimizno pismo. [54]

Hawthorne i njegova porodica preselili su se u malu crvenu seosku kuću u blizini Lenoxa, Massachusetts, krajem marta 1850. [55] S Hermanom Melvilleom sprijateljio se 5. avgusta 1850, kada su se autori sreli na pikniku kojeg je organizirao zajednički prijatelj . [56] Melville je upravo čitao Hawthorneovu zbirku kratkih priča Mahovine iz starog mansagodine, a njegov nepotpisani prikaz zbirke štampan je godine Književni svet 17. i 24. avgusta pod naslovom "Hawthorne i njegove mahovine". [57] Melville je napisao da su ove priče otkrile Hawthorneu mračnu stranu, "obavijenu crninom, deset puta crnu". [58] Sastavljao je svoj roman Moby-Dick u to vrijeme [58] i posvetio djelo 1851. Hawthorneu: "U znak mog divljenja prema njegovoj genijalnosti, ova knjiga je napisana Nathanielu Hawthorneu." [59]

Hawthorneovo vrijeme u Berkshires bilo je vrlo produktivno. [60] Dok je bio tamo, pisao je Kuća Sedam zabata (1851), za koju je pjesnik i kritičar James Russell Lowell rekao da je bolja Grimizno pismo i nazvan "najvrjednijim doprinosom istoriji Nove Engleske koji je napravljen". [61] On je takođe pisao Blithedale Romansa (1852), njegovo jedino djelo napisano u prvom licu. [30] Takođe je objavio Čudesna knjiga za djevojčice i dječake 1851., zbirku kratkih priča koje prepričavaju mitove o kojima je razmišljao o pisanju od 1846. [62] Ipak, pjesnikinja Ellery Channing izvijestila je da je Hawthorne "mnogo patio živeći na ovom mjestu". [63] Porodica je uživala u krajoliku Berkshiresa, iako Hawthorne nije uživao u zimama u njihovoj maloj kući. Otišli su 21. novembra 1851. [60] Hawthorne je primijetio: "Muka mi je od Berkshirea. Osjećao sam se mrzovoljno i razočarano, tokom gotovo cijelog svog boravka." [64]

Uređivanje Wayside i Europe

U maju 1852. godine, Hawthornovi su se vratili u Concord gdje su živjeli do jula 1853. [41] U februaru su kupili The Hillside, kuću u kojoj su prethodno živjeli Amos Bronson Alcott i njegova porodica, i preimenovali je u The Wayside. [65] Njihovi susjedi u Concordu bili su Emerson i Henry David Thoreau. [66] Te godine, napisao je Hawthorne Život Franklina Piercea, biografiju njegovog prijatelja u kampanji koja ga je prikazivala kao "čovjeka mirnih aktivnosti". [67] Horace Mann je rekao: "Ako od Piercea napravi velikog ili hrabrog čovjeka, to će biti najveće fantastično djelo koje je ikada napisao." [67] U biografiji, Hawthorne prikazuje Piercea kao državnika i vojnika koji nije postigao velike podvige zbog svoje potrebe da napravi "malo buke" pa se "povukao u pozadinu". [68] Također je izostavio Pierceove navike pijenja, uprkos glasinama o njegovom alkoholizmu, [69] i naglasio Pierceovo uvjerenje da se ropstvo ne može "popraviti ljudskim izmišljotinama", već će s vremenom "nestati kao san". [70]

Pierceovim izborom za predsjednika, Hawthorne je 1853. nagrađen položajem konzula Sjedinjenih Država u Liverpoolu ubrzo nakon objavljivanja Tanglewood Tales. [71] Uloga se u to vrijeme smatrala najunosnijom stranom službom, koju je Hawthornova supruga opisala kao "drugu po dostojanstvu nakon Ambasade u Londonu". [72] Tokom tog perioda on i njegova porodica živjeli su na imanju Rock Park u Rock Ferryju u jednoj od kuća neposredno uz plažu Tranmere na obali Wirral rijeke Mersey. [73] [74] Tako bi Hawthorne da bi prisustvovao svom radnom mjestu u konzulatu Sjedinjenih Država u Liverpoolu, bio redovan putnik na brodu Rock Ferry koji je upravljao parobrodom do Liverpoola koji je polazio sa Rock Ferry Slipwaya na kraju Bedford Roada . [75] Njegovo imenovanje završilo je 1857. godine nakon zatvaranja Pierceove administracije. Porodica Hawthorne putovala je Francuskom i Italijom do 1860. Za vrijeme njegovog boravka u Italiji, prethodno obrijani Hawthorne pustio je čupave brkove. [76]

Porodica se vratila u The Wayside 1860. godine [77], a te je godine objavljeno Mermerni faun, njegova prva nova knjiga u sedam godina. [78] Hawthorne je priznao da je znatno ostario, nazivajući sebe "naboranim vremenom i nevoljama". [79]

Kasnije godine i smrt Edit

Na početku američkog građanskog rata, Hawthorne je otputovao s Williamom D. Ticknorom u Washington, DC, gdje je upoznao Abrahama Lincolna i druge značajne ličnosti. O svojim iskustvima pisao je u eseju "Uglavnom o ratnim pitanjima" 1862.

Slabo zdravlje spriječilo ga je da dovrši još nekoliko ljubavnih romana. Hawthorne je patio od bolova u trbuhu i insistirao je na oporavku sa svojim prijateljem Franklinom Pierceom, iako je njegov susjed Bronson Alcott bio zabrinut da je Hawthorne previše bolestan. [80] Dok je bio na obilasku Bijelih planina, umro je u snu 19. maja 1864. godine u Plymouthu, New Hampshire. Pierce je poslao telegram Elizabeth Peabody tražeći od nje da lično obavijesti gospođu Hawthorne. Gospođa Hawthorne je bila previše tužna zbog tih vijesti da bi sama riješila pogrebne aranžmane. [81] Hawthornov sin Julian, brucoš na koledžu Harvard, saznao je za očevu smrt sljedećeg dana slučajno, istog dana je iniciran u bratstvo Delta Kappa Epsilon stavljanjem poveza na oči i stavljanjem u lijes. [82] Longfellow je napisao pjesmu posvetu Hawthorneu objavljenu 1866. pod nazivom "The Belln of Lynn". [83] Hawthorne je sahranjen na onome što je danas poznato kao "Autorski greben" na groblju Sleepy Hollow, Concord, Massachusetts. [84] Pallbeareri su bili Longfellow, Emerson, Alcott, Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr., James T. Fields i Edwin Percy Whipple. [85] Emerson je o sahrani napisao: "Mislio sam da u događaju postoji tragičan element, koji bi se mogao potpunije iskazati - u bolnoj samoći čovjeka, koju, pretpostavljam, više nije bilo moguće podnijeti, a on je umro toga. " [86]

Njegova supruga Sophia i kći Una prvobitno su sahranjene u Engleskoj. Međutim, u junu 2006. godine ponovo su useljeni na parcele u blizini Hawthornea. [87]

Hawthorne je imao posebno bliske odnose sa svojim izdavačima Williamom Ticknorom i Jamesom T. Fieldsom. [88] Hawthorne je jednom rekao Fieldsu: "Više mi je stalo do vašeg dobrog mišljenja nego do mišljenja mnogih kritičara." [89] U stvari, Fields je bio taj koji je uvjerio Hawthornea da se okrene Grimizno pismo u roman, a ne u kratku priču. [90] Ticknor se bavio mnogim Hawthornovim ličnim stvarima, uključujući kupovinu cigara, nadgledanje finansijskih računa, pa čak i kupovinu odjeće. [91] Ticknor je umro s Hawthorneom kraj sebe u Philadelphiji 1864. godine prema riječima prijatelja, Hawthorne je ostao "očigledno ošamućen". [92]

Književni stil i teme Uredi

Hawthornova djela pripadaju romantizmu ili, preciznije, mračnom romantizmu [93], upozoravajućim pričama koje sugeriraju da su krivica, grijeh i zlo najprisutnije prirodne osobine čovječanstva. [94] Mnoga njegova djela inspirirana su puritanskom Novom Engleskom, [95] kombinirajući povijesnu romantiku punu simbolike i dubokih psiholoških tema, koja graniči s nadrealizmom. [96] Njegovi prikazi prošlosti verzija su historijske fikcije koja se koristi samo kao sredstvo za izražavanje uobičajenih tema o grijehu predaka, krivnji i osveti. [97] Njegovi kasniji spisi odražavaju i njegov negativan pogled na pokret Transcendentalizam. [98]

Hawthorne je u ranoj karijeri pretežno bio pisac kratkih priča. Po objavljivanju Dvostruko ispričane pričemeđutim, primijetio je, "ne mislim puno na njih", te je očekivao mali odaziv javnosti. [99] Njegove četiri velike romanse napisane su između 1850. i 1860. godine: Grimizno pismo (1850), Kuća Sedam zabata (1851), Blithedale Romansa (1852) i Mermerni faun (1860). Još jedna dugometražna romansa, Fanshawe, objavljen je anonimno 1828. Hawthorne je definirao romansu kao radikalno drugačiju od romana ne obazirući se na mogući ili vjerovatni tok uobičajenog iskustva. [100] U predgovoru za Kuća Sedam zabata, Hawthorne opisuje svoje romaneskno pisanje kako koristi "atmosferski medij za izbacivanje ili ublažavanje svjetla i produbljivanje i obogaćivanje sjena slike". [101] Slika je, otkrio je Daniel Hoffman, jedna od "primitivnih energija plodnosti i stvaranja". [102]

Kritičari su primijenili feminističke perspektive i historistički pristup Hawthornovim prikazima žena. Feministkinje su posebno zainteresirane za Hester Prynne: priznaju da, iako ona sama nije mogla biti "predodređena proročica" budućnosti, "anđeo i apostol nadolazećeg otkrivenja" ipak mora "biti žena". [103] Camille Paglia smatrala je Hester mističnom, "lutajućom božicom koja još uvijek nosi obilježje svog azijskog porijekla. Spokojno se kreće u magičnom krugu svoje seksualne prirode". [104] Lauren Berlant nazvala je Hester "građankom kao ženom [personificirajući] ljubav kao kvalitetu tijela koja sadrži najčišće svjetlo prirode", a njezinu "izdajničku političku teoriju" kao "žensku simboličku" književnost uzaludnih puritanskih metafora. [105] Historičari vide Hester kao protofeministu i avatara samopouzdanja i odgovornosti koji su doveli do prava glasa žena i reproduktivne emancipacije. Anthony Splendora pronašao je svoju književnu genealogiju među ostalim arhetipski palim, ali otkupljenim ženama, i povijesnim i mitskim. Kao primjere nudi Psihu antičke legende Heloise iz francuske tragedije iz dvanaestog stoljeća u kojoj je učestvovao svjetski poznati filozof Peter Abelard Anne Hutchinson (prva američka heretičarka, oko 1636. godine) i porodična prijateljica Hawthorne Margaret Fuller. [106] U prvom pojavljivanju Hester, Hawthorne ju uspoređuje, "odojče na njenim grudima", s Marijom, majkom Isusovom, "slikom božanskog materinstva". U svom proučavanju viktorijanske književnosti, u kojoj su istaknuti takvi "galvanski izopćenici" kao što je Hester, Nina Auerbach otišla je toliko daleko da je Hesterin pad i kasnije iskupljenje nazvala "jednom nedvosmisleno vjerskom aktivnošću romana". [107] S obzirom na Hester kao figuru božanstva, Meredith A. Powers je u Hesterinoj karakterizaciji pronašla "najraniju američku fikciju da se arhetipska božica pojavljuje sasvim grafički", poput boginje, a ne supruge tradicionalnog braka, koja je stalno podložna muškom gospodaru. "Powers je primijetio" njen sinkretizam, fleksibilnost, inherentnu sposobnost da se promijeni i tako izbjegne poraz sekundarnog statusa u civilizaciji usmjerenoj na ciljeve ". [108]

Osim Hester Prynne, uzora žena iz drugih Hawthornovih romana - od Ellen Langton iz Fanshawe do Zenobije i Priscile od Blithedale romantika, Hilda i Miriam iz Mermerni faun i Phoebe i Hepzibah od Kuća Sedam zabata- su potpunije ostvareni od njegovih muških likova, koji ih samo kruže. [109] Ovo zapažanje podjednako vrijedi i za njegove kratke priče, u kojima središnje žene služe kao alegorijske figure: lijepa Rappaccinijeva, ali život promjenjiva, vezana za vrt, kći gotovo savršena Georgiana iz "Marka rođenja" protiv kojeg je sagriješila (napuštena) Ester "Ethan Brand" i dobra žena Faith Brown, oslonac samog vjerovanja mladog Goodmana Browna u Boga. "Moja vjera je nestala!" Brown uzvikuje u očaju vidjevši svoju ženu na vještičjoj suboti. [ potreban citat ]. Možda najjasniji iskaz o Hawthorneovom zamahu dolazi od Marka Van Dorena: "Negdje, ako ne u Novoj Engleskoj svog vremena, Hawthorne je otkrio sliku božice vrhunske u ljepoti i moći." [110]

Hawthorne je takođe pisao publicistiku. 2008. godine Američka biblioteka odabrala je Hawthorneovu "Prikaz voštanih figura" za uključivanje u svoju dvostoljetnu retrospektivu američkog istinskog zločina. [111]

Kritika Edit

U "Hawthorneu i njegovim mahovima", Herman Melville je napisao strastveni argument da Hawthorne bude među rastućim američkim književnim kanonom: "On je jedna od novih i daleko boljih generacija vaših pisaca." U ovom pregledu Mahovine iz starog mansa, Melville opisuje afinitet prema Hawthorneu koji bi se samo povećao: "Osjećam da je ovaj Hawthorne bacio klijavo sjeme u moju dušu. On se širi i produbljuje, što ga više razmišljam i dalje, i dalje, puca u njegove jake korijene iz Nove Engleske u vrelo tlo moje južnjačke duše. " [ potreban citat ] Edgar Allan Poe napisao je važne kritike za oboje Dvostruko ispričane priče i Mahovine iz starog mansa. Poeova procjena djelomično je proizašla iz njegovog preziranja alegorijskih i moralnih priča i njegovih hroničnih optužbi za plagijat, iako je priznao,

Stil gospodina Hawthornea je sama čistoća. Njegov ton je izuzetno efektivan - divlji, tužan, promišljen i u potpunosti u skladu s njegovim temama. Gledamo na njega kao na jednog od rijetkih ljudi nespornog genija koje je naša zemlja još rodila. [112]

Časopis Johna Neala The Yankee objavio je prvu značajnu javnu pohvalu Hawthorneu, rekavši 1828. da je autor Fanshawe ima "poštene izglede za budući uspjeh". [113] Ralph Waldo Emerson je napisao: "Ugled Nathaniela Hawthornea kao pisca vrlo je ugodna činjenica, jer njegovo pisanje nije dobro ni za šta, a ovo je danak čovjeku." [114] Henry James je pohvalio Hawthornea, rekavši: "Dobra stvar u Hawthorneu je to što mu je stalo do dublje psihologije i što je na svoj način pokušao da je upozna." [115] Pjesnik John Greenleaf Whittier napisao je da se divio "čudnoj i suptilnoj ljepoti" u Hawthorneovim pričama. [116] Evert Augustus Duyckinck rekao je za Hawthornea, "Od američkih pisaca kojima je suđeno da žive, on je najoriginalniji, jedan od onih koji najmanje duguju stranim modelima ili književnim presedanima bilo koje vrste." [117]

Savremeni odgovor na Hawthorneov rad hvalio je njegovu sentimentalnost i moralnu čistoću, dok se modernije ocjene fokusiraju na mračnu psihološku kompleksnost. [118] Počevši od 1950 -ih, kritičari su se fokusirali na simbolizam i didaktizam. [119]

The critic Harold Bloom opined that only Henry James and William Faulkner challenge Hawthorne's position as the greatest American novelist, although he admitted that he favored James as the greatest American novelist. [120] [121] Bloom saw Hawthorne's greatest works to be principally The Scarlet Letter, followed by The Marble Faun and certain short stories, including "My Kinsman, Major Molineux", "Young Goodman Brown", "Wakefield", and "Feathertop". [121]

The "definitive edition" of Hawthorne's works [122] is The Centenary Edition of the Works of Nathaniel Hawthorne, edited by William Charvat and others, published by The Ohio State University Press in twenty-three volumes between 1962 and 1997. [123] Tales and Sketches (1982) was the second volume to be published in the Library of America, Collected Novels (1983) the tenth. [124]


Nathaniel Hawthorne’s Literary Style

The works of Nathaniel Hawthorne belong to 19 th century Romanticism and, more precisely, to dark Romanticism. His tales are cautionary, suggesting that sin, evil, and guilt are the inherent characteristics of humanity. His works have been inspired by Puritan New England and historical romance . They are loaded with deep psychological themes and symbolism , and little traces of surrealism is also found. He depicts the past in the form of historical fiction and illustrates his recurrent theme of the ancestral and inherent sin of humanity. He also illustrates negative views of transcendentalism in his later writings.

Predominantly, Nathaniel Hawthorne wrote short stories in his early career. When he published a Collection Twice-Told Tale , he did not expect a public response and said that he did not think much about it. From 1850 to 1860, he wrote his four major romances . Oni su The House of the Seven Gables, The Scarlet Letter, The Marble Faun, i The Blithedale Romance . In 1828, he published, anonymously, another romance of novel-length Fanshawe . Hawthorne gave his own definition of romance and said that romance is different from the novel by not focusing on ordinary life experiences. Hawthorns illustrates his romance writing in the preface to Kuća Sedam zabata by saying that he uses “atmospherical medium as to bring out or mellow the lights and deepen and enrich the shadows of the picture.”

The novels, short stories, and romance novels that Hawthorne wrote this period shaped his literary style. Hawthorne developed a romance fiction style that represents his own beliefs. Due to romance fiction, the literary style of Hawthorne, when compared to modern literature, is perceived as zastarjelo . However, Hawthorne also carries the psychological themes and nature of humanity with his creative employment of symbolism and allegory .

The literary style of Hawthorne is ordinary as compared to contemporary writers. In the 19 th century, the printing press was not advanced enough to reproduce the exact images in the literary works. Due to which, Hawthorne had to write lengthy descriptions to create visuals as the readers had no other medium to see them or experience the setting of the novels. The best example of visual description is seen in the roman The Scarlet Letter when Hawthorne gives minute details of the door of the prison and the surrounding places.

Another feature of Hawthorne’s style is the use of formal and exaggerated dialogues . This feature is limited to his time period and remained impartially constant from character to character. In The Scarlet Letter, the exaggerated dialogues are very prominent. For example, in the novel, the dialogue of a child, Pearl, is similar to the dialogue of other characters of the novel. This style of using overly formal and exaggerated Hawthorne was inspired by the British writer Sir Walter Scott. Hawthorn’s dialogues were perfect in describing the emotions of humans, even though they were exaggerated.

Another striking feature of Hawthorne’s fictional writing style is that it is devoid of any conflicts between the characters . Hawthorne focused more on the internal struggle of character than to center his focus on the outward action and clashes. The best example of this characteristic can also be found in the novel The Scarlet letter . The novel is based on the order the “Thou shall not commit adultery.” Even though the dialogues and style of Hawthorne are outdated, his themes are modern and still used in modern works.

The most important recurring theme in almost all of Hawthorne’s work is his perception of human nature . Hawthorne talks about interesting aspects of the human mind by exploring the dark sides of human consciousness. In the romance, The Scarlet Letter made a thoughtful comment on the breakup of human relationships in seventeen-century society. Hawthorne also talks about the wickedness of human nature when the title character in the short story “Young Goodman Brown” struggles greatly to resist his temptations.

The notion of neutral territory is an outstanding characteristic of the writing style of Hawthorne. He defines the notion of neutral territory as a place somewhere between the fairy world and the real world. The episode of the custom-house in The Scarlet Letter is prominent and serves as the setting for romance.

The modern themes in the writing of Hawthorne were inspired by his religious beliefs. Though the purpose of writing was not to depict his religious beliefs, the Puritan background is evident in The Scarlet Letter . The way he portrayed a sinner resembles the sinner in the harsh Puritan community. In his works, Hawthorne also put forward his suspicions on the notion of morality and the need for the exile of Hester Prynne in The Scarlet Letter . Hawthorne was a disbeliever in hell, heaven, angels, or devils as there was the clash between modern science and the Bible, which made him highly suspicious.

The nature of the 19 th -century literature was more konzervativan and did not match the frank nature of twentieth-century literature. Thus, by employing symbolism, Hawthorne implicitly employed modern themes. The eminent modern theme is found in the novel The Scarlet Letter , in the form of character Pearl. Pearl is the living proof of the illicit and adulterous relationship between Hester Prynne and Dimmesdale.

Hawthorne also uses fantastical symbols representing the outdated moral stance of his own. The example of a fantastical symbol is the moral sin of adultery committed by Hester and is symbolized by excessively decorated scarlet “A” on his breast. Other authors whose works are not based on realism are also concerned with morality the way Hawthorne was.

To present his themes, Hawthorne also employed the literary device of alegorija . He makes his works allegorical by placing the fictional characters in a setting and situation that is not commonplace. Hawthorne presented complicated variations on his ordinary themes of human community and human isolation in The Scarlet Letters . The outstanding example of both of these themes is Hester Prynne, as she was separated from the strict Puritan community. Perhaps, the theme of isolation in Hawthorne’s work could also be a result of his own experience of seclusion from his own family. Hawthorne also explores the themes of cowardliness and sin through his character Arthur Dimmesdale when he struggled to make his sin public.

Feminism in Hawthorne’s Works

The feminist critics and historic critics approach the works of Hawthorne by his description of the women in his novels, romances, and short stories. The character of Hester Prynne in the romance-novel, The Scarlet Letter, is a special interest to feminist critics. They realize that as she could not be an intended prophet of the future, nor could she be an apostle and angel of the coming world, but indeed a woman. A feminist critic Camille Paglia observed the character of Hester as mystical and describes her as a wondering goddess who still bears the sign of her Asiatic origin and “moving serenely in the magic circle of her sexual nature.”

Another feminist, Lauren Berlant, describes Hester as a woman who personifies love as the characteristic quality of body that embodies the unadulterated light of nature. The false political theory of Berlant “Female Symbolic” is the result of her feminist study of The Scarlet Letter in which she literalizes the uselessness of Puritan metaphors.

For historicists, Hester is a proto-feminist incarnation of responsibility and self-reliance that causes the women to vote and their liberation. Nina Auerbach named the fall of Hester and her following redemption as “the novel’s one unequivocally religious activity.’ She studies Victorian literature and compares the galvanic outcast with the prominent features of Hester.

Meredith A. Powers regards Hester as a deity figure describes the characterization of Hester as “the earliest in American fiction that the archetypal Goddess appears quite graphically… not the wife of traditional marriage, permanently subject to a male overlord.” Powers observes the flexibility and syncretism of Hester, as well as her inherent aptitude to change and neglect the secondary status defeat in the civilization, which is goal-oriented.

Other than Hester Prynne, other female characters of Hawthorne’s novels are also more developed than male characters. These characters include Ellen Langton from the novel Fanshawe , Zenobia and Priscilla from the novel The Blithedale Romance , Miriam and Hilda of The Marble Faun , and Hepzibah and Phoebe of Kuća Sedam zabata . The same is the case in his short stories. In his short stories, the female protagonist serves as an allegorical figure. For example, Rappaccini is an attractive but life-changing daughter the perfect Georgiana in the short story “The Birthmark ester which is abandoned and sinned against in the story “Ethan Brand” and the faithful wife Faith Brown is the fulcrum of the very belief of Young Goodman Brown on God. When Brown sees his wife at the Sabbath of Witches, he shouts, “My Faith is gone!” Indeed, the most comprehensive statement of Hawthorne’s stimulus comes out of the mouth of Mark Van Doren as “Somewhere, if not in the New England of his time, Hawthorne unearthed the image of a goddess supreme in beauty and power.”

Zaključak

To conclude, the literary style of Hawthorne perhaps contains features such as dialogue and description, which appears to be outdated and out of place when compared to the literature of the twentieth century. But the style of Hawthorne belongs to his own time. Moreover, Hawthorne also employs modern themes in his work and illustrates his own perception of religion and human nature. Furthermore, the important device Hawthorne used to address his subject matter was symbolism, which “too essential” to be used in the literature of the 19 th century. Therefore, Hawthorne uses symbolism smartly to reflect his own beliefs. By placing the fantastical situations and setting, Hawthorne employed a unique form of allegory. He talks about the themes of sin, adultery, and human mortality by employing various themes. All things considered, Nathaniel hawthorns profoundly examined each surface of human nature, and from the experiences of his characters, he draws the conclusion of his work.


Writing the novels

Facing the world once more, Hawthorne obtained in 1846 the position of surveyor (one who maps out new lands) in the Salem Custom House, but was relieved of this position in 1848 because of his political ties. His dismissal, however, turned out to be a blessing, since it gave him time in which to write his greatest success, The Scarlet Letter.

The period 1850 to 1853 was Hawthorne's most productive, as he wrote Kuća Sedam zabata i The Blithedale Romance, zajedno sa A Wonder Book (1852) and Tanglewood Tales (1853). During 1850 the Hawthornes lived at the Red House in Lenox in the Berkshire Hills, and Hawthorne formed a memorable friendship with novelist Herman Melville (1819�). The association was more important to Melville than to Hawthorne, since Melville was fifteen years younger and the much more impressionable (easily influenced) of the two men. It left its mark in dedication of his Moby-Dick, and in some wonderful letters.


The 1858 visit of Nathaniel Hawthorne to the Villa Ludovisi, illustrated

The Boncompagni Ludovisi family’s own photographic album (late 1880s-early 1890s) of their sculptural collection. Collection of HSH Prince Nicolò and HSH Princess Rita Boncompagni Ludovisi, Rome.

In January 1858, after four years of service as US Consul in Liverpool, American writer Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804-1864) came to Rome with his wife and three children. He spent almost a year and a half in Italy, into May 1859, with visits to Siena and Florence. In his journals he recorded from what was essentially a tourist’s vantage point many exquisitely detailed impressions of the country and its cultural riches. The chief literary expression of this Italian experience was Hawthorne’s 1860 work The Marble Faun, the last of his four great romances, which he mostly wrote after leaving the Continent for England.

The journals include Hawthorne’s account of a family visit to the Villa Ludovisi (quoted in full below), on 26 March 1858, some two months after their arrival in Rome. Here one can sense early glimpses of a melancholic view of the Eternal City that soon became much more pronounced after his eldest daughter, Una, then aged about 18, suffered a serious attack of the notorious strain of malaria known as “Roman fever”.

His daughter’s near-death experience obviously colored Hawthorne’s perception of the city. “I bitterly detest Rome,” Hawthorne wrote to his friend the publisher James Thomas Fields on 3 February 1859 (i.e., not quite a year after the visit to the Villa Ludovisi), “and shall rejoice to bid it farewell forever and I fully acquiesce in all the mischief and ruin that has happened to it, from Nero’s conflagration downward. In fact, I wish the very site had been obliterated before I saw it.”

Unused entrance ticket to the Boncompagni Ludovisi museum collection (1890s). Collection of HSH Prince Nicolò and HSH Princess Rita Boncompagni Ludovisi, Rome.

Hawthorne says that the ticket that secured his family’s entry came directly from the “Prince of Piombini”, i.e., Antonio Boncompagni Ludovisi (1808-1883), who became Prince of Piombino (VII) on the death of his father Luigi (born 1767) in 1841. A written application directly to the Prince Boncompagni Ludovisi was indeed the standard mode of applying for a visit to the Villa Ludovisi for the whole latter half of the 19th century. One notes that the children of Nathaniel and Sophia Hawthorne at the time of the visit were aged 18 (Una, 1844-1877), eleven (Julian, 1846-1934), and not quite seven (Rose, 1851-1926). So even rather young children could gain admission to the Villa and its Museum.

On the day of their appointment—which happens to have been a Friday—Hawthorne and his family entered through the main gate on the Via Friuli, and managed to see the “Casino delle Statue” which housed the most famous sculptural works of the Museo Ludovisi, and then apparently wandered quite freely around the extensive grounds. Finally, the family, along with a small group of other visitors, entered the Casino Aurora—perhaps by special pleading, for it was then “under repair”. (Indeed, a major expansion of the Casino Aurora was just then in its final stages.) At the Casino, Hawthorne managed to see Guercino’s “Aurora” fresco (but apparently not the “Fama” on the floor above it), climb the famed spiral staircase that practically all visitors note, and ascend to the Casino’s upper story terrace with its spectacular view of the city and beyond.

Significantly, Hawthorne says nothing of the Palazzo Grande, which will have been the main residence of the Boncompagni Ludovisi family at this time. Evidently it was not accessible to visitors in this era.

The Palazzo Grande of the Villa Ludovisi (at left), from the vantage point of what approximates today’s Via Boncompagni in Rome (between Via Marche and Via Lucullo). Photographed by Ignazio Boncompagni Ludovisi in 1885, just before the re-development of the Villa. Collection of HSH Prince Nicolò and HSH Princess Rita Boncompagni Ludovisi, Rome.

Hawthorne did not intend for the journal entries from his family’s Italian sojourn to be published. It was his wife, Sophia Peabody Hawthorne (1809-1871), who in winter 1870-1871 transcribed what was soon issued as the Passages from the French and Italian Note-books of Nathaniel Hawthorne. The London firm of Strahan & Co. first published this work in two volumes in autumn 1871, after Sophia’s death in February of that year.

At the point when the Hawthorne family visited the Villa Ludovisi, the head of the Boncompagni Ludovisi family—Antonio Boncompagni Ludovisi, and his wife Guglielmina Massimo (1811-1899)—had five surviving children, ranging from age 26 (Rodolfo, born 1832) to age four (Lavinia, born 1854). A son Livio just the previous summer, in August 1857, a month before his sixteenth birthday a daughter Filomena had died in infancy in 1836. In 1885 their second eldest son, Ignazio Boncompagni Ludovisi (1845-1913), was responsible for the photographic campaign that resulted in the images of the Villa Ludovisi seen throughout this post. Photographs of the sculptures are from an album in the family’s private collection (cover shown above).

Here is that entry from 26 March 1858:

“Yesterday, between twelve and one, our whole family went to the Villa Ludovisi, the entrance to which is at the termination of a street which passes out of the Piazza Barberini, and it is no very great distance from our own street, Via Porta Pinciana.”

Main gate of the Villa Ludovisi (as it appeared in 1885) at the “bend” of the Via Friuli (today, inside the US Embassy compound). Collection of HSH Prince Nicolò and HSH Princess Rita Boncompagni Ludovisi, Rome.

“The grounds, though very extensive, are wholly within the walls of the city, which skirt them, and comprise a part of what were formerly the gardens of Sallust.”

Map of Rome (detail, showing the Villa Ludovisi), from P. Benoist, Rome dans sa grandeur (Paris 1870)

“The villa is now the property of Prince Piombini, a ticket from whom procured us admission. A little within the gateway, to the right, is a casino, containing two large rooms filled with sculpture, much of which is very valuable.”

The Casino Capponi (= “Casino delle Statue”) as it appeared in 1885. Today the site is occupied by an auto maintenance garage for the US Embassy. Collection of HSH Prince Nicolò and HSH Princess Rita Boncompagni Ludovisi, Rome.

“A colossal head of Juno, I believe, is considered the greatest treasure of the collection, but I did not myself feel it to be so, nor indeed did I receive any strong impression of its excellence.”

Acquired by Cardinal Ludovico Ludovisi (1595-1632), the “Juno Ludovisi” is now in the Museo Nazionale Romano at the Palazzo Altemps. Goethe, for one, admired this colossal head so much that he made his own cast. Collection of HSH Prince Nicolò and HSH Princess Rita Boncompagni Ludovisi, Rome.

“I admired nothing so much, I think, as the face of Penelope (if it be her face), in the group supposed also to represent Electra and Orestes.”

It was Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768) who first identified these figures as Electra recognizing her brother Orestes Hawthorne seems to opt for a tradition that they represent Penelope and her son Telemachus. Already listed in the Villa Ludovisi inventory of 1623, today the sculptural group is exhibited in the Palazzo Altemps. Collection of HSH Prince Nicolò and HSH Princess Rita Boncompagni Ludovisi, Rome.

“The sitting statue of Mars is very fine…”

The Ares Ludovisi, now in the Palazzo Altemps. Winckelmann called this sculpture “the most beautiful Mars from antiquity”. His shield, hands, and feet, and the head, arms and feet of the small Eros at his right leg saw restorations by Bernini in 1622. Collection of HSH Prince Nicolò and HSH Princess Rita Boncompagni Ludovisi, Rome.

“…so is the Aria and Paetus so are many other busts and figures.”

The sculpture which Hawthorne calls the “Ar(r)ia and Paetus”, and today (housed in the Palazzo Altemps) is now known as the Suicidal Gaul and his ‘Wife’, first appears in the Villa Ludovisi inventories for 1623. It is likely that Cardinal Ludovico Ludovisi discovered it in developing the Roman-era Gardens of Sallust for his newly-purchased Villa. Collection of HSH Prince Nicolò and HSH Princess Rita Boncompagni Ludovisi, Rome.

“By-and-by we left the casino and wandered among the grounds, threading interminable alleys of cypress, through the long vistas of which we could see here and there a statue, an urn, a pillar, a temple, or garden-house, or a bas-relief against the wall.”

Villa Ludovisi (1885): colossal head of Alexander the Great, embedded in the Aurelian Walls. The sculpture is still visible today on the Via Campania (just east of the intersection with Via Veneto), though the modern street is several meters lower than the path in this image. Collection of HSH Prince Nicolò and HSH Princess Rita Boncompagni Ludovisi, Rome.

“It seems as if there must have been a time and not so very long ago when it was worth while to spend money and thought upon the ornamentation of grounds in the neighbourhood of Rome. That time is past, however, and the result is very melancholy for great beauty has been produced, but it can be enjoyed in its perfection only at the peril of one’s life. . . For my part, and judging from my own experience, I suspect that the Roman atmosphere, never wholesome, is always more or less poisonous.”

“We came to another and larger casino remote from the gateway, in which the Prince resides during two months of the year.”

Grand entrance to the Casino Aurora (as it appeared in 1885). Collection of HSH Prince Nicolò and HSH Princess Rita Boncompagni Ludovisi, Rome.

“It was now under repair, but we gained admission, as did several other visitors, and saw in the entrance-hall the Aurora of Guercino, painted in fresco on the ceiling.”

Detail from Guercino’s great ceiling fresco on the piano terra of the Casino Aurora, where the figure of the Dawn is robed in the Ludovisi colors of red and gold. Collection of HSH Prince Nicolò and HSH Princess Rita Boncompagni Ludovisi, Rome.

“There is beauty in the design but the painter certainly was most unhappy in his black shadows, and in the work before us they give the impression of a cloudy and lowering morning, which is likely enough to turn to rain by-and-by.”

Detail (the figure of “Night”) from Guercino’s Aurora fresco. Collection of HSH Prince Nicolò and HSH Princess Rita Boncompagni Ludovisi, Rome.

“After viewing the fresco we mounted by a spiral staircase to a lofty terrace, and found Rome at our feet, and, far off, the Sabine and Alban mountains, some of them still capped with snow. In another direction there was a vast plain, on the horizon of which, could our eyes have reached to its verge, we might perhaps have seen the Mediterranean Sea.”

View from the terrace of the Casino Aurora (1885), looking SW toward the College of S. Isidore. Collection of HSH Prince Nicolò and HSH Princess Rita Boncompagni Ludovisi, Rome.

“After enjoying the view and the warm sunshine, we descended, and went in quest of the gardens of Sallust, but found no satisfactory remains of them.”

“One of the most striking objects in the first casino [i.e., the Casino delle Statue] was a group by Bernini,—Pluto, an outrageously masculine and strenuous figure, heavily bearded, ravishing away a little, tender Proserpine, whom he holds aloft, while his forcible gripe impresses itself into her soft, virgin flesh. It is very disagreeable, but it makes one feel that Bernini was a man of great ability.”

Bernini’s Rape of Prosperpina (1621/1622), a Ludovisi then Boncompagni Ludovisi possession from 1622 until 1908, when the Italian state purchased it for exhibition in the Galleria Borghese. Photo from collection of HSH Prince Nicolò and HSH Princess Rita Boncompagni Ludovisi, Rome.

“There are some works in literature that bear an analogy to his works in sculpture when great power is lavished a little outside of nature, and therefore proves to be only a fashion, and not permanently adapted to the tastes of mankind.”


Nathaniel Hawthorne

At age 9, Hawthorne injured his leg and was confined to the home for two years. It was during this time that he developed a love of books and reading. At age 14, the family left Salem for Raymond, Maine, but Hawthorne would return just one year later to begin his preparation for college entrance. In 1821, he was admitted to Bowdoin College. His classmates included Franklin Pierce and Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. He graduated in 1825 and moved back to Salem. It is then that he starts to visit his cousin Susanna at the Turner-Ingersoll Mansion, which would later be the backdrop for his famed novel, Kuća Sedam zabata.

Hawthorne worked a number of jobs while also focusing on publishing his early works. In 1828, his first novel, Fanshawe was published anonymously at his own expense. He later recalled the book and dramatically burned the copies. Nearly 10 years later, Twice-Told Tales je objavljen.

In 1837, he would meet his future wife Sophia Amelia Peabody. Sophia and her sisters, Elizabeth and Mary, would prove to be influential for the rest of Hawthorne’s life and career. In 1839, he received his first political appointment as a “weigher and gauger” at the Boston Custom House. During this time he also published The Gentle Boy i Grandfather’s Chair.

Hawthorne was influenced by the growing popularity of Transcendentalism. In 1841, he joined Brook Farm in West Roxbury and in 1842 moved into the Old Manse in Concord with Sophia. His friends and neighbors included Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry Thoreau, Margaret Fuller, and Bronson Alcott.

By 1846, the Hawthorne family was living back in Salem with Una (1844) and Julian (1846). Hawthorne is appointed a surveyor at the Salem Custom House. It was during this time that he would begin to write The Scarlet Letter—his first critically acclaimed success in publishing.

After the book’s publication in 1850, the Hawthorne family would leave Salem once again for Lenox, Mass. It is here that his relationship with Herman Melville would blossom. While living in Lenox, Hawthorne wrote A Wonder Book for Girls and Boys as well as the famed Gothic novel, The House of the Seven Gables.

Nathaniel and Sophia welcomed their final child, Rose in 1851. In 1852, The Blithedale Romance, which focused on his days at Brook Farm, was published as well as a presidential biography for his longtime friend, Franklin Pierce. Hawthorne’s literary success affords him the opportunity to purchase the Alcotts’ house in Concord which he renames “The Wayside.”

In 1853, Hawthorne was appointed the American Consul to England. He lived in Liverpool for four years and kept a journal related to his travels and observations in England. When his appointment was complete, he toured Italy. His reflections on these travels were published in his fictional work, The Marble Faun. Around the time of publication, the Hawthorne family returned to The Wayside.

Hawthorne continued to write into his later years, including a report about his 1862 visit to Washington D.C. in which he met President Lincoln and visited the Civil War Battlefields in Virginia. His final publication was Our Old Home (1863) which was a series of essays about England and Anglo-American relations. In 1864, Hawthorne traveled to New Hampshire with President Franklin Pierce. He died on May 19 and is buried at Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, Concord, MA.

You can also follow the Nathaniel Hawthorne Society. The Nathaniel Hawthorne Society is dedicated to the global study and appreciation of the life and works of Hawthorne.


Nathaniel Hawthorne Birthplace

The Nathaniel Hawthorne Birthplace was originally located on Union Street. It was purchased by The House of the Seven Gables Settlement Association and moved to the museum campus in 1958 under the guidance of Abbott Lowell Cummings, a noted architectural historian and conservator. Unlike the high-style Georgian features in The House of the Seven Gables, the Hawthorne Birthplace is a modest example of this style.

This house is special due to the event that occurred on July 4, 1804. Nathaniel Hawthorne, the famed American novelist, was born here on that day to Elizabeth Clarke Manning and Nathaniel Hathorne. Hawthorne’s parents had grown up as neighbors and were married much to the chagrin of his paternal grandparents. He was born, according to his older sister Elizabeth, “in the chamber over that little parlor into which we looked, in that house on Union St. It then belonged to my grandmother Hawthorne, who lived in one part of it. There we lived until 1808, when my father died, at Surinam. I remember very well that one morning my mother called my brother into her room, next to the one where we slept, and told him that his father was dead.”

After the death of her husband, Elizabeth Clarke Manning Hathorne returned to her parents’ home with her three children, a move not uncommon for widows during this period.


White Mountains

Months later, Pierce’s wife Jane died. Nathaniel Hawthorne stood by the side of the lonely, grieving ex-president as she was laid to rest. Pierce noticed Hawthorne seemed in ill health and adjusted his collar to keep him warm.

In the spring of 1864 Nathaniel Hawthorne decided a trip to the White Mountains in New Hampshire would be good for his health. Pierce agreed to go with him. Hawthorne’s wife Sophia told the ex-president he needed help getting in and out of carriages because of his weak eyesight and uncertain steps.

Franklin Pierce by Matthew Brady

The two friends left Boston together and traveled to Pierce’s home in Concord, N.H. They went to Dixville Notch once the weather was good enough.

On May 18, 1864, they returned through Plymouth. They turned in at the Pemigewasset Hotel, on the site of what is now a Plymouth State University dormitory.

Nathaniel Hawthorne took a nap, ate a bit of food and drank a cup of tea before going to bed. Pierce, in a letter four years later, described what happened next.


Istorija

Lenox was slow to be settled. It was 1750 before Jonathan Hinsdale and others arrived. His daughter Rhoda was the first child born in Lenox, still called Yokuntown at that time.

Lenox held its first town meeting in 1767. It was a town of farmers, traders, merchants and innkeepers. Lenox participated actively in the Revolutionary War. In 1774 Colonel Paterson already represented Lenox before the Royal Governor of Massachusetts. As Brigadier General he helped lead the way to victory in 1776.

It was 1761 when Berkshire County was incorporated and received its own court system based in Great Barrington. During the war the courts were adjourned and resumed after the war under the new state Constitution. Centrally located Lenox was chosen as the new site in 1784. A courthouse and a jail were built and functioned from 1787. For 81 years Lenox was the county seat. When court was in session this small town grew in importance and sophistication. The Court and the Old Red Inn (now the Curtis) made the center of Lenox a bustling place full of activity. As the Shiretown Lenox’s population and business grew. There was need for a new larger meeting house. Church on the Hill was completed by 1806. At that time church and state were not yet divided, a man had to be a member of the “established” church to vote.

It was 1770 before a schoolmaster was hired. But by 1803 the Lenox Academy was established by local citizens and provided excellent high school education under the legendary Mr. Hotchkin (taught 1823-47) which attracted students from long distances and made Lenox known far beyond the immediate community. Mrs. Charles Sedgwick in her “school for young ladies” educated girls from New York and Boston, for almost half a century. Her husband, Charles Sedgwick, the Clerk of courts was a member of the large Sedgwick family from Stockbridge and New York. His charming family attracted their many friends to Lenox. At the same time train travel made Lenox much more accessible and suddenly Lenox was “discovered” by famous and wealthy residents of Boston and New York in the mid 1800s who were reminded of the beauty of Switzerland by the views, fields and forests of the Berkshire Hills.

Nathaniel Hawthorne wrote “The House of Seven Gables” while living in a little red cottage just outside of town. The cottage is actually in Stockbridge, but Hawthorne walked two miles daily to the Lenox post office to get his mail. Hawthorne’s series of children’s stories, “Tanglewood Tales,” were inspired by the name of the neighboring estate. Herman Melville, Fanny Kemble and so many others found their way to Lenox.

George Inness was encouraged by Vent Fort owner Ogden Haggerty to paint the Berkshire countryside.

Hawthorne’s cottage was rebuilt and is used for practice rooms by Tanglewood in the summer. In 1845, Samuel Gray Ward, the Boston banker who later was to finance the U.S. purchase of Alaska, built a summer home near Hawthorne’s cottage. Ward told his friends back in Boston about the beautiful Berkshire countryside and the mild summer weather. Soon, many of them were joining him as summer, or even year-round residents. By the late 1800s, Lenox and Stockbridge were booming as the summer homes of many of the country’s elite. The peak building years in Lenox were from the1880’s to 1920’s. Houses came and went as styles superseded each other and increasing wealth generated larger and larger mansions on the most prominent peaks. They were called cottages, in some way they invoked the more informal country life that they loved in Lenox in contrast to the increasing formality of New York, Boston and Newport. The most magnificent of them all was Shadowbrook, built for railroad baron Anson Phelps Stokes on 900 acres at the edge of Lenox and Stockbridge. For a short time, until George Vanderbilt’s Biltmore, it was one of the largest homes in North America. Andrew Carnegie later bought the house, and died there in 1919. It became a Jesuit Novitiate and unfortunately burned in 1956. Kripalu Yoga center now occupies the site.

The Gilded Age ended in the early twentieth century after WWI, the income tax, the stock market crash, working opportunities in industry that made servants very scarce and so many other reasons, made it impossible for the “cottagers” to maintain their huge summer homes in the Berkshires. Several of the cottages were converted to hotels, health centers and schools.

Two gilded age cottages in Lenox are open for public tours: Ventfort Hall, the 1893 Morgan summer home and The Mount, the 1902 cottage, built by novelist Edith Wharton. Both have undergone considerable restoration to bring them back to their former grandeur and continue to do so. Also in Lenox Shakespeare and Company and The Scenic Railway add to the multilayered cultural atmosphere that began so long ago.

A new era for Lenox and the Berkshires began in the 1930s, when music lovers began sponsoring symphonic concerts in the summer months. In 1937, the Boston Symphony Orchestra began offering concerts at its new summer home, the “Tanglewood” estate between Lenox and Stockbridge. A year later, the orchestra inaugurated its huge new concert hall, the “Shed.” In the succeeding decades, Tanglewood has become famous as one of the world’s leading music festivals, attracting more than 300,000 listeners each summer. Many other summer arts festivals, featuring theater, music and dance, have joined in making the Berkshires the summer cultural capital of the Northeast United States.


Pogledajte video: The Scarlet Letter - Full Movie. Colleen Moore, Hardie Albright, Henry B. Walthall, Virginia Howell