Historija USS F-2 SS-21-Historija

Historija USS F-2 SS-21-Historija


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F-2

(SS-21: dp. 330; 1. 142'7 "; b. 15'5"; dr. 12'2 ";
s.14k.; cpl.22; a.418 "tt.; kl. F)

SS-21, izvorno nazvan Barracuda, preimenovan je u F-2 17. novembra 1911. i lansiran 19. marta 1912. od strane Union Iron Works, San Francisco, Kalifornija; pod pokroviteljstvom gospođice A. R. Rolph, kćeri gradonačelnika San Francisca, a zadužen je 25. juna 1912. godine, poručnikom (mlađi razred) F. L. Chewom.

F-2 se pridružio prvoj podmorničkoj grupi, Pacific Torpedo Flotilla, u operacijama između San Diega i San Pedra, baze Flotile. Nastavila je igrati važnu ulogu u razvoju taktike i koordinaciji korištenja podmorskih letjelica s flotom tokom produženog perioda obuke na Havajskim ostrvima, od avgusta 1914. do novembra 1916. godine.

Nakon normalnog boravka na otoku Mare između 16. ožujka 1916. i 13. lipnja 1917., F-2 je postao vodeći brod divizije 1, podmorničkih snaga, pacifičke flote. Vrativši se operacijama izvan San Pedra, sudjelovala je u površinskim i potopljenim vježbama, vježbama dokazivanja torpeda, eksperimentima balansiranja na različitim dubinama i obučavala potencijalne podmornice. Dana 18. septembra 1919. godine, stavljena je u rezervnu komisiju u San Pedru koja će se koristiti u osnovnim školama sve dok nije napuštena na ostrvu Mare 16. marta 1922. Prodata je 17. avgusta 1922.


Historija USS F-2 SS-21-Historija

Marine Monster off Alcatraz Užasno morsko čudovište naišlo na Alcatraz

Ribari nisu uspjeli baciti harpunu u morsku zmiju

Dvojica talijanskih ribara jučer su u zaljevu imali uzbudljivu avanturu s morskim čudovištem koje su opisali, kad su stigli, blijedi i drhtavi, na pristanište Meiggs dugo 600 stopa, posjedovali 47 očiju, veliki rog, velika usta i diše poput automobila. Naišli su na levijatana kod Alcatraza. Njihovu pažnju privuklo je svjetlucavo nešto što je projiciralo stopalo više od vode i činilo se da pluta s plimom.

Odlučili su da se vjerojatno radi o metalu pričvršćenom za komad olupine koji bi možda bilo vrijedno spasiti. Odlučili su da ga sačuvaju. Skinuli su jedro sa svog čamca i zaveslali na nekoliko metara od objekta. Jedan od njih uzeo je uzicu za uzvikivanje i njihao je oko glave pripremajući se za lansiranje blaga kad se začuo iznenadni urlik. Predmet njihove pažnje odjednom je jurio kroz vodu užasnom brzinom i kako je napredovao, pojavilo se iznad površine veliko zeleno tijelo koje je opet nestalo u oblaku dima.

Nije više bilo ribolova za te sinove Italije. Digli su jedra i skoknuli do pristaništa Meiggs, gdje su ispričali svoju priču. Nekoliko sati kasnije netko je čuo člana posade podmorničkog torpednog čamca Barracuta kako govori kako su uplašili život dvojice ribara čije su pripreme sa linijom uzdizanja promatrali kroz periskop podmornice.

Izvor: San Francisco Call, 11. maja 1912, stranica 10.

"USS F-2, podmornica klase F-1 od 330 tona izgrađena u San Franciscu u Kaliforniji, puštena je u rad u junu 1912. Prvobitno se zvala Barracuda, ali je pre lansiranja preimenovana u F-2 u novembru 1911. godine. Podmornica je tokom čitave svoje karijere služila u vodama Zapadne obale, osim od avgusta 1914. do novembra 1915., kada je bila smještena u Honoluluu na Havajima. U srpnju 1920., kada je Mornarica implementirala svoj sistem brojeva trupa, USS F-2 je službeno stavljen van pogona u ožujku 1922. i prodan u kolovozu te godine. "

Podmornice F klase

Prve podmornice izgrađene u Washingtonu bile su podmornice klase F. Bili su dugački 142 stope, s najvećom brzinom od 14 čvorova (16 mph). Na svakoj podmornici bilo je ukupno 22 oficira i vojnika. Bili su naoružani s četiri torpedne cijevi.

Podmornice F-klase USS F-3 i F-4 lansirane su u Seattleu 1912. Zajedno s dvije podmornice izgrađene u San Franciscu, F3 i F4 su formirale prvu pacifičku podmorničku grupu sa sjedištem u San Franciscu. Oni su djelovali duž obale Kalifornije, izvodeći vježbe za razvoj strategije ratovanja podmornica.

Podmornice klase F i tender u Dry Dock 2 na Mare Islandu u Kaliforniji 21. januara 1913

Tragedija pogađa USS F-4

Iako su postigli veliki tehnički napredak u odnosu na ranije dizajne podmornica, bili su nepouzdani i imali su teške rezultate u službi.

USS F4 bila je prva naručena podmornica američke mornarice koja se izgubila na moru. Tokom manevara podmornicama kod Honolulua potonula je 25. marta 1915. Brod se zaustavio na dnu okeana, 1,5 milja od luke na dubini od 306 stopa. Uprkos hrabrim pokušajima da spasi svoju posadu, svih 21 na brodu je poginulo.

Na kraju je F-4 podignut i odvučen na obalu. Ove fotografije prikazuju operacije spašavanja.

Tačan uzrok potonuća nikada nije konačno utvrđen. Međutim, smatra se da je korozija olovne obloge spremnika akumulatora omogućila prodiranje morske vode, uzrokujući gubitak kontrole. Više o potonuću USS F-4 potražite u ovom članku iz Muzeja podmorničkih snaga.

Dick Turpin

Jedan od ronilaca uključenih u operaciju spašavanja bio je John Henry “Dick ” Turpin, koji je vjerovatno bio prvi Afroamerikanac koji se kvalificirao kao ronilac američke mornarice. Uključio se u mornaricu 1896. godine, preživio eksploziju na brodu USS Maine 1898. i postao jedan od prvih afroameričkih glavnih podoficira u američkoj mornarici. Turpin je postao Master Diver i služio je u Prvom svjetskom ratu. Nakon što se povukao iz mornarice, Turpin je radio kao Master Rigger u Puget Sound Navy Yard.

USS F-3 Sudar i kasnija karijera

17. decembra 1917. godine, F1 i F3 su se sudarili tokom manevara obuke kod obale Kalifornije. F-1 je potonuo, vodeći sa sobom 19 od 22 mornara. U sudaru je oštećen F-3. Nakon popravki u mornaričkom dvorištu Mare Island, dodijeljena joj je operacija s civilnom filmskom kompanijom u eksperimentima s podvodnom fotografijom. F-3 je stavljen van pogona 1922. Osim turneje u havajskim vodama između avgusta 1914. i novembra 1915., cijelu je karijeru djelovala duž Zapadne obale.


Reference [uredi | uredi izvor]

  1. ↑ osoblje. "VODA U BRANICI F-4. Ronilac također izvještava da se nadogradila podgrađa." . http: //query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf? Res = F70D12FE385C13738DDDAF0994DC405B858DF1D3. Pristupljeno 2011-08-24.  
  2. ↑ Honolulu Star-Bulletin (2000). "The United States Submarine F-4 25 March 1915". Arlington National Cemetery. http: //www.arlingtoncemetery.net/sub-f4. htm. Preuzeto 15.04.2009.  
  3. ↑ 3.03.1Searle Jr, Willard F Curtis Jr, Thomas G (2006). "Gubitak i spašavanje F-4, povijesna prekretnica". Navy. http: //www.navy .mil/navydata/cno/n87/usw/issue_29/f4.html. Pristupljeno 15. 4. 2009.  

Ovaj članak uključuje tekst iz javne domene Rječnik američkih pomorskih borbenih brodova. Unos se može pronaći ovdje.


Izgradnja i karijera

Brod je dobio ime Barracuda kada ju je položio Union Iron Works iz San Francisca u Kaliforniji, ali je preimenovana 17. novembra 1911. Pokrenuta je 19. marta 1912. pod pokroviteljstvom gospođice AR Rolph, kćeri Jamesa Rolpha, gradonačelnika San Francisca, a naručena je 25. juna 1912. s poručnikom (mlađi razred) Francis T. Chewom pod komandom.

F-2 pridružio se 1. podmorničkoj grupi, Pacific Torpedo Flotilla, u operacijama između San Diega u Kaliforniji i San Pedra u Kaliforniji, baze Flotila & aposs. Nastavila je igrati važnu ulogu u razvoju taktike i koordinaciji upotrebe podmorja sa flotom tokom produženog perioda obuke na Havajskim ostrvima od avgusta 1914. do novembra 1915. godine.

Nakon što je običan ležao u pomorskom brodogradilištu Mare Island od 16. marta 1916. – 13. juna 1917, F-2 postao vodeći brod Divizije 1, Podmorničkih snaga, Pacifičke flote. Vrativši se operacijama izvan San Pedra, sudjelovala je u površinskim i potopljenim vježbama, vježbama dokazivanja torpeda, eksperimentima u balansiranju na različitim dubinama i obučavala potencijalne posade novih podmornica. Dana 18. septembra 1919. godine, stavljena je u rezervnu komisiju u San Pedru koja će se koristiti u osnovnim školama sve dok nije stavljena van pogona na ostrvu Mare 16. marta 1922. Prodata je 17. avgusta.


Gubitak USS F-1 (SS-20)

Dana 17. decembra 1917. godine, USS F-1 (SS-20) i USS F-3 (SS-22), obojica su trčali po površini, sudarili su se tokom vježbi u blizini San Diega u Kaliforniji. F-3 je napravila ogromnu rupu na bočnoj strani lučkog sestrinskog broda, a F-1 je potonuo ispod valova u samo deset sekundi, odvevši sa sobom 19 od 24 člana posade na dno. S obzirom na dubinu vode-skoro 1.500 stopa-i nedostatak bilo koje održive tehnologije za oporavak podmornica, nije pokušano lociranje olupine. Gotovo 60 godina kasnije njezina lokacija konačno je oživjela, kako je opisano u sljedećem novinskom članku, "Potopljenu podmornicu pronašla mornarica."

“Američku podmornicu iz Prvog svjetskog rata, koja je 1917. potonula u 1439 stopa vode oko 4 ½ milje od La Jolle, pronašlo je pomorsko vozilo za spašavanje podmornice.

"" Izgledalo je kao da ju je udarila velika sjekira ", rekao je poručnik Dave Magyar, koji je 24. oktobra [1976.] skinuo DSRV2 s obale i vidio podmornicu F1" netaknutu ".

“Kapetane. Willard Johnson, zapovjednik Grupe I za razvoj podmornica, rekao je jučer novinarima da je podmornica viđena nakon što je sonar 22. oktobra uspostavio prvi kontakt.

“Rekao je da je sonarski kontakt uspostavio mornarički okeanografski istraživački brod DeSteiguer, koji je pokušavao pronaći mlazni lovac F4 Phantom koji se srušio 1972. godine.

“... Podmornica od 330 stopa teška 142 stope smjestila se na dnu s desne strane, usmjerena prema zapadu, sjeverozapadu.

“Magyar je pokazao nekoliko slajdova u boji koje je uzeo s podmornice. 10 stopa. za 3 ft rupa sa strane je bila vidljiva.

“Rekao je da je jedina očigledna šteta na podmornici nastala uslijed sudara i korozije tokom godina.

“Magyar je rekao da je sletio sa DSRV -a sa strane F1 i pogledao unutra.

„Ostat će grob 19 muškaraca“, rekao je Johnson. "U ovom trenutku nema razloga da to iznosimo."

Jedan od otvora F-1, otvoren za ventilaciju u vrijeme sudara, što je omogućilo da se više vode izlije u već pogođenu podmornicu


Historija USS F-2 SS-21-Historija

Tankeri iz Vijetnama i posada Ontosa iz pomorskog korpusa napravili su povijest.


Vaša historijska fondacija to čini poznatim.

Evolucija pomorskih tenkova.

Tako je uz nevoljne blagoslove velikih bijelih otaca mornaričkog odsjeka u Washingtonu formirana prva u dugoj liniji tenkovskih jedinica marinskog korpusa. Zvanično je imenovan "Laki tenkovski vod USMC" u Quanticu, Virginia, 5. decembra 1923. Vod se sastojao od dvadeset dva regrutirana čovjeka i dva oficira. Zapovjednik je bio kapetan Leslie G. Wayt, a izvršni oficir potporučnik Charles S. Finch.

Vodu su izdata tri laka tenka od šest tona. Ovi tenkovi su izgrađeni u Sjedinjenim Državama 1918. godine po licenci francuske vlade. Bile su kopije poznatog francuskog Renaulta FT-17 iz Prvog svjetskog rata. Izgrađene prema američkim specifikacijama, imale su ACF Buda Marine Engine, a dvije su montirale Browning .30 cal. mitraljezi. Drugi je montirao francuski pješadijski top od 37 metaka Puteaux. Jedan od razloga zašto je ovaj tenk bio toliko poznat bio je to što je to bio prvi tenk koji je uspješno montirao oružje u kupolu koja se kretala u potpunosti od 360 stepeni. Iako se zvao Laki tenk šest tona, njegova ukupna težina bila je 7,8 tona. S tom težinom koju pokreće četverocilindrični motor, mogao bi zaista galopirati brzinom od 5 1/2 milje na sat. Zapovjednik tenka/topnik sjedio je u aferi sličnoj visećoj mreži obješenoj o zidove kupole i samo je poskakivao među svom municijom u borbenom odjelu, što je bilo 4.800 metaka za mitraljeze ili 237 metaka za topove. Vozaču je bilo malo bolje što je imao sjedište, ali su obojica znatno patili od izduvnih gasova i isparenja benzina iz motora.

Tokom ostatka te zime i tokom cijelog sljedećeg ljeta Vod se upoznao sa njihovim tenkovima. Većina muškaraca nikada prije nije ni vidjela tenk, ali su kao marinci išli na posao na tipičan marinski način, glavom. Svi u vodu su se upoznali sa svim aspektima posla marinca Gvozdenog konja, vožnjom, naoružanjem i preventivnim održavanjem. Učili su šta tenkovi mogu učiniti, a obično, pokušajem i greškom, šta ne mogu. Vod je takođe učestvovao u mnogim manevrima i paradama publiciteta, koji su bili zaštitni znak vremena

Tokom zime 1924. godine, vod je učestvovao u "Zimskim manevrima" sa ekspedicijskim snagama Istočne obale iz Quantica. Ovi manevri održani su na otoku Culebra, kod istočne obale Portorika. Manevri su osmišljeni za testiranje i usavršavanje amfibijskih tehnika slijetanja. Bili su tipa pokušaja i greške, barem što se tiče "Tankera". Prkosno se saznalo da ova vrsta tenka nije pogodna za amfibijske operacije. Lekcije naučene tokom ovakvih manevara bile bi od ogromne pomoći kasnije tokom Drugog svetskog rata, kada su marinci usavršili svoje amfibijske tehnike napada na Pacifiku.

Po povratku voda iz Culebre, dobili su još dva tenka, jedan mitraljez i jedan top. To je sada bio punopravni tenkovski vod sa pet tenkova. Postojao je čak i eksperimentalni tenk za isprobavanje. Bio je to standardni Six-Ton sa uklonjenom kupolom i opremljenom kao komunikacijski tenk. Vod je bio u raju tenkova i dogovarao se ko će voziti ono što je svedeno na minimum.

Naredne tri godine vod je obavljao dužnosti mirnodopskog garnizona. Idu na ograničene manevre i vježbe, nastupaju na paradama za javnost i vode pomorske dužnosti mlina, ali stalno uče sve više o svojim tenkovima. Za marince je to bilo gotovo previše dosadno, ali, kao i za sve one koji čekaju, za ove "marince od željeznih konja" spremala se uzbudljiva promjena. Politička kriza u Kini postajala je sve gora, a Treća brigada marinaca tražila je pojačanje.

Početkom 1927. godine vod je bio vezan za Daleki istok. "Stare soli" ponovo su pričale morske priče "Čizme" o čudima Orijenta, a neke čizme su se veselile tetoviranju poput starih soli. Ali morali su čekati, jer je u to vrijeme bio nepisani zakon da se niko nije tetovirao dok nije služio u inostranstvu.

Vod, koji je sada pod komandom kapetana Nathen E. Landona, bacio je tenkove na ravne automobile i napustio Quantico željeznicom 6. aprila 1927. Dolaskom u San Diego 12. aprila, vod nije oduzeo vrijeme za sloboda. Na tipičan morski način, tenkovi i sva oprema voda izbačeni su iz kolosijeka, pomaknuti se s dokove, ukrcali i bacili na brod predsjednika USS -a Grant, sve u jednom danu. Vod je tada imao nekoliko dana da se oslobodi prije nego što je brod isplovio. Putovanje od San Diega do Olongapa na Filipinskim ostrvima bilo je uobičajeno, bez događanja, osim marinaca koji su bili morski bolesni i mislili da putovanje nikada neće završiti. Po dolasku u Olongapo, ponovo su se vratili tankerima na posao, jer su morali promijeniti brodove. Dana 4. maja krenuli su u akciju razbijanja tenkova i prebacivanja u USS Chaumont, gdje su ponovo vezani. Nakon što su se trupe smjestile i kartaške igre nastavile, brod je krenuo prema kineskom Šangaju.

Dolaskom u Taku Bar, Šangaj, Kina 21. maja, vod se ponovo iskrcao i počeo spremati za ono što su se nadali da će biti uzbudljiva dužnost u Kini. Nakon što su tenkovi vraćeni u spremno stanje, neki od muškaraca otišli su na prvu slobodu. Dok su se neki tetovirali jelima, drugi su počeli istraživati ​​čuda Orijenta. Svi su se složili da je sloboda Šangaja sve ili više nego što se mislilo. Ali tako dobar život nije za marince i nakon otprilike dvije sedmice vod je ponovo krenuo. Šleperom je upućen uz rijeku u Tientsin 6. juna. Vodu je dodijeljen posao zaštite pruge Peking-Tientsin. Bar je to bio njen službeni posao tokom bilansa dužnosti u Kini. Iako su ovo bila teška vremena u Kini, a neki su marinci tražili uzbuđenje, posao se smatrao dosadnom dužnošću garnizona.

S izuzetkom demonstracije sile, dužnosti voda bile su iste kao i ranije u Quanticu. Išli su na ograničene manevre, nastupali u emisijama dobre volje i paradama publiciteta, bili na inspekcijskim pregledima i održavali svoj tenk dobro održavanim. Bilo je to gotovo kao okupaciona dužnost koju će marinci ponovo dobiti na istom području 1945. Iako nisu bili na dužnosti, marinci voda mogli su se naći na slobodi u Tientsinu, za koji su otkrili da je jednako dobar grad slobode. kao i Šangaj. Ovo je bio njihov život sljedećih petnaest mjeseci dok kriza nije ukinuta i korpus marine više nije mogao priuštiti tenkovski vod.

15. septembra 1928. vod je administrativno odvojen i prebačen u vod lakih tenkova, kompozitni puk, San Diego. Marinci su ponovo ukrcali svoje tenkove na brodove i krenuli za Šangaj, gdje su ih ukrcali na brod i udarili za put kući. Kada je brod napustio Šangaj 18. septembra, osim tenkova, vod je sa sobom ponio mnogo lijepih uspomena na njihov obilazak dužnosti u Kini.

Vod se iskrcao u San Diegu 1. novembra i pridružio se Composite Regiment. Nakon što su se svi smjestili, imali su vremena uživati ​​u nekim noćnim provodima San Diega. Zatim je 10. novembra (na rođendan Marinskog korpusa) vod rasformiran. Neki od muškaraca su prebačeni u druge jedinice, dok su drugi otpušteni. Ali još jednom istorija nešto izostavlja i ne znamo šta se dogodilo sa tenkovima.

O Marine Tankers bi se moglo napisati još mnogo priča, ali to su bili pioniri potpuno novog tima tima Marine Ground-Sea-Air. Tokom svojih kratkih pet godina postojanja, postavili su trend današnjih "marinaca željeznih konja".

Autor Lloyd G. Reynolds
11. avgusta 1998

Fotografije, USMC, Nacionalni arhiv, Ministarstvo obrane, Imperijalni ratni muzej, osim ako nije drugačije naznačeno.


FT 17 u Kini. USMC Photo.

Inspekcija u Kini. USMC Photo.

Autor je pomogao u obnavljanju ovog FT 17. Fotografija autora.

Vlasnik dr. Frank Haigler. Fotografija autora.


Iskrcavanje tenkova/operacije u Drugom svjetskom ratu.

Datum Location Tk Bn/Jedinice Korišćeni rezervoari
7. avgusta 1942. godine
Guadalcanal 1st Tk. Bn. M2A4, M3, M3A1
Mar 6,1943
Talasea 1st Plt. Co. "C" & amp Co. "A" 1st Tk Co. Co. Bn. M3A1, M4A1
22. aprila 1943. godine
Hollandia Co "A" 1. Tk. Bn. M4A1
30. juna 1943. godine Munda, Nova Georga 9., 10. i 11. odbrana Bn. Tks. M3, M3A1
1. novembra 1943 Bouganville 3rd Tk. Bn. M3A1
20. novembra 1943. godine Tarawa 2nd Tk. Bn. Co. "C" I Marine Amphibious Corps Tk. Co. Bn. M3A1, M4A2
26. decembra 1943. godine Rt Glouster, Novi Britian 1st Tk. Bn. M3A1, M4A1
31.01.1944 Roi-Namur 4th Tk. Bn. M5A1, M4A2
18. februara 1944. godine Eniwetok 2. Odvojeni Tk. Co. M4A2
18. februara 1944. godine Engebi 2. Odvojeni Tk. Co. M4A2
22. februara 1944. godine Perry 2. Odvojeni Tk. Co. M4A2
20.03.1944 Emirau Co. "A" 3. Tk. Co. Bn. M4A2
15. juna 1944. godine Saipan 2nd & amp 4th Tk. Bn. M4A2, M5A1, M3A1 (Sotona), M32B2, M4A2 s kompletom dozera M1A1.
21. jula 1944. godine Guam 3rd Tk. Bn., Tk. Co., 4. marta, Tk. Co. 22 mar. M4A2, M32B2, M4A2 s kompletom dozera M1A1.
24. jula 1944 Tinian 2nd & amp 4th Tk. Bn. M4A2, M5A1, M3A1 (Sotona), M32B2, M4A2 s kompletom dozera M1A1.
15. septembra 1944. godine Pelilu 1st Tk. Bn. M4A2, M4A2 sa kompletom dozera M1A1.
19. februara 1945. godine Iwo Jima 3., 4. i pojačalo 5. Tk. Bn. M4A2, M4A3, M4A3POA H1 plameni spremnik, M32B2, M4A2 sa kompletom dozera M4A2 s M1A1, plameni komplet, M4A3 mlatilica.
1. aprila 1945 Okinawa 1. & amp. 6. Tk. Bn. M4A2, M4A3, M32B2, M4A2 s kompletom dozera M1A1.

Godine Drugog svjetskog rata 1941-1945. (Laki tenkovi)

M2A4 = 1 37 mm pištolj, 5,30 Cal. MG, kontinentalni radijalno zračno hlađeni motor.
M3 = 1 pištolj 37 mm, (kasnije sa žirostabilizatorom) 5,30 Cal. MG, kontinentalni radijalno zračno hlađeni motor. (neki sa Guiberson radijalnim dizelom). (M3 rane proizvodnje imali su zakovice s kupolama, kasnije promijenjene u zavarene.)
M3A1 = 1 pištolj kalibra 37 mm, (prvi laki tenk koji ima korpu kupole, stabilizirani pištolj i preklopnik) (zavarena kupola bez vanjske kugle.) 3, 30 Cal. MG, kontinentalni radijalno zračno hlađeni motor. (neki sa Guiberson radijalnim dizelom).
M3A3 = 1 37 mm pištolj, 3,30 Cal. MG, kontinentalni radijalno zračno hlađeni motor. Zavareni trup i kupola, nova kupola koja uključuje radijsku vrevu i veća vrata bez kopule. Ugaoni oklop.
M5A1 = 1 pištolj 37 mm, 3,30 Kal. MG, Motor, Twin Cadillac V-8 sa Hydra-Matic prenosom, Sve zavarene konstrukcije, bez kopule, veliki otvori kupole. Ugaoni oklop.

M2A4 1. tenkovske bojne na Guadalcanalu.

M2A4 vodi dva laka tenka M3 na Guadalcanalu.

Laki tenk M3A1 na Guadalcanalu.

Slijetanje M3A1 na ostrvo Emirau.

Marinci 7. odbrambenog bataljona, jednog od "Rainbow Five", daju svoj novi laki tenk M3 Stuart na probnu vožnju u Tutuili, Američka Samoa, u ljeto 1942. godine.

M5A1 na Boganvilleu.

Američki marinci sjede na vrhu lakog tenka M5A1, rt Gloucester, Nova Britanija, arhipelag Bismarck, krajem decembra 1943.

M3A1 u Tarawa.

Laki tenk zaglavljen u rupi na Tarawi.

M3A1 Spremnik za lagani plamen "Sotona".


Rani eksperimenti M3A1 s prijenosnim M1A1 bacačem plamena u položaju pramca MG. Prema jednom intervjuisanom marincu iz ove ere, "Plamenik je držao tenkove među koljenima".

M3A1 "Satan" plameni rezervoar sa Ronsonovim sistemom za bacanje plamena na Saipanu.

"Sotona" na Saipanu.

Na Saipanu "Sotona" sa dva M5A1.

Pogled sprijeda plamenog spremnika M3A1 "Sotona".
Tenkovi Lakog Plamena nisu bili spremni na vrijeme za Tarawu. Koliko autor zna, koristili su ih samo 2. i 4. tenkovski bataljon u Saipanu i Tinianu.

Godine Drugog svjetskog rata 1941-1945. (Srednji rezervoari)

Srednji spremnik M4 prošao je kroz mnoge varijacije.
M4A1 = 1 75 mm pištolj, 1,50 Cal. 2, 30 Cal. MG. Kontinentalni radijalni benzinski motor sa zračnim hlađenjem. Koriste samo 1st Tks na rtu Gloucester.
M4A2 = 1 75 mm pištolj, 1,50 Cal. 2, 30 Cal. MG. Blizanac G.M. Dizel motori. Prva borbena upotreba tenkova serije M4 od strane USMC -a bila je u Tarawi. Također se koristi u Kwajeleinu, Roi-Namuru, Perry Islandu, Saipanu, Tinianu, Guamu, Peleliuu, Iwo Jimi i Okinawi.
M4A3 = 1 75 mm pištolj, 1,50 Cal. 2, 30 Cal. MG. Ford V-8 Benzinski motor. Koristi 5. Tk. Bn. na Iwo Jima i 6. Tk. Bn. na Okinawi.
M4A3E8 =

A 1st Tk. Bn. Slijetanje M4A1 na Cape Gloucester.

M4A1s 1. Tk. Bn. na Novoj Georgiji.

M4A1s 1. Tk. Bn. na Novoj Georgiji.

M4A2 iz "C" Co. 1. korpusa Tk. Bn. u prilogu 2. ožujka Div. jer je Tarawa upao u rupu od školjke i udavio se. Nijedan tenk (lagani ili srednji) nije imao komplete za fording u Tarawi.

Od 14 tenkova Co. "C" 1. korpusa, srednji tenk Bn. Deset ih je stiglo na plažu.
Vidi = Marine Armor na Tarawi

Kolorado na plaži u Tarawi. Vidi = Tenkovi na Tarawi

M4A2 s improviziranim hrpama za fordiranje. Perry Island, 2. odvojeni Tk. Co.

M4A2 sa improvizovanim snopovima od 55 Gal. bubnjevi. Improvizirajte, prilagodite se i prevladajte. 3rd Tk. Bn., Guam.

Siapanom su fordirani stogovi standardizirani.

Ill Wind on Tinian. C. B. Ash, vozač ovog tenka kaže zapamti TCs pericope. Zavarili su dva zajedno kako bi dobili visinu od 6 inča.

Prvi tenk dolazi na obalu kod Pelilua.

Peliliu je bio težak u tenkovima.

Vreće s pijeskom na stražnjoj palubi. Pelilu.

I Iwo Jima.

M4A3 iz 4. Tk. Bn. na Iwo Jimi.

M4A2 iz 5. Tk. Bn. na Iwo Jimi.

Obratite pažnju na čavle zavarene na otvorima kako biste spriječili japance.

M4A3 iz "C" Co. 4. Tk. Bn. Imajte na umu da je ugrađen rezervoar za vodu sa slavinom za grintanje, improvizovani telefon Tank Infantery i sat za pješadiju koji daje smjernice, proširene gusjenice. C. B. Pepeo ima 4 "cementa između trupa i 1" dasaka sa strane rezervoara.

Za Okinavu ovaj spremnik M4A2 ima dodatne blokove gusjenica radi zaštite.

Ovaj ima dodatnu zaštitu i još uvijek ima pričvršćen dio kompleta za fording.

Ovi tenkovi su dodali puno dodanih blokova gusjenica kao dodatni oklop.

Plameni spremnici serije M4 i druge sorte.


M4A2 sa plamenom pištoljem M1A1. Korišten je na Iwo Jimi.

Plameni spremnik M4A3 POA H1 na Iwo Jimi. Plameni pištolj montiran je u dotrajale cijevi od 75 mm.

Plameni tenk američke vojske na Okinawi s 713. Tk. Bn. Marinci nisu imali plamene tenkove na Okinawi.

Još jedan plameni spremnik M4A3 POA H1 na Iwo Jimi.

M32B2 Tank Retriver se prvi put pojavio s marincima na Saipanu.

Ovaj M32B2 dobiva suvenir na Guamu.

Dozer kompleti dodani tenkovima bili su dobrodošli kao i plameni tenkovi za Tk. Bn.

M4A2s na Guamu s dozer tenkom.

Rakete (7,2 inča) eksperimentirane su u Europi i na Pacifiku, ali nije poznato jesu li ih marinci koristili na Pacifiku.

4th Tk. Bn. Flail Tank (domaće izrade GySgt. Sam Johnson i narednik Ray Shaw) snimljen na Mauiju. Spustio se na Iwo Jima, ali je uništen na plaži, (C. B. Ash)

Još jedan pogled na 4. Tks Flail,

Korišćeni rezervoari
M4A3E8 = M4A3, s nadograđenim horizontalnim Volute ovjesom, sa 105mm haubicom i pojačalom M4A1 Dozer Kit.
M4A3E8 s bacačem plamena POA-CWS-H5 i haubicom pojačala 105 mm.
M32B3 = M4A3E8 Vozilo za oporavak rezervoara.
M-26 = 1 90 mm pištolj M3, w/.30 Cal. Co-ax, 1,50 Cal. na vrhu kupole, 1, 30 Cal. u luku. Koristi isti motor kao i tenkovi iz serije M4A3, Ford GAF ​​V-8 500 KS. (veoma slabo napajanje). Torsion Bar ovjes.
M26A1 = Napredno sa Continental AV-1790-5A, V-12, 810 KS. Zamijenjen tokom jula-novembra M-46.
M-46 = 1 90 mm pištolj M3A1, w/.30 Cal. Co-ax, 1,50 Cal. na vrhu kupole, 1, 30 Cal. u luku. Motor Continental AV-1790-5A, V-12, 810 KS.
Imajte na umu da je vrlo teško razlikovati M-26 i pojačalo M-46 samo po fotografijama.

M-26 tokom borbi na periferiji Pusan.


M-26 može pogoditi.

M-26 sa reflektorom od 18 inča.

Par T-34/85 je nokautiran.

M-26 tokom borbi na periferiji Pusan. (Balls'ey T.C.)

M4A3E8 dozer rezervoar 105 mm

Učitavanje za Inchon.

Ulične borbe u Seulu.

Kretanje prema sjeveru uskim cestama.

Zima dolazi.

Zima i planine.

Pokucao ili napustio SU 76.

M-46 na liniji gađanja.

M-46 sa nosačem reflektora.

M-26 ili 46 indirektna paljba noću.

Zamjenski M-46.

M-46 Dozer tenk sa protutenkovskim raketnim kavezom.

"Dikobraz" M4A3E8 sa lažnim pištoljem i zavarenom kupolom.

"Dikobraz" je bio sva komunikacija unutra, za komunikaciju sa zrakom, pješaštvom, mornaricom i artilerijom.

M4A3E8 POA CWA H5 plameni spremnik. Fotografija Jack Carty.

Plameni tenkovski vod.

Plameni rezervoari u Chosinu.

M47 = Posljednji tenk koji ima pramčani top, prvi tenk s daljinomerom, Stereoskopski M12, Continental AV-17905B benzinski motor, 90 mm pištolj M36, 1,50 Cal. 2 .30Cal. MG. 1951. do 1959., 3. Tk. Bn. poslednja jedinica koja će imati M47. U Koreji ne koriste marinci. Pogledajte Podaci o spremniku.
M48 = Benzinski motor Continental AVI-1790-5B, 90 mm pištolj M41, 1,50 Cal. (na nebu), 1, 30 Cal. MG., Stereoskopski daljinomer T46E1. Pogledajte Podaci o spremniku.
M48A1 = Continental AVI-1790-5B do 7C benzinski motor, 90 mm pištolj M41, 1,50 Cal. u kupoli, 1, 30 Cal. MG., Stereoskopski daljinomer T46E1.
M67 = Verzija M48A1 spremnika plamena.
M48A2 = Continental AVI-1790-8 benzinski motor, Stereoskopski daljinomer M13A1, 90 mm pištolj M41, 1,50 Cal. u kupoli, 1, 30 Cal. MG.
M51 VTR = Continental AVSI-1790-6 benzinski motor, 1,50 Cal. HBM2 MG. Napravljeno od šasije M103. Pogledajte Podaci o spremniku.
M103A1 = Continental AVI-1790-7B do 7C benzinski motor, 1 20 mm pištolj M58, 1,50 Cal., 1,30 Cal. MG. Pogledajte Podaci o spremniku.
M103A2 = Continental AVDS-1790-2A benzinski motor, 1 20 mm pištolj M58, 1,50 Cal., 1,30 Cal. MG. Pogledajte Podaci o spremniku.
Dozer kompleti korišteni su za M47, M48A1 i pojačalo A2.

M47 na poligonu.

Armije M47 u Njemačkoj.

M47

M48 sa nosačem za nebo .50 Cal. MG. Fotografija?

M48 note naponski kotač zatezanja kotača i paluba postolja motora. Fotografija?

Paluba motora M48 note i velika kutija koja je bila telefon tenkova/pješaštva. Fotografija?

Vod tenkova M48A1 2. Tk. Bn.

M48A1

M67A1 Plameni spremnik

M48A2 (zatezni kotač zateznog kolosijeka odsječen je od njih) Peter Saussy.

M103A1 120 mm pištolj.

M103A2 na poligonu u kampu Pendelton, 1967.

M48A2 Zadnja fotografija?

M51 VTR.

M51 Retriver.

M51

M48A3 Dozer cisterna. "C" Co. 5th Tk. Bn. 1968. Fotografija autora.

M48A3 = Continental AVDS-1790-2A dizel sa punjenjem, 90 mm pištolj M-41, 1,50 Cal. u kupoli kopuli i 1, 30 Cal. MG, daljinomer Coincidence M17A1, 4 člana posade. 1 rezervoar dozera po kompaniji. Pogledajte Podaci o spremniku. Svi M48A3 su nadograđeni sa M48A1 i A2.
M67A2 = Continental AVDS-1790-2A dizel sa punjenjem, Bacač plamena M7-6, 1,50 Cal. u kupoli kopuli i 1, 30 Cal. MG, 3 člana posade. Pogledajte Podaci o spremniku.
Mod B = Blokovi vida umetnuti ispod kopule, oklopljeni okviri iznad otvora za ispušne plinove i oko stražnjih svjetala, poboljšani otvor kopule, pomjeranje TI telefona i druge promjene.
M51 = Continental AVSI-1790-6 benzinski motor, 1,50 Cal. HBM2 MG. Napravljeno od šasije M103. Pogledajte Podaci o spremniku.
Prvi tenkovski vod koji je sletio u Vijetnam bio je 3. plt. "B" Co. 3. Tks. 9. marta 1965. Vidi kartu.

3rd Plt. cisterne iz Bravo Co. 3rd Tk. Bn. na brodu LCU 1476 napuštajući USS Vancouver u smjeru "Crvene plaže". 8. marta 1965. godine

Bravo 31 slijeće na Crvenu plažu s Joeom Tysonom u vožnji 8. marta 1965. Iz video zapisa Vojnog kanala. Ovo je bio drugi tenk koji je sletio, narednik John Downey bio je tehničar prvog tenka koji je došao na obalu.

Prva velika operacija (Starlight).

M48A3 Odeljak za upravljačke programe. Fotografija autora.

M48A3 Područje utovarivača. Fotografija autora.

M48A3 Područje topnika. Fotografija autora.

M48A3 Područje zapovjednika tenkova. Fotografija autora.

M48A3 Kula straga (Bustle). Fotografija autora.

Pogled kroz pericope topnika. Fotografija autora.

Fotografija River Crossing Bob Haller.

Fotografija River Crossing Bob Haller.


Održavanje svake stvari čistom. Fotografija Boba Hallera.

Alpha Co. Blade Tank. Fotografija Jamesa Sausomana.

Bravo Co. 1st Tks. Fotografija Carol Lemmon.

1st Plt Alpha Co. 1st Tks. Fotografija Larryja Sterlinga.

Uklanjanje kuple za nadogradnju Mod B. Rick Langley.

Coupla sa starim TC poklopcem. Rick Langley.

Umetnut je novi vidni prsten i zamjenjuje kopulu sa novim TC otvorom. Rick Langley.

Nekoliko manjih prilagodbi i spremno je za rad. Rick Langley.

Vod poručnika Hornera, iz F/2/5, tokom bitke za Hue zakloni se iza plamenih tenkova M67A2 i M48A3. Fotografija?

M48A3 podržava gunđanje u Hueu. Fotografija?

Autoput 9, put za Khe Sanh. Fotografija?

Khe Sanh Tank. Fotografija?

Tenk kao artiljerija u Khe Sanhu. Jack Butcher.

Tenk kao artiljerija u Khe Sanhu. Jack Butcher.

Ako ste dovde stigli, možda će vas zanimati neki od izvora koje sam koristio.


Pomorska / pomorska historija 18. jun - Danas u pomorskoj istoriji - pomorski / pomorski događaji u istoriji

Danas u pomorskoj historiji - pomorski / pomorski događaji u historiji
16. decembar 1941-Drugi svjetski rat: Japanski superbojni brod IJN Yamato je angažiran u Carskoj japanskoj mornarici i prenosi titulu vodećeg broda s IJN -a Nagato.


Yamato (大 和) bio je vodeći brod svoje klase bojnih brodova izgrađen za Carsku japansku mornaricu (IJN) neposredno prije Drugog svjetskog rata. Ona i njena sestra brod, Musashi, bili su najteži i najmoćniji naoružani bojni brodovi ikada konstruirani, istisnuli su 72.800 tona pri punom opterećenju i naoružani s devet glavnih topova tipa 94 ​​od 46 cm (18,1 inča), koji su bili najveći topovi ikada montirani na ratni brod.


Yamato testiranje pokretnih mašina kod tjesnaca Bungo (izvan zaljeva Sukumo) 20. oktobra 1941

Ime je dobila po drevnoj japanskoj provinciji Yamato, Yamato je dizajniran da se suprotstavi brojčano nadmoćnoj floti borbenih brodova Sjedinjenih Država, japanskog glavnog rivala na Pacifiku. Položena je 1937. godine, a službeno je puštena u rad sedmicu dana nakon napada na Pearl Harbor krajem 1941. Tijekom cijele 1942. godine služila je kao perjanica Kombinirane flote, a u lipnju 1942. admiral Isoroku Yamamoto vodio je flotu sa svog mosta tijekom bitke kod Midway, katastrofalan poraz za Japan. Musashi preuzeo je funkciju vodećeg broda Kombinirane flote početkom 1943. godine, i Yamato proveo ostatak godine, a veći dio 1944. godine, krećući se između velikih japanskih pomorskih baza Truk i Kure kao odgovor na američke prijetnje. Iako je bila prisutna u bici na Filipinskom moru u junu 1944., ona nije igrala nikakvu ulogu u bitci.

Jedini put Yamato fired her main guns at enemy surface targets was in October 1944, when she was sent to engage American forces invading the Philippines during the Battle of Leyte Gulf. On the verge of success, the Japanese force turned back, believing they were engaging an entire US carrier fleet rather than a light escort carrier group that was all which stood between the battleship and vulnerable troop transports.

During 1944, the balance of naval power in the Pacific decisively turned against Japan, and by early 1945, its fleet was much depleted and badly hobbled by critical fuel shortages in the home islands. In a desperate attempt to slow the Allied advance, Yamato was dispatched on a one-way mission to Okinawa in April 1945, with orders to beach herself and fight until destroyed protecting the island. The task force was spotted south of Kyushu by US submarines and aircraft, and on 7 April 1945 she was sunk by American carrier-based bombers and torpedo bombers with the loss of most of her crew.


Line drawing of Yamato as she appeared in 1944–1945 (specific configuration from 7 April 1945)

Projektovanje i izgradnja
Main article: Yamato-class battleship
During the 1930s the Japanese government adopted an ultranationalist militancy with a view to greatly expand the Japanese Empire. Japan withdrew from the League of Nationsin 1934, renouncing its treaty obligations. After withdrawing from the Washington Naval Treaty, which limited the size and power of capital ships, the Imperial Japanese Navy began their design of the new Yamato class of heavy battleships. Their planners recognized Japan would be unable to compete with the output of U.S. naval shipyards should war break out, so the 70,000 ton[3] vessels of the Yamato class were designed to be capable of engaging multiple enemy battleships at the same time.

The keel of Yamato, the lead ship of the class, was laid down at the Kure Naval Arsenal, Hiroshima, on 4 November 1937, in a dockyard that had to be adapted to accommodate her enormous hull. The dock was deepened by one meter, and gantry cranes capable of lifting up to 350 tonnes were installed. Extreme secrecy was maintained throughout construction, a canopy even being erected over part of the drydock to screen the ship from view. Yamato was launched on 8 August 1940, with Captain (later Vice-Admiral) Miyazato Shutoku in command. A great effort was made in Japan to ensure that the ships were built in extreme secrecy to prevent American intelligence officials from learning of their existence and specifications.


Yamato near the end of her fitting out, 20 September 1941

Yamato's main battery consisted of nine 46 cm (18.1 in) 45 Caliber Type 94 naval guns—the largest caliber of naval artillery ever fitted to a warship, although the shells were not as heavy as those fired by the British 18-inch naval guns of World War I. Each gun was 21.13 metres (69.3 ft) long, weighed 147.3 metric tons (162.4 short tons), and was capable of firing high-explosive or armor-piercing shells 42 kilometres (26 mi). Her secondary battery comprised twelve 155-millimetre (6.1 in) guns mounted in four triple turrets (one forward, one aft, two midships), and twelve 127-millimetre (5.0 in) guns in six twin mounts (three on each side amidships). These turrets had been taken off the Mogami-class cruisers when those vessels were converted to a main armament of 20.3-centimetre (8.0 in) guns. Osim toga, Yamato carried twenty-four 25-millimetre (0.98 in) anti-aircraft guns, primarily mounted amidships. When refitted in 1944 and 1945 for naval engagements in the South Pacific, the secondary battery configuration was changed to six 155 mm guns and twenty-four 127 mm guns, and the number of 25 mm anti-aircraft guns was increased to 162.


Kulturni značaj
From the time of their construction, Yamato i njena sestra Musashi carried significant weight in Japanese culture. The battleships represented the epitome of Imperial Japanese naval engineering, and because of their size, speed, and power, visibly embodied Japan's determination and readiness to defend its interests against the Western Powers and the United States in particular. Shigeru Fukudome, chief of the Operations Section of the Imperial Japanese Navy General Staff, described the ships as "symbols of naval power that provided to officers and men alike a profound sense of confidence in their navy." Yamato's symbolic might was such that some Japanese citizens held the belief that their country could never fall as long as the ship was able to fight.

Decades after the war, Yamato was memorialised in various forms by the Japanese. Historically, the word "Yamato" was used as a poetic name for Japan thus, her name became a metaphor for the end of the Japanese empire. In April 1968, a memorial tower was erected on Cape Inutabu in Japan's Kagoshima Prefecture to commemorate the lives lost in Operation Ten-Go. In October 1974, Leiji Matsumoto created a new television series, Svemirski bojni brod Yamato, about rebuilding the battleship as a starship and its interstellar quest to save Earth. The series was a huge success, spawning five feature films and two more TV series as post-war Japanese tried to redefine the purpose of their lives, Yamato became a symbol of heroism and of their desire to regain a sense of masculinity after their country's defeat in the war. Brought to the United States as Star Blazers, the animated series proved popular and established a foundation for anime in the North American entertainment market. The motif in Svemirski bojni brod Yamato was repeated in Silent Service, a popular manga and anime that explores issues of nuclear weapons and the Japan-US relationship. It tells the story of a nuclear-powered super submarine whose crew mutinies and renames the vessel Yamato, in allusion to the World War II battleship and the ideals she symbolises. The idea of giant cannon on space battleships has also brought into famous video game Star Craft, with the main cannon of Terran battle cruiser named as "yamato cannon".

In 2005, the Yamato Museum was opened near the site of the former Kure shipyards. Although intended to educate on the maritime history of post Meiji-era Japan, the museum gives special attention to its namesake the battleship is a common theme among several of its exhibits, which includes a section dedicated to Matsumoto's animated series. The centrepiece of the museum, occupying a large section of the ground floor, is a 26.3-metre (86 ft) long model of Yamato (1:10 scale).

Later that year, Toei released a 143-minute movie, Yamato, based on a book by Jun Henmi, to commemorate the 60th anniversary of the end of World War II Tamiya released special editions of scale models of the battleship in conjunction with the film's release. Based on a book of the same name, the film is a tale about the sailors aboard the doomed battleship and the concepts of honour and duty. The film was shown on more than 290 screens across the country and was a commercial success, taking in a record 5.11 billion yen at the domestic box office.


The very large model at the Yamato Museum, with museum visitors (2006)


Iowa’s Early Birds of Aviation

If Ohio claims to be the “Birthplace of Aviation,” Iowa was at least its childhood home. Ohio natives Wilbur and Orville Wright spent a few boyhood years in Cedar Rapids, and a young Amelia Earhart first saw a plane at the Iowa State Fair.

In fact, several Iowans helped get the flying industry off the ground.

Iowa’s earliest aviators “were very much pioneers at the cutting edge of technology,” said Greg VanWyngarden, an author and aviation enthusiast from St. Charles, Iowa. “They were definitely popular heroes and as famous in some ways as today’s astronauts.”

Here are a few early birds from history’s wild blue yonder.

Neta Snook of Ames

When it came to chasing dreams, Mary Anita “Neta” Snook (1896–1991) was unstoppable.

She was fascinated with the new-fangled flying machines as a teenager and enrolled in the Davenport Aviation School in 1917. She was probably the first Iowa woman to attend an Iowa flight school, according to Leo Landis, state curator of the State Historical Society of Iowa.

“When World War I broke out, she wanted to fly for the United States military and enrolled at the Curtiss Flying School in Newport News, Virginia, for additional training,” Landis said.

After graduating, Snook tried to join the Army Air Corps but was turned away. She eventually became a British Air Ministry plane inspector at a factory in Elmira, New York, and worked there until the war ended in November 1918.

Later, she traveled west and organized hunting excursions by plane. She also gave Earhart her first flying lessons, in a plane that had been wrecked in Columbus Junction, Iowa, and repaired at her parents’ home in Ames.

Snook was the first woman to set an altitude record over the Pacific Ocean, soaring to a height of 15,000 feet.

Oscar and Mary Solbrig of Davenport

Oscar Solbrig (1870–1941) and his wife, Mary (1869–1954), jumped into stunt flying when they built their own Benoist biplane in 1917. Mary took booked gigs for exhibitions, maintained the plane’s engine, and surveyed the fields where pilot Oscar took off and landed.

“I do not know of any work that has more ups and downs than building aeroplanes and learning to navigate them,” Oscar said in 1914. “There is always danger attached to air flying. This danger is to some extent being overcome, and I believe aeroplanes will within a few years be generally used as a means of transportation.”

Eugene Ely of Williamsburg

During World War I, the military made use of information daredevil pilots gathered about aerodynamics.

One of the earliest military aviators was Eugene Ely (1886–1911), who was born on a farm near Williamsburg, Iowa, and made history with the first ship-to-shore and shore-to-ship flights.

In October 1910, he flew off the deck of the USS Birmingham in a Curtiss Pusher, bounced off the water and landed safely on shore. Three months later, he became the first pilot to land a plane on a ship when he touched down on the armored cruiser USS Pennsylvania.

“The military had first offered the opportunity to the Wright brothers but they turned it down. That’s when Ely decided to do it,” said Kris Schildberg of the Iowa Aviation Museum in Greenfield. “He also designed the tail-hook system that is used today to stop the planes when they land on aircraft carriers.

“The funny thing is,” she added, “Ely did all this and he didn’t know how to swim. He was terrified of the water.”

Ely died just two days shy of his 25th birthday, when he couldn’t pull out of a dive during an exhibition in Macon, Georgia. He was posthumously award the Distinguished Flying Cross and is buried in East York Cemetery near his hometown.

Join Greg VanWyngarden on Sept. 20 at the State Historical Museum of Iowa, where he’ll discuss the record-setting Bleriot XI airplane and its impact on aviation history.

Designed by Frenchman Louis Bleriot more than 100 years ago, this type of aircraft achieved many landmark flights, including reconnaissance missions during World War I. Around the same time, Bleriot planes circled the skies above Atlantic, Sioux City, Des Moines, Ottumwa and Davenport during air shows that included barrel rolls, figure eights, and 5,000-feet “dips of death.” A Des Moines newspaper published one account under the headline “Daring Bird Men Flirt With Death.”

A historic Bleriot XI airplane is on display at the State Historical Museum of Iowa in Des Moines, along with Oscar and Mary Solbrigs’ Benoist biplane and a Curtiss Pusher similar one Eugene Ely flew for the military. All three planes will be de-installed this fall and moved to temporary storage to make way for museum renovations. Visitors are invited to watch the process from a special viewing zone Sept. 23-Oct. 10.


Grandfather to the Fast Attack – USS Carp (SS 20) F-1 (The Mysterious loss of Bob the Submarine Dog)

A 330 ton Carp (SS-20) lies on the surface with a # 21 painted on its conning tower probably between 6 September & 17 November 1911. If you look closely at the photo, just forward of the diving plane you can see the name “Carp “. This was the original name of the F-1 (SS-20). She carried this moniker from the time of her launching until she was renamed on 17 November 1911. She was commissioned as F-1 on 19 June 1912. This is an unusual photo. There seems to have been an attempt at painting over the print or negative. It doesn’t look like they were trying to alter the photo, just trying to add an artistic element to it.

When the Navy bought its first Holland class submarine, the future of the craft was still as murky as the water it would dive into .

The original boats were very limited in depth capability and the propulsion mechanism was still primitive by today’s standards. The vision for many was to mimic Jules Verne’s novel ideas about 20,000 Leagues under the sea. The limitations in technology included hull construction, propulsion alternatives, atmosphere conditioning, size and on and on. But each new submarine design brought with it a new sense of possibility. By 1912, technology was beginning to move faster and faster. Articles of the day reflected those accomplishments.

Technical world magazine. (1912) Submarine Safety

While it has been conclusively demonstrated — on paper — that the submersible is as much superior to the submarine as the latter is to the former, the significant fact remains that no Holland type submarine has ever been lost, nor has a single life ever been lost on such a craft. Yet in ten years there have been twenty accidents to submersibles, or other submarines, in which one hundred and twenty-nine lives have been lost.

Under these circumstances it is comforting to know that the United States Government has none but Holland type submarines and still more consoling to learn that the requirements of our navy are more exacting than those of any other nation. While submersibles are only capable of descending to a depth of a hundred to a hundred and forty feet at most, no submarine is accepted by this Government until it has undergone the actual test of submersion to a depth of two hundred feet. The boats are really capable of withstanding the pressure at a depth of two hundred and fifty feet.

Should the submarine ever start for the bottom in deep water a safety device is waiting to bring it up again as soon as it reaches a predetermined depth. This device works like the safety valve on a steam boiler. The instant the fixed depth is reached a diaphragm in the outer skin of the vessel yields to the pressure, which opens a cock admitting air at one hundred pounds pressure or more into the ballast tanks, forcing out fifty or sixty tons of water in a few seconds. This tremendous increase in buoyancy, even in spite of a big leak, causes the submarine to dart to the surface at great speed.

In tests the boats jump almost out of the water, sinking back with a resounding splash.

If a Holland type submarine should be irreparably damaged its occupants still stand an excellent chance of escape. All four hatches extent down into the hull so as to form escape tubes. The covers have springs to throw them open when unfastened. If the vessel fills, the pressure is equalized regardless of depth, so there is no trouble in opening the hatches. At the station of every member of the crew where he can lay his hands on it instantly, even if the lights all go out, is an escape helmet with a jacket and belt such as divers wear, together with a breathing apparatus with oxygen enough to last one hour and a life belt. If the vessel fills the water compresses the air at the top so that the men can still breathe while they are putting on their helmets. Then they have but to duck their heads enough to get into the bot tom of the escape tubes and so find their way out. Once at the surface they in flate their life belts, then open the windows of their helmets to the outer air and wait for rescue. In England all members of submarine crews are trained in this method of escape in tanks built for the purpose.

New technology – the diesel engine

The F1 submarine represented the best technology if the day in 1912. Interesting about this submarine was its place in history. The interesting shift from boats named after fish back to numbered hulls must have been frustrating for the sailors. Talk about an identity crisis. This boat would be known as the Carp, SS 20 and F-1.

MISS JOSEPHINE TYNAN, TO CHRISTEN SUBMARINE Torpedo Boat Carp to Be Launched Next Month

Preparations are almost completed at the Union Iron works for the launching of the submarine torpedo boat Carp, which will take place early next month from the yard at the foot of Twentieth Street. Miss Josephine Tynan, daughter of J. J. Tynan, general manager of ‘.the Union Iron works, will christen the boat.

The Carp has been more than two years in building, the contract for its construction having been let to the Electric Boat Company of New York March 5. 1909, the New York company subletting the contract for the: hull to the Union Iron works. The contract price was $454,740, add the specified time for completion was June 5 of this year, but delays were occasioned by slow delivery of materials. A sister boat of the Carp, the Barracuda, will be launched about six weeks after the former. Three more submarines are being built at the Union Iron works the Seawolf, the Nautilus and the Orca. The work on the Seawolf and the Nautilus is 70 per cent completed, but the work on the Orca has not yet been begun although the material is on hand.

The San Francisco Call. (San Francisco [Calif.]) 1895-1913, 07 September 1911, Image 8 via chroniclingamerica.loc.gov.

The submarine torpedo boat Carp (SS-20), the latest and most efficient type of underwater fighter, was launched yesterday at the Union Iron Works. Miss Josephine Tynan, little daughter of Joseph. J. Tynan, general manager of the Iron Works, christened the fish-like craft, and the launching was accomplished on time and without a hitch. On the launching platform were officers of the army and navy, members of the national legislature, representatives of foreign governments – and “men and women prominent in society. Before the launching, W. R. Sands, representing the Electric – Boat Company, pinned a dainty gold watch on little’ Miss Tynan’s breast, and President McGregor of the Union Iron Works “decorated the girl with a jeweled locket.

There was a crash of breaking glass, and the Carp, its green snout dripping with champagne, went scooting down the ways and into the water, which welcomed the latest addition to the navy with a great splash.”

The submarine Carp (SS-20) after her launching at Union Iron Works, San Francisco on 6 September 1911.

From the very beginning, the Carp was a boat that would test its operators and the US Navy in new ways.

She almost didn’t make it through initial testing.

Popular mechanics v.18 JY-D(1912).

Contrary to general practice in testing submarines at great depths, the new U. S. submarine ”Carp” was recently sunk to a depth of 200 ft. at San Francisco with a crew of eight men on board, and an accident which might have ended disastrously kept the little vessel at the bottom for over an hour. The trouble was due to fouling of the hawser pipe of the submarine by an anchor chain, which for a time prevented a return to the surface. During the time the submarine was thus caught telephone communication was maintained with the officers in charge of the test at the surface.

The service of the crew was voluntary, and a considerable bonus was offered.

Technical world magazine. v.18 1912-1913 Sep-Feb.

TO MAKE THE SUBMARINE SAFER By ROBERT G. SKERRETT

SOME months ago one of our submarine boats, while undergoing a deep-water test, gave her crew an hour and a half of hair-raising anxiety. The Carp had been submerged to a depth of two hundred feet in San Francisco Bay in order to prove that’ her hull was structurally up to contract requirements. Ordinarily, it is the custom, in making this initial test, to seal the boat water tight, without anyone inside of her, and then to sink her two hundred feet below the surface, the little vessel being secured to steel cables and these, in turn, controlled from a floating wrecking derrick.

In the case of the Carp, however, the officer in charge and his crew believed the craft sound, and in a spirit of venture decided to go down in her. Apparently the Carp was anchored, and as she sank, the steel anchor cable was hauled inboard until she settled at the bottom right over the anchor. In some manner, the cable became jammed and would not feed’ out when it was time for the Carp to rise. All efforts to release her were unsuccessful* for more than an hour. Finally, after about ninety minutes of suspense, the Carp rose to the surface suddenly at high speed, and her momentum was such that her bow broke clear of the water for nearly fifty feet like the “broaching” of a big whale. The incident had all of the thrills of a narrow escape from death.

Later in the year, the Carp proved her merit by exceeding all previous limits in depth seeking.

Popular mechanics v.18 JY-D (1912). U.S. SUBMARINE BREAKS ALL DIVING RECORDS

The U. S. submarine “F1” broke all diving records recently by plunging to a depth of 283 ft. beneath the waters of San Francisco Bay. On board were Lieut. James B. Howell, in command, and a crew of 26 men. The little vessel remained down 10 minutes.

The United States Navy has for some time held the record of depths attained by submarines. In April of this year the “F1” reached a depth of 200 ft. in San Francisco Bay while undergoing tests previous to acceptance and last June the “Seal” descended to a depth of 256 ft. below the surface of Long Island Sound. The U. S. Submarine That Holds the World’s Record for Diving, Having Attained a Depth of 283 Ft. in San Francisco Bay is now the Carp.

It may be possible that pearl divers and divers in rubber suits and brass helmets have descended to depths a few feet greater than those indicated in the illustration, but it is understood that these depths are records.

Bow view of the F-1 (SS-20), in a West Coast harbor, 1912. A barge loaded with lumber is in the left distance.