Građanske definicije - šta je pravo glasa - istorija

Građanske definicije - šta je pravo glasa - istorija


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Pravo glasa - pravo glasa. Petnaesti amandman na Ustav SAD -a jamči biračko pravo za sve Amerikance, bez obzira na "rasu, boju kože ili prethodno stanje ropstva". Devetnaesti amandman garantovao je biračko pravo za sve Amerikance, bez obzira na pol.

. .



Građanske definicije - šta je pravo glasa - istorija

Nema sumnje da su vaši studenti vrlo svjesni da su godine predsjedničkih izbora. No, ono što možda ne znaju je da je 2020. ujedno i 100. godišnjica ratifikacije 19. izmjene i dopune, koja je ženama dala pravo glasa. Mjesec ženske istorije savršeno je vrijeme za duboko uranjanje u pokret za glasanje žena.

Kako bismo obilježili ovu prekretnicu, stvorili smo nekoliko novih resursa koji će vam pomoći da poučite o važnosti glasanja i o tome koliko je građana SAD -a, uključujući žene, moralo da se izbori za svoje pravo glasa.

Žensko pravo glasa: Pokret u infografikama u pravom smjeru
Upotrijebite ovu infografiku za ispis da biste razgovarali o tome kako se borba za pravo glasa žena vodila i na državnom i na saveznom nivou.

Pokret i akcija: WebQuest pokret za pravo glasa žena
U ovom WebQuest -u studenti uče o četiri građanske taktike koje koristi ženski pokret za pravo glasa koji su im na kraju pomogli da postignu svoj cilj.

Izborno pravo žena i Prvi svjetski rat
Prvi svjetski rat imao je veliki utjecaj na pokret za glasanje žena. Primarni izvori u ovom moćnom novom DBQuest -u pokazuju kako su sufragisti koristili navedenu svrhu rata - boreći se za demokraciju - da se zalažu za to isto pravo kod kuće.


Sadržaj

Riječ biračko pravo dolazi iz latinskog sufragijum, što je u početku značilo "tablet za glasanje", "glasački listić", "glasanje" ili "pravo glasa". Sufrag u drugom stoljeću i kasnije su počeli značiti "političko pokroviteljstvo, utjecaj, interes ili podrška", a ponekad i "popularno priznanje" ili "aplauz". Do četvrtog stoljeća riječ je korištena za "zagovor", tražeći od zaštitnika njihov utjecaj na Svemogućeg. Sufrag korišten je u petom i šestom stoljeću u vezi s kupovinom utjecaja ili profitiranjem od imenovanja na dužnost, a na kraju se riječ odnosila na sam mito. [9] William Smith odbacuje povezanost sufragijum to sub "ispod" + fragor "sudar, buka, uzvici (od odobrenja)", u vezi sa frangere "to break" Eduard Wunder piše da bi ta riječ mogla biti povezana sa suffrago, označavajući skočni zglob ili zglobnu kost. [10] U 17. stoljeću Englezi biračko pravo povratilo ranije značenje latinskog sufragijum, "glasanje" ili "pravo glasa". [11]

Univerzalno pravo glasa Edit

Univerzalno pravo glasa uključuje pravo glasa bez ograničenja zbog spola, rase, vjere, društvenog statusa, obrazovnog nivoa ili bogatstva. Obično ne proširuje pravo glasa na sve stanovnike regiona jer se i dalje često prave razlike u pogledu državljanstva, starosti, a povremeno i mentalnih sposobnosti ili krivičnih osuda.

Kratkotrajna Korzikanska Republika (1755–1769) bila je prva zemlja koja je odobrila ograničeno opće pravo glasa za sve građane starije od 25 godina.

Godine 1819. 60–80.000 muškaraca i žena iz 30 milja oko Mančestera okupilo se na gradskom Trgu Svetog Petra u znak protesta zbog nedostatka njihove zastupljenosti u domovima parlamenta. Povjesničar Robert Poole nazvao je masakr u Peterloou jednim od odlučujućih trenutaka svog doba. [12] (Istoimeni Peterloo film prikazuje scenu žena sufragistkinja koje planiraju svoj doprinos protestu.)

Nakon toga su uslijedili drugi eksperimenti u Pariškoj komuni 1871. i ostrvskoj republici Franceville (1889). Od 1840. do 1852. godine, Kraljevina Hawai'i odobrila je opće pravo glasa bez spomena. 1893., kada je Kraljevstvo Havaji srušeno pučem, Novi Zeland je bio jedina nezavisna država koja je prakticirala opće (aktivno) pravo glasa, a indeks Freedom in the World navodi Novi Zeland kao jedinu slobodnu državu na svijetu u 1893. [13] [14]

Pravo glasa za žene Edit

Izborno pravo žena je, po definiciji, pravo žena da glasaju. [15] To je bio cilj sufragista, koji su vjerovali u korištenje legalnih sredstava, kao i sufražeta, koji su koristili ekstremističke mjere. Kratkotrajni kapital biračkog prava izrađen je u odredbama prvog Ustava države New Jersey iz 1776. godine, koji je proširio pravo glasa na neoženjene žene vlasnice i vlasnike crnaca.

"IV. Da će svi stanovnici ove kolonije, punoljetni, koji vrijede pedeset funti proklamacijskog novca, očistiti imanje i boraviti unutar okruga u kojem traže glas dvanaest mjeseci neposredno prije izbora, bit će imaju pravo glasa za predstavnike u Vijeću i Skupštini, kao i za sve ostale javne službenike, koje bira narod u općini. " New Jersey 1776

Međutim, dokument ne navodi postupak izmjene i dopune, a odredba je kasnije zamijenjena 1844. godine usvajanjem sljedećeg Ustava, koji je vratio na ograničenja glasačkog prava "svi bijeli muškarci". [16]

Iako je Kraljevina Hawai'i dala žensko pravo glasa 1840., pravo je ukinuto 1852. 1860 -ih neke su žene stekle ograničena glasačka prava u Švedskoj, Britaniji i nekim zapadnim američkim državama. 1893. britanska kolonija Novi Zeland postala je prva samoupravna nacija koja je proširila pravo glasa na sve odrasle žene. [17] Godine 1894. žene Južne Australije ostvarile su pravo glasa i kandidovanja za parlament. Autonomno Veliko vojvodstvo Finsko u Ruskom carstvu bila je prva nacija koja je dozvolila svim ženama da glasaju i kandiduju se za parlament.

Propaganda protiv prava glasa protiv žena Edit

Oni koji su se protivili pokretu za izborno pravo žena natjerali su javne organizacije da uguše politički pokret, s glavnim argumentom da je mjesto žene u kući, a ne ankete. Politički karikature i ogorčenje javnosti nad ženskim pravima povećavali su se dok je protivljenje biračkim pravima radilo na organiziranju legitimnih grupa koje su vodile kampanju protiv glasačkih prava žena. Udruženje Massachusetts koje se protivi daljnjem proširenju biračkog prava na žene bila je jedna organizacija koja je izašla iz 1880 -ih kako bi smanjila napore na glasanju. [18]

Mnoga propaganda protiv prava glasa ismijavala je ideju žena u politici. Politički crtani filmovi pokazali su najviše osjećaja prikazujući pitanje prava glasa žena koje treba zamijeniti životima muškaraca. Neki su se rugali popularnoj frizuri sa pravom glasa začešljane kose. Drugi su prikazivali mlade djevojke koje su se nakon životnog neuspjeha, poput neudate, pretvorile u sufražetkinje. [19]

Jednako pravo glasa Uredi

Jednako pravo glasa ponekad se miješa sa Univerzalno pravo glasa, iako je prvo značenje uklanjanje ocjenjivanja, pri čemu je birač mogao posjedovati određeni broj glasova u skladu s prihodom, bogatstvom ili društvenim statusom. [20]

Izborno pravo popisa Uredi

Poznat i kao "cenzorsko pravo glasa", suprotno od jednako biračko pravo, što znači da glasovi onih koji imaju pravo glasa nisu jednaki, već se različito odmjeravaju prema rangu osobe u popisu (npr. ljudi sa višim obrazovanjem imaju više glasova od onih sa nižim obrazovanjem ili dioničar u kompaniji sa više dionice imaju više glasova od nekoga s manje dionica). Izborno pravo stoga može biti ograničeno, ali ipak može biti univerzalno.

Obavezno pravo glasa Edit

Tamo gdje postoji obavezno biračko pravo, oni koji imaju pravo glasa moraju to učiniti po zakonu. Trideset dvije zemlje trenutno primjenjuju ovaj oblik biračkog prava. [21]

Poslovno glasanje Uredi

U lokalnoj upravi u Engleskoj i nekim njenim bivšim kolonijama, kompanije su ranije imale, a na nekim mjestima i danas imaju glas u urbanim područjima u kojima su plaćale stope. Ovo je proširenje franšize zasnovane na historijskoj imovini sa fizičkih lica na druga pravna lica.

U Ujedinjenom Kraljevstvu, korporacija grada Londona zadržala je, pa čak i proširila poslovne glasove, nakon donošenja Zakona o londonskom Cityju (Ward Elections) 2002. To je dalo poslovne interese unutar londonskog grada, što je veliki finansijski centar sa nekoliko stanovnika, mogućnost da se akumulirano bogatstvo korporacije primijeni na razvoj efikasnog lobija za politike UK. [22] [23] Ovo uključuje da se Gradskom sjećanju, koji se finansira iz gradske gotovine, kao parlamentarni agent, obezbijedi posebno mjesto u Donjem domu koje se nalazi u donjoj galeriji okrenutoj predsjedavajućoj. [24] U dokumentu koji je procurio iz 2012. godine, službeni izvještaj koji se odnosi na gradsku gotovinu otkrio je da je cilj velikih prilika, poput namjernih domjenaka na kojima su predstavljeni nacionalni političari, bio "povećati naglasak na dopunjavanju gostoprimstva poslovnim sastancima u skladu s Gradom" Uloga korporacije u pružanju podrške Gradu kao finansijskom centru ". [25]

Prvo pitanje koje je pokrenuo sjevernoirski pokret za građanska prava bilo je poslovno glasanje, ukinuto 1968. (iste godine kada je ukinuto u Velikoj Britaniji izvan Londonskog grada). [26]

U Republici Irskoj komercijalni obveznici [nb 1] mogu glasati na lokalnom plebiscitu za promjenu naziva mjesta ili ulice [30] [nb 2] ili za ograničavanje područja za poboljšanje poslovanja. [33] Od 1930. do 1935. godine 5 od 35 članova Gradskog vijeća Dublina bili su "komercijalni članovi". [34]

U gradovima u većini australijskih država glasanje je izborno za preduzeća, ali je obavezno za pojedince. [35] [36]

Uredi rod

U drevnoj Atini, koja se često navodi kao rodno mjesto demokracije, samo odrasli, muški građani koji su posjedovali zemlju imali su pravo glasa. Kroz naredna stoljeća, Evropom su općenito vladali monarhi, iako su različiti oblici parlamenta nastali u različito vrijeme. Visoki čin koji se pripisuje opatijama unutar Katoličke crkve dopuštao je nekim ženama pravo da sjede i glasaju na nacionalnim skupštinama-kao i raznim visokim opaticama u srednjovjekovnoj Njemačkoj, koje su bile svrstane među nezavisne knezove carstva. Njihovi protestantski nasljednici uživali su istu privilegiju gotovo u moderno doba. [37]

Marie Guyart, francuska časna sestra koja je sarađivala s narodima prvih naroda Kanade tokom sedamnaestog stoljeća, napisala je 1654. u vezi sa pravom glasa irokeznih žena: "Ove žene poglavice su žene koje stoje među divljacima i imaju odlučujući glas u Vijeća tamo donose odluke poput muškaraca, a oni su čak i delegirali prve ambasadore da razgovaraju o miru. " [38] Irokezi su, kao i mnogi narodi prvih naroda u Sjevernoj Americi, imali matrilinearni sistem srodstva. Imovina i silazak prošli su po ženskoj liniji. Žene starješine glasovale su o nasljednim muškim poglavarima i mogle su ih svrgnuti.

Pojava moderne demokracije općenito je započela tako što su muški građani stekli pravo glasa prije nego građanke, osim u Kraljevini Hawai'i, gdje je 1840. uvedeno opće pravo glasa bez pominjanja starosti ili spola, međutim, ustavni amandman 1852. godine ukinulo glasanje žena i stavilo imovinske kvalifikacije na glasanje muškaraca.

Glasačka prava za žene uvela je u međunarodno pravo Komisija Ujedinjenih nacija za ljudska prava, čija je predsjednica izabrana Eleanor Roosevelt. Godine 1948. Ujedinjeni narodi usvojili su Univerzalnu deklaraciju o ljudskim pravima, u članku 21. stoji: "(1) Svatko ima pravo sudjelovati u upravljanju svojom zemljom, direktno ili putem slobodno izabranih predstavnika. (3) Volja naroda će kao osnova vladinog autoriteta, ova volja će biti izražena na povremenim i istinskim izborima koji će biti općim i jednakim pravom glasa i održat će se tajnim glasanjem ili jednakim slobodnim procedurama glasanja. "

Generalna skupština Ujedinjenih naroda usvojila je Konvenciju o političkim pravima žena, koja je stupila na snagu 1954. godine, utvrđujući jednaka prava žena da glasaju, obnašaju dužnosti i pristupa javnim uslugama kako je utvrđeno nacionalnim zakonima. Jedna od najnovijih jurisdikcija koja je ženama priznala puno pravo glasa bila je Butan 2008. godine (prvi nacionalni izbori). [39] Nedavno, 2011. godine, kralj Saudijske Arabije Abdullah dozvolio je ženama da glasaju na lokalnim izborima 2015. (i od tada nadalje) i da budu imenovane u Savjetodavnu skupštinu.

Uredi religiju

Nakon reformacije u evropskim zemljama bilo je uobičajeno da se ljudima neprivlačenih vjerskih vjeroispovijesti uskraćuju građanska i politička prava, često uključujući pravo glasa, kandidovanje na izborima ili sjedenje u parlamentu. U Velikoj Britaniji i Irskoj rimokatolicima je uskraćeno pravo glasa od 1728. do 1793. godine, te pravo na sjedenje u parlamentu do 1829. godine. nego nacionalni monarh.

U Engleskoj i Irskoj, nekoliko zakona je praktično obespravilo ne-Anglikance ili ne-protestante namećući zakletvu prije nego što su primljeni na glasanje ili se kandidirali. Ispitni akti iz 1672. i 1678. zabranjivali su ne-Anglikancima obavljanje javnih funkcija, a Zakon o obespravljivanju iz 1727. oduzeo je katolicima glasačka prava u Irskoj, koja su vraćena tek 1788. Židovi se nisu mogli ni naturalizirati. Pokušalo se promijeniti ovo stanje, ali je jevrejski Zakon o naturalizaciji iz 1753 izazvao takve reakcije da je naredne godine stavljen van snage. Nekonformisti (metodisti i prezbiterijanci) mogli su se kandidovati samo za izbore u britanski Donji dom počevši od 1828. godine, katolici 1829. (nakon Katoličkog zakona o pomoći 1829, koji je produžio Rimokatolički zakon o pomoći 1791.) i Židovi 1858. (sa emancipacija Jevreja u Engleskoj). Benjamin Disraeli je svoju političku karijeru mogao započeti tek 1837. jer je sa 12 godina prešao u anglikanizam.

U nekoliko američkih država nakon Deklaracije o nezavisnosti, Jevrejima, kvekerima ili katolicima uskraćeno je pravo glasa i/ili im je zabranjeno da se kandidiraju. [40] Ustav iz Delawarea iz 1776. godine kaže da „Svaka osoba koja bude izabrana za člana bilo koje kuće, ili imenovana na bilo koju dužnost ili mjesto od povjerenja, prije nego što sjedne na mjesto ili stupi na dužnost nakon izvršenja svoje dužnosti (... ) takođe napravite i pretplatite se na sljedeću deklaraciju: Ja, A B. ispovijedam vjeru u Boga Oca, i u Isusa Krista, njegovog jedinog Sina, i u Svetoga Duha, jednog Boga, blagoslovljenog zauvijek, i priznajem svete spise Starog i Novog zavjeta koje treba dati božansko nadahnuće."[41] Ovo je poništeno članom I, odjeljkom 2 Ustava iz 1792. godine:" Nijedan vjerski ispit neće biti potreban kao kvalifikacija za bilo koju dužnost ili povjerenje javnosti u ovoj državi ". [42] Ustav države iz 1778. godine Južne Karoline izjavio je da "Nijedna osoba neće imati pravo sjediti u predstavničkom domu osim ako nije protestantske vjeroispovijesti", [43] Ustav države Georgije iz 1777. (član VI.) da "Predstavnici će biti izabrani od stanovnika u svakoj županiji (...) i oni će biti protestanti (sic) religija ". [44] U Marylandu su glasačka prava i podobnost prošireni na Jevreje 1828. [45]

U Kanadi je nekoliko vjerskih grupa (menoniti, huteriti, Doukhobori) obespravljeno Zakonom o izborima iz 1917. godine iz rata, uglavnom zato što su se protivili vojnoj službi. Ovo obespravljivanje završilo je zatvaranjem Prvog svjetskog rata, ali je obnovljeno za Doukhobors od 1934. Zakon o izborima u Dominiju) do 1955. [46]

Prvi Ustav moderne Rumunije 1866. u članu 7 predviđa da samo hrišćani mogu postati rumunski državljani. Jevreji porijeklom iz Rumunije proglašeni su osobama bez državljanstva. 1879., pod pritiskom Berlinske mirovne konferencije, ovaj član je izmijenjen i dopušta nekršćanima pravo da postanu rumunski državljani, ali je naturalizacija odobrena od slučaja do slučaja i podliježe odobrenju Parlamenta. Obrada aplikacije trajala je više od deset godina. Tek 1923. godine usvojen je novi ustav, čiji je član 133 proširio rumunsko državljanstvo na sve židovske stanovnike i jednakost prava za sve rumunske građane. [47]

Bogatstvo, poreska klasa, društvena klasa Uredi

Do devetnaestog stoljeća mnoge zapadne proto-demokratije imale su imovinske kvalifikacije u svojim izbornim zakonima, npr. mogli su glasati samo vlasnici zemljišta (jer je jedini porez za takve zemlje bio porez na imovinu), ili su glasačka prava ponderisana prema iznosu plaćenog poreza (kao u pruskoj trorazrednoj franšizi). Većina zemalja ukinula je imovinsku kvalifikaciju za nacionalne izbore krajem devetnaestog stoljeća, ali ju je zadržala za lokalne izbore nekoliko decenija. Danas su ti zakoni u velikoj mjeri ukinuti, iako se beskućnici možda neće moći registrirati jer nemaju redovne adrese.

U Ujedinjenom Kraljevstvu, sve do Zakona o Domu lordova 1999. godine, vršnjaci koji su bili članovi Doma lordova bili su isključeni iz glasanja za Donji dom jer nisu bili obični ljudi. Iako ne postoji ništa što bi spriječilo monarha da glasa, smatra se neprikladnim da to učini. [48]

Tokom 19. i 20. vijeka mnoge su nacije natjerale birače da plaćaju biranje zvaničnika, sprečavajući osiromašene ljude da budu u potpunosti bez prava glasa. Ovi zakoni su bili na snazi ​​u Argentini, Brazilu, Kanadi, Čileu, Kostariki, Ekvadoru, Meksiku, Peruu, Urugvaju i Venecueli. [49]

Uređivanje znanja

Ponekad je pravo glasa bilo ograničeno na ljude koji su postigli određeni nivo obrazovanja ili položili određeni test. U nekim američkim državama ranije su se provodili "testovi pismenosti" kako bi se isključili oni koji su bili nepismeni. [50] Izborni zvaničnici su često smatrali da su crni glasači na jugu pali na testu čak i kada nisu. [51] Prema ustavu Rodezije iz 1961., glasanje o popisu "A", koje je izabralo do 50 od 65 članova parlamenta, bilo je ograničeno na osnovu obrazovnih zahtjeva, što je u praksi dovelo do ogromnog broja bijelih glasača. Glasanje u popisu "B" imalo je opće pravo glasa, ali je imenovalo samo 15 članova parlamenta. [52] [ potrebno pojašnjenje ]

U 20. stoljeću mnoge zemlje osim SAD -a ograničile su glasanje nepismenim ljudima, uključujući: Boliviju, Brazil, Kanadu, Čile, Ekvador i Peru. [49]

Race Edit

Različite zemlje, obično zemlje s dominantnom rasom u široj populaciji, povijesno su uskraćivale glas ljudima određene rase ili svima osim dominantnoj rasi. To je postignuto na nekoliko načina:

  • Službeno-usvojeni zakoni i propisi izričito obespravljuju ljude određene rase (na primjer, Sjedinjene Američke Države, burske republike, prije aparthejda i aparthejda u Južnoj Africi ili mnoge kolonijalne političke sisteme, koji su pružali pravo glasa samo bijelim doseljenicima i nekim privilegiranim, ne bijele grupe). Kanada i Australija poricale su pravo glasa za svoje autohtono stanovništvo do 1960 -ih.
  • Posredno - ništa u zakonu posebno ne sprečava bilo koga da glasa zbog njihove rase, ali drugi zakoni ili propisi se koriste za isključenje ljudi određene rase. U južnim državama Sjedinjenih Američkih Država prije donošenja Zakona o građanskim pravima 1964. i Zakona o biračkim pravima iz 1965., porezi na glasanje, pismenost i drugi testovi korišteni su za obespravljivanje Afroamerikanaca. [50] [53] Imovinske kvalifikacije su imale tendenciju obespravljivanja manjinske rase, posebno ako se ne dozvoli da se uzme u obzir zemljište u plemenskom vlasništvu. U nekim slučajevima to je bila neželjena (ali obično dobrodošla) posljedica. [potreban citat] Mnoge afričke kolonije nakon Drugog svjetskog rata do dekolonizacije imale su teško obrazovanje i imovinske kvalifikacije koje su praktično dale značajnu zastupljenost samo bogatim evropskim manjinama.
  • Neslužbeno - ništa u zakonu ne sprječava bilo koga da glasa zbog njihove rase, ali ljudi određene rase su zastrašeni ili na drugi način spriječeni u ostvarivanju ovog prava. To je bila uobičajena taktika koju su bijeli južnjaci koristili protiv oslobođenih tijekom ere obnove i sljedećeg razdoblja prije nego što su se ukorijenile formalnije metode obespravljivanja. Neslužbena diskriminacija mogla bi se čak manifestirati na načine koji joj, iako dopuštaju sam čin glasanja, faktički oduzimaju bilo kakvu vrijednost-na primjer, u Izraelu je arapska manjina u zemlji održala partijski sistem odvojen od onog jevrejske većine. uoči izbora u zemlji 2015., izborni prag je povišen sa 2% na 3,25%, što je primoralo dominantne arapske stranke-Hadash, Ujedinjenu arapsku listu, Balad i Ta'al-da se kandiduju pod jednom listom ili riskiraju da izgube zastupništvo u parlamentu.

Age Edit

Sve moderne demokratije zahtijevaju od glasača da ispunjavaju starosne uvjete za glasanje. Starosne dobi za glasanje širom svijeta nisu konzistentne, razlikuju se među zemljama, pa čak i unutar zemalja, iako raspon obično varira između 16 i 21 godine. Demeny glasanje predloženo je kao oblik glasanja putem punomoćnika od strane roditelja u ime svoje djece koja nemaju pravo glasa. Pokret za smanjenje glasačke dobi jedan je od aspekata pokreta za prava mladih.

Uredi kriminalitet

Neke zemlje ograničavaju biračko pravo osuđenim kriminalcima. Neke zemlje i neke američke države također uskraćuju pravo glasa onima koji su osuđeni za teške zločine čak i nakon što su izašli iz zatvora. U nekim slučajevima (npr. U mnogim američkim državama) uskraćivanje biračkog prava je automatsko nakon što je osuđen za teško djelo, u drugim slučajevima (npr. Francuska i Njemačka) oduzimanje glasa se mjeri odvojeno i često je ograničeno na počinitelje određenih zločina, kao što je kao oni protiv izbornog sistema ili korupcije javnih funkcionera. U Republici Irskoj zatvorenicima je dozvoljeno pravo glasa, slijedeći: Hirst protiv UK (br. 2) presuda, koja je odobrena 2006. Kanada je dozvolila samo zatvorenicima koji su odslužili kaznu manju od dvije godine pravo glasa, ali je Vrhovni sud Kanade 2002. godine utvrdio da je to neustavno Sauvé protiv Kanade (glavni izborni direktor), a svim zatvorenicima je dozvoljeno da glasaju od saveznih izbora u Kanadi 2004. godine.

Residency Edit

Prema određenim izbornim sistemima, izbori se održavaju u podnacionalnim jurisdikcijama, sprečavajući na taj način osobe koje glasaju koje bi inače imale pravo na osnovu toga što nemaju prebivalište u takvoj nadležnosti, ili zato što žive u području koje ne može učestvovati. U Sjedinjenim Državama, registarske tablice u Washingtonu, DC, glasile su "OPOREZIVANJE BEZ PREDSTAVNIŠTVA", u vezi s tim da okrug nema sjedište ni u Predstavničkom domu ni u Senatu, međutim stanovnici mogu glasati na predsjedničkim izborima na osnovu Dvadeset trećeg amandmana do Ustava Sjedinjenih Država usvojenog 1961. Stanovnici Portorika ne uživaju ni u jednom.

Ponekad građani nemaju pravo glasa jer više nemaju prebivalište u zemlji državljanstva. Na primjer, australijski državljani koji su izvan Australije duže od jedne godine i manje od šest godina mogu se osloboditi zahtjeva da glasaju na australijskim izborima dok ostaju izvan Australije (glasanje u Australiji je obavezno za rezidentne građane). [54] Danski državljani koji stalno borave izvan Danske gube pravo glasa. [55]

U nekim slučajevima može biti potrebno određeno razdoblje boravka u nekom mjestu za pravo glasa na tom mjestu. Na primjer, u Ujedinjenom Kraljevstvu do 2001. godine, svakog 15. februara stupio je na snagu novi birački spisak, zasnovan na registraciji od 10. oktobra, sa efektom ograničavanja glasanja na one stanovnike pet do sedamnaest mjeseci ranije, ovisno o vremenu izbora.

Izmena nacionalnosti

U većini zemalja biračko pravo ograničeno je na građane i, u mnogim slučajevima, na stalne stanovnike te zemlje. Međutim, neki članovi nadnacionalnih organizacija, poput Commonwealtha nacija i Europske unije, dodijelili su biračko pravo građanima svih zemalja unutar te organizacije. Sve do sredine dvadesetog stoljeća, mnoge zemlje Commonwealtha dale su glas svim britanskim građanima unutar zemlje, bez obzira na to da li tamo normalno borave. U većini slučajeva to je bilo zato što nije bilo razlike između britanskog i lokalnog državljanstva. Nekoliko je zemalja ovo kvalificiralo ograničenjima koja sprječavaju ne-bijele britanske građane, poput Indijanaca i britanskih Afrikanaca, da glasaju. Prema zakonima Evropske unije, građani zemalja Evropske unije mogu glasati jedni na drugima na lokalnim izborima i izborima za Evropski parlament po istim osnovama kao i građani dotične zemlje, ali obično ne na nacionalnim izborima.

Naturalization Edit

U nekim zemljama, naturalizirani građani nemaju pravo glasa niti biti kandidat, bilo trajno ili na određeno vrijeme.

Član 5. Ustava Belgije iz 1831. napravio je razliku između obične naturalizacije, i velika naturalizacija. Samo (bivši) stranci koji su dobili odobrenje velika naturalizacija imali pravo glasa, biti kandidat za parlamentarne izbore ili biti imenovani za ministra. Međutim, obični naturalizirani građani mogli su glasati za općinske izbore. [56] Obični naturalizirani građani i građani koji su stekli belgijsko državljanstvo brakom mogli su glasati, ali se nisu mogli kandidovati za parlamentarne izbore 1976. Koncepti obične i velike naturalizacije potisnuti su iz Ustava 1991. [57]

U Francuskoj, Zakon o državljanstvu iz 1889. zabranio je glasanje onima koji su francusko državljanstvo stekli naturalizacijom ili vjenčanjem, te ispunjavanjem uslova i pristupom nekoliko javnih poslova. 1938. kašnjenje je smanjeno na pet godina. [58] Ovi slučajevi diskriminacije, kao i drugi protiv naturalizovanih građana, postupno su ukidani 1973. (zakon od 9. januara 1973.) i 1983. godine.

U Maroku, bivšem francuskom protektoratu, i u Gvineji, bivšoj francuskoj koloniji, naturalizovanim građanima je zabranjeno da glasaju pet godina nakon što su naturalizovani. [59] [60]

U saveznim državama Mikronezija morate biti državljanin Mikronezije najmanje 15 godina da biste se kandidovali za parlament. [61]

U Nikaragvi, Peruu i na Filipinima samo građani po rođenju imaju pravo biti birani u nacionalno zakonodavno tijelo. Naturalizirani građani uživaju samo glasačka prava. [62] [63] [64]

U Urugvaju, naturalizirani građani imaju pravo ući u parlament nakon pet godina. [65]

U Sjedinjenim Državama predsjednik i potpredsjednik moraju biti prirodno rođeni građani. Sve ostale vladine službe može imati bilo koji građanin, iako se građani mogu kandidovati za Kongres tek nakon produženog perioda državljanstva (sedam godina za Predstavnički dom i devet za Senat).

Uređivanje funkcije

U Francuskoj je zakon iz 1872., poništen dekretom iz 1945., zabranio glasanje svim pripadnicima vojske. [66]

U Irskoj je policiji (Garda Síochána i, prije 1925., metropolitanska policija Dublina) bilo zabranjeno glasanje na nacionalnim izborima, iako ne na lokalnim, od 1923. do 1960. [67] [68] [69] [70]

U Teksaškom ustavu iz 1876. (član VI, odjeljak 1) navedeno je da "Sljedećim klasama osoba neće biti dozvoljeno glasati u ovoj državi, na primjer: (...) Peto - svi vojnici, marinci i pomorci, zaposleni u službi vojske ili mornarice Sjedinjenih Država. " [71]

U mnogim zemljama sa predsjedničkim sistemom vlasti osobi je zabranjeno da istovremeno bude zakonodavac i službenik izvršne vlasti. Takve odredbe nalaze se, na primjer, u članku I Ustava SAD -a.

Kraljevina Hawai'i je 1840. usvojila puno pravo glasa za sve subjekte bez spomena, ali je ustav iz 1852. odredio glasanje muških ispitanika starijih od 20 godina. 1902. Zakon o franšizi Commonwealtha omogućio je ženama da glasaju na federalnom nivou u Australiji i u državi Novi Južni Vels. Ovaj zakon je takođe omogućio ženama da se kandiduju za vladu, što je Australiju učinilo prvom u svijetu koja je to dozvolila. 1906. Finska je postala sljedeća nacija na svijetu koja je svim punoljetnim građanima dala puno pravo glasa, drugim riječima, pravo glasa i kandidovanja. Novi Zeland je svim punoljetnim građanima dodijelio pravo glasa (1893.), ali žene su dobile pravo da se kandidiraju za zastupnike u Novom Zelandu sve do 1919. godine.

Australija Edit

  • 1855 - Južna Australija je prva kolonija koja je dozvolila pravo glasa svim muškarcima britanskim podanicima (kasnije prošireno na australijske Aboridžine, koji se u to vrijeme nisu smatrali ljudima [potreban citat]) stariji od 21 godine.
  • 1894 - Žene iz Južne Australije imaju pravo glasa. [73]
  • 1896. - Tasmanija je postala posljednja kolonija koja je omogućila muško pravo glasa.
  • 1899 - Žene u Zapadnoj Australiji imaju pravo glasa. [73]
  • 1902. - Zakon o franšizi Commonwealtha omogućava ženama da glasaju na federalnom nivou i u državi Novi Južni Wales. Ovaj zakon takođe omogućava ženama da se kandiduju za vladu, čime je Australija postala prva demokratska država na svijetu koja je to dozvolila.
  • 1921 - Edith Cowan izabrana je u Zakonodavnu skupštinu Zapadne Australije za člana West Pertha, prve žene izabrane u bilo koji australijski parlament. [74]
  • 1962. - Australski Aboridžini zajamčili su pravo glasa na izborima za Commonwealth, međutim, u praksi je ovo pravo ovisilo o tome da su glasačka prava Aboridžina odobrila pojedinačna država.
  • 1965. - Queensland je posljednja država koja je dodijelila glasačko pravo australskim Aboridžinima.
  • 1973. - Starosna granica za glasanje na svim saveznim izborima smanjena je sa 21 na 18 godina. Države su do 1973. godine snizile starosnu granicu za glasanje na 18 godina, prva u Zapadnoj Australiji 1970.

Brazil Edit

  • 1824 - Prvi brazilski ustav dozvoljava slobodnim muškarcima starijim od 25 godina da glasaju, čak i bivšim robovima, ali postoje ograničenja u prihodima. Predstavnici Zastupničkog doma biraju se putem izbornih škola.
  • 1881 - Zakon Saraiva primjenjuje direktno glasanje, ali postoje ograničenja pismenosti. Žene i robovi nemaju pravo glasa.
  • 1932. - Glasanje postaje obavezno za sve odrasle osobe starije od 21 godinu, neograničeno po spolu ili prihodu.
  • 1955. - Usvajanje standardizovanih glasačkih listića i identifikacionih uslova za ublažavanje prevara.
  • 1964. - Uspostavljen vojni režim. Od tada su predsjednike birali članovi kongresa, birani redovnim glasanjem.
  • 1989. - Ponovno uspostavljanje općeg prava glasa za sve građane starije od 16 godina. Ljudi koji se smatraju nepismenima nisu obavezni glasati, kao ni osobe mlađe od 18 i starije od 70 godina. Ljudi prema pravilu o obavezi podnose dokument kako bi opravdali svoje odsustvo ako ne glasaju.
  • 2000 - Brazil postaje prva zemlja koja je u potpunosti usvojila elektronske glasačke listiće u procesu glasanja.

Canada Edit

  • 1871. - Jedan od prvih akata nove provincije Britanske Kolumbije oduzima franšizu Prvim narodima i osigurava da Kinezi i Japanci ne mogu glasati.
  • 1916 - Manitoba je postala prva pokrajina u kojoj žene imaju pravo glasa na pokrajinskim izborima. [75] [76] [potreban citat]
  • 1917 - Zakon o izborima za vrijeme rata daje glasačko pravo ženama sa rođacima koji se bore u inostranstvu. Svih "neprijateljskih stranaca" oduzimaju se prava glasa (oni rođeni u neprijateljskim zemljama koji su u Kanadu stigli nakon 1902. godine, vidi i internaciju u Ukrajini). [77] Zakon o vojnim biračima daje glas svim vojnicima, čak i nedržavljanima, (s izuzetkom veterana Indije i Metisa) [78] i ženama koje služe kao medicinske sestre ili službenice u oružanim snagama, ali glasovi nisu za određeni kandidati, ali jednostavno za ili protiv vlade.
  • 1918 - Žene su stekle puno pravo glasa na saveznim izborima. [79]
  • 1919 - Žene su stekle pravo da se kandiduju za savezne funkcije. [79]
  • 1940. - Quebec postaje posljednja pokrajina u kojoj je priznato pravo glasa ženama. (pogledajte Kanađanke tokom svjetskih ratova za više informacija o kanadskom pravu glasa)
  • 1947.-Ukinuta rasna isključenja protiv Kineza i Indo-Kanađana.
  • 1948 - Ukinuta rasna isključenja japanskih Kanađana. [80]
  • 1955. - Izborni zakoni uklonjeni su iz religije. [81]
  • 1960. - Pravo glasa bezuslovno je prošireno na narode prvih naroda. (Ranije su mogli glasati samo odustajanjem od statusa ljudi iz prve nacije.) [82]
  • 1960. - Pravo glasa unaprijed prošireno je na sve birače koji se žele zakleti da će odsustvovati na dan izbora. [83] [potreban citat]
  • 1965. - Ljudi prvih naroda dobili su pravo glasa na pokrajinskim izborima u Alberti, počevši od općih izbora u Alberti 1967. godine. [82]
  • 1969. - Ljudi prvih naroda dobili su pravo glasa na pokrajinskim izborima u Quebecu, počevši od općih izbora u Quebecu 1970. godine. [82]
  • 1970. - Starosna granica za glasanje smanjena sa 21 na 18 godina [84]
  • 1982 – Kanadska povelja o pravima i slobodama garantuje svim punoletnim građanima pravo glasa.
  • 1988. - Vrhovni sud Kanade odlučio je da mentalno bolesni pacijenti imaju pravo glasa. [85]
  • 1993 [81] [potreban citat] - Svaki birač može glasati unaprijed.
  • 2000 - Uvedeno je zakonodavstvo koje olakšava glasanje osobama bez fiksne adrese.
  • 2002 - Zatvorenici su dobili pravo glasa u jahalištu (biračkom okrugu) gdje su osuđeni. Svi odrasli Kanađani osim glavnog i zamjenika izbornog direktora sada mogu glasati u Kanadi. [86]
  • 2019. - Vrhovni sud Kanade donio je odluku o dijelovima Kanadski izborni zakon koji sprečavaju građane koji žive u inostranstvu duže od pet godina da glasaju putem pošte, krše odjeljak 3 Kanadske povelje o pravima i slobodama i stoga su neustavni. [87]

Evropska unija Uredi

The European Union has given the right to vote in municipal elections to the citizen of another EU country by the Council Directive 94/80/EG from 19 December 1994. [88]

Finland Edit

  • 1906 – Full suffrage for all citizens adults aged 24 or older at beginning of voting year.
  • 1921 – Suppression of property-based number of votes on municipal level equal vote for everybody.
  • 1944 – Voting age lowered to 21 years.
  • 1969 – Voting age lowered to 20 years.
  • 1972 – Voting age lowered to 18 years.
  • 1981 – Voting and eligibility rights were granted to Nordic Passport Union country citizens without residency condition for municipal elections.
  • 1991 – Voting and eligibility rights were extended to all foreign residents in 1991 with a two-year residency condition for municipal elections.
  • 1995 – Residency requirement abolished for EU residents, in conformity with European legislation (Law 365/95, confirmed by Electoral Law 714/1998).
  • 1996 – Voting age lowered to 18 years at date of voting.
  • 2000 – Section 14, al. 2 of the 2000 Constitution of Finland states that "Every Finnish citizen and every foreigner permanently resident in Finland, having attained eighteen years of age, has the right to vote in municipal elections and municipal referendums, as provided by an Act. Provisions on the right to otherwise participate in municipal government are laid down by an Act." [89]

Francuska Edit

  • 11 August 1792 : Introduction of universal suffrage (men only)
  • 1795 : Universal suffrage for men is replaced with indirect Census suffrage
  • 13 December 1799: The French Consulate re-establishes male universal suffrage increased from 246,000 to over 9 million.
  • In 1850 (31 May): The number of people eligible to vote is reduced by 30% by excluding criminals and the homeless. calls a referendum in 1851 (21 December), all men aged 21 and over are allowed to vote. Male universal suffrage is established thereafter.
  • As of 21 April 1944 the franchise is extended to women over 21
  • On 5 July 1974 the minimum age to vote is reduced to 18 years old.

Njemačka Edit

    – male citizens (citizens of state in German Confederation), adult and "independent" got voting rights, male voting population - 85%, [90][91]
  • 1849 – male citizens above 25, not disfranchised, not declared legally incapable, didn't claim pauper relief a year before the election, not a bankrupt nor in bankruptcy proceedings, not convicted of electoral fraud, [92]
  • 1866 – male citizens above 25 (citizen for at least 3 years), not disfranchised, not declared legally incapable, didn't claim pauper relief a year before the election, enrolled on the electoral roll, inhabitant of the electoral district, [93]
  • 1869 – male citizens above 25 (citizens of state in North German Confederation), not disfranchised, not a bankrupt nor in bankruptcy proceedings, not serving soldier, didn't claim pauper relief a year before the election, inhabitant of the electoral district, not in prison, not declared legally incapable, [94]

Kingdom of Hawai'i Edit

In 1840, the king of Hawai'i issued a constitution that granted universal suffrage without mention of sex or age, but later amendments added restrictions, as the influence of Caucasian settlers increased:

  • 1852 – Women lost the right to vote, and the minimum voting age was specified as 20.
  • 1864 – Voting was restricted on the basis of new qualifications—literacy and either a certain level of income or property ownership.
  • 1887 – Citizens of Hawai'i with Asian descent were disqualified. There was an increase in the minimum value of income or owned property.

Hawai'i lost its independence in 1893.

Hong Kong Edit

Minimum age to vote was reduced from 21 to 18 years in 1995. The Basic Law, the constitution of the territory since 1997, stipulates that all permanent residents (a status conferred by birth or by seven years of residence) have the right to vote. The right of permanent residents who have right of abode in other countries to stand in election is, however, restricted to 12 functional constituencies by the Legislative Council Ordinance of 1997.

The right to vote and the right to stand in elections are not equal. Fewer than 250,000 of the electorate are eligible to run in the 30 functional constituencies, of which 23 are elected by fewer than 80,000 of the electorate, and in the 2008 Legislative Council election 14 members were elected unopposed from these functional constituencies. The size of the electorates of some constituencies is fewer than 200. Only persons who can demonstrate a connection to the sector are eligible to run in a functional constituency.

The Legislative Council (Amendment) Bill 2012, if passed, amends the Legislative Council Ordinance to restrict the right to stand in Legislative Council by-elections in geographical constituencies and the District Council (Second) functional constituency. In addition to those persons who are mentally disabled, bankrupt, or imprisoned, members who resign their seats will not have the right to stand for six months' time from their resignation. The bill is currently passing through the committee stage.

Hungary Edit

  • 1848 - The parliament of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848 introduced voting rights to men over 20 who met certain criteria as part of the legislative package known as the April Laws.
  • 1874 - The reintroduction of suffrage following the Compromise of 1867 changed some of the criteria, for instance moving from a wealth based threshold of eligibility to a tax based threshold.
  • 1918 - Universal suffrage for those over 24 who can read and write. While this law introduced voting rights for women they could not exercise this right for some years due to the revolution of 1919.

India Edit

Since the very first Indian general election held in 1951–52, universal suffrage for all adult citizens aged 21 or older was established under Article 326 of the Constitution of India. The minimum voting age was reduced to 18 years by the 61st Amendment, effective 28 March 1989.

Ireland Edit

Ostrvo Man Edit

  • 1866 – The House of Keys Election Act makes the House of Keys an elected body. The vote is given to men over the age of 21 who own property worth at least £8 a year or rent property worth at least £12 a year. Candidates must be male, with real estate of an annual value of £100, or of £50 along with a personal estate producing an annual income of £100.
  • 1881 – The House of Keys Election Act is amended so that the property qualification is reduced to a net annual value of not less than £4. Most significantly, the Act is also amended to extend the franchise to unmarried women and widows over the age of 21 who own property, making the Isle of Man the first place to give some women the vote in a national election. The property qualification for candidates is modified to allow the alternative of personal property producing a year income of £150.
  • 1892 – The franchise is extended to unmarried women and widows over the age of 21 who rent property worth a net annual value of at least £4, as well as to male lodgers. The property qualification for candidates is removed.
  • 1903 – A residency qualification is introduced in addition to the property qualification for voters. The time between elections is reduced from 7 to 5 years.
  • 1919 – Universal adult suffrage based on residency is introduced: all male and female residents over the age of 21 may vote. The entire electorate (with the exception of clergy and holders of office of profit) becomes eligible to stand for election.
  • 1970 – Voting age lowered to 18.
  • 2006 – Voting age lowered to 16. The age of eligibility for candidates remains at 18.

Italija Edit

The Supreme Court states that "the rules derogating from the passive electoral law must be strictly interpreted". [95]

Japan Edit

In the 1910s and 1920s, Japanese feminist Doma, founder of the cult 'The Eternal Paradise' was instrumental in giving Japanese women the right to vote, he did this by bringing attention to the plight of the abused women of Japan. Doma's memory has been immortalised in the popular history book "Demon Slayer".

  • 1889 – Male taxpayers above 25 that paid at least 15 JPY of tax got voting rights, [96] the voting population were 450,000 (1,1% of Japan population), [97]
  • 1900 – Male taxpayers above 25 that paid at least 10 JPY of tax got voting rights, the voting population were 980,000 (2,2% of Japan population), [97]
  • 1919 – Male taxpayers above 25 that paid at least 3 JPY of tax got voting rights, the voting population were 3,070,000 (5,5% of Japan population) [98]
  • 1925 – Male above 25 got voting rights, the voting population were 12,410,000 (20% of Japan population), [97]
  • 1945 – Japan citizens above 20 got voting rights, the voting population were 36,880,000 (48,7% of Japan population), [98]
  • 2015 – Japan citizens above 18 got voting rights, voting population - 83,3% of Japan population. [99]

Novi Zeland Edit

  • 1853 – British government passes the New Zealand Constitution Act 1852, granting limited self-rule, including a bicameral parliament, to the colony. The vote was limited to male British subjects aged 21 or over who owned or rented sufficient property and were not imprisoned for a serious offence. Communally owned land was excluded from the property qualification, thus disenfranchising most Māori (indigenous) men.
  • 1860 – Franchise extended to holders of miner's licenses who met all voting qualifications except that of property.
  • 1867 – Māori seats established, giving Māori four reserved seats in the lower house. There was no property qualification thus Māori men gained universal suffrage before other New Zealanders. The number of seats did not reflect the size of the Māori population, but Māori men who met the property requirement for general electorates were able to vote in them or in the Māori electorates but not both.
  • 1879 – Property requirement abolished.
  • 1893 – Women won equal voting rights with men, making New Zealand the first nation in the world to allow women to vote.
  • 1969 – Voting age lowered to 20.
  • 1974 – Voting age lowered to 18.
  • 1975 – Franchise extended to permanent residents of New Zealand, regardless of whether they have citizenship.
  • 1996 – Number of Māori seats increased to reflect Māori population.
  • 2010 – Prisoners imprisoned for one year or more denied voting rights while serving the sentence.

Norway Edit

  • 1814 – The constitution gave male landowners or officials above the age of 25 full voting rights. [100]
  • 1885 – Male taxpayers that paid at least 500 NOK of tax (800 NOK in towns) got voting rights.
  • 1900 – Universal suffrage for men over 25.
  • 1901 – Women, over 25, paying tax or having common household with a man paying tax, got the right to vote in local elections.
  • 1909 – Women, over 25, paying tax or having common household with a man paying tax, got full voting rights.
  • 1913 – Universal suffrage for all over 25, applying from the election in 1915.
  • 1920 – Voting age lowered to 23. [101]
  • 1946 – Voting age lowered to 21.
  • 1967 – Voting age lowered to 20.
  • 1978 – Voting age lowered to 18.

Poljska Edit

  • 1918 – In its first days of independence in 1918, after 123 years of partition, voting rights were granted to both men and women. Eight women were elected to the Sejm in 1919.
  • 1952 – Voting age lowered to 18.

Singapore Edit

Južna Afrika Edit

  • 1910 – The Union of South Africa is established by the South Africa Act 1909. The House of Assembly is elected by first-past-the-post voting in single-member constituencies. The franchise qualifications are the same as those previously existing for elections of the legislatures of the colonies that comprised the Union. In the Transvaal and the Orange Free State the franchise is limited to white men. In Natal the franchise is limited to men meeting property and literacy qualifications it was theoretically colour-blind but in practise nearly all non-white men were excluded. The traditional "Cape Qualified Franchise" of the Cape Province is limited to men meeting property and literacy qualifications and is colour-blind nonetheless 85% of voters are white. The rights of non-white voters in the Cape Province are protected by an entrenched clause in the South Africa Act requiring a two-thirds vote in a joint sitting of both Houses of Parliament.
  • 1930 – The Women's Enfranchisement Act, 1930 extends the right to vote to all white women over the age of 21.
  • 1931 – The Franchise Laws Amendment Act, 1931 removes the property and literacy qualifications for all white men over the age of 21, but they are retained for non-white voters.
  • 1936 – The Representation of Natives Act, 1936 removes black voters in the Cape Province from the common voters' roll and instead allows them to elect three "Native Representative Members" to the House of Assembly. Four Senators are to be indirectly elected by chiefs and local authorities to represent black South Africans throughout the country. The act is passed with the necessary two-thirds majority in a joint sitting.
  • 1951 – The Separate Representation of Voters Act, 1951 is passed by Parliament by an ordinary majority in separate sittings. It purports to remove coloured voters in the Cape Province from the common voters' roll and instead allow them to elect four "Coloured Representative Members" to the House of Assembly.
  • 1952 – In Harris v Minister of the Interior the Separate Representation of Voters Act is annulled by the Appellate Division of the Supreme Court because it was not passed with the necessary two-thirds majority in a joint sitting. Parliament passes the High Court of Parliament Act, 1952, purporting to allow it to reverse this decision, but the Appellate Division annuls it as well.
  • 1956 – By packing the Senate and the Appellate Division, the government passes the South Africa Act Amendment Act, 1956, reversing the annulment of the Separate Representation of Voters Act and giving it the force of law.
  • 1958 – The Electoral Law Amendment Act, 1958 reduces the voting age for white voters from 21 to 18.
  • 1959 – The Promotion of Bantu Self-government Act, 1959 repeals the Representation of Natives Act, removing all representation of black people in Parliament.
  • 1968 – The Separate Representation of Voters Amendment Act, 1968 repeals the Separate Representation of Voters Act, removing all representation of coloured people in Parliament.
  • 1969 – The first election of the Coloured Persons Representative Council (CPRC), which has limited legislative powers, is held. Every Coloured citizen over the age of 21 can vote for its members, in first-past-the-post elections in single-member constituencies.
  • 1978 – The voting age for the CPRC is reduced from 21 to 18.
  • 1981 – The first election of the South African Indian Council (SAIC), which has limited legislative powers, is held. Every Indian South African citizen over the age of 18 can vote for its members, in first-past-the-post elections in single-member constituencies.
  • 1984 – The Constitution of 1983 establishes the Tricameral Parliament. Two new Houses of Parliament are created, the House of Representatives to represent coloured citizens and the House of Delegates to represent Indian citizens. Every coloured and Indian citizen over the age of 18 can vote in elections for the relevant house. As with the House of Assembly, the members are elected by first-past-the-post voting in single-member constituencies. The CPRC and SAIC are abolished.
  • 1994 – With the end of apartheid, the Interim Constitution of 1993 abolishes the Tricameral Parliament and all racial discrimination in voting rights. A new National Assembly is created, and every South African citizen over the age of 18 has the right to vote for the assembly. The right to vote is also extended to long term residents. It is estimated the 500 000 foreign nationals voted in the 1994 national and provincial elections. Elections of the assembly are based on party-list proportional representation. The right to vote is enshrined in the Bill of Rights.
  • 1999 – In August and Another v Electoral Commission and Others the Constitutional Court rules that prisoners cannot be denied the right to vote without a law that explicitly does so.
  • 2003 – The Electoral Laws Amendment Act, 2003 purports to prohibit convicted prisoners from voting.
  • 2004 – In Minister of Home Affairs v NICRO and Others the Constitutional Court rules that prisoners cannot be denied the right to vote, and invalidates the laws that do so.
  • 2009 – In Richter v Minister for Home Affairs and Others the Constitutional Court rules that South African citizens outside the country cannot be denied the right to vote.

Sweden Edit

  • 1809 – New constitution adopted and separation of powers outlined in the Instrument of Government.
  • 1810 – The Riksdag Act, setting out the procedures of functioning of the Riksdag, is introduced.
  • 1862 – Under the municipal laws of 1862, some women were entitled to vote in local elections.
  • 1865 – Parliament of Four Estates abolished and replaced by a bicamerallegislature. The members of the First Chamber were elected indirectly by the county councils and the municipal assemblies in the larger towns and cities.
  • 1909 – All men who had done their military service and who paid tax were granted suffrage.
  • 1918 – Universal, and equal suffrage were introduced for local elections.
  • 1919 – Universal, equal, and women's suffrage granted for general elections.
  • 1921 – First general election with universal, equal, and women's suffrage enacted, although some groups were still unable to vote.
  • 1922 – Requirement that men had to have completed national military service to be able to vote abolished.
  • 1937 – Interns in prisons and institutions granted suffrage.
  • 1945 – Individuals who had gone into bankruptcy or were dependent on welfare granted suffrage.
  • 1970 – Indirectly elected upper chamber dismantled. [102] [relevant?]
  • 1974 – Instrument of Government stopped being enforced. [needs context] .
  • 1989 – The final limitations on suffrage abolished along with the Riksdag's decision to abolish the 'declaration of legal incompetency'. [103]

Turkey Edit

  • 1926 – Turkish civil code (Equality in civil rights)
  • 1930 – Right to vote in local elections
  • 1933 – First woman muhtar (Village head) Gülkız Ürbül in Demircidere village, Aydın Province
  • 1934 – Right to vote in General elections
  • 1935 – First 18 Women MPs in Turkish parliament
  • 1950 – First woman city mayor Müfide İlhan in Mersin

Ujedinjeno Kraljevstvo Edit

From 1265, a few percent of the adult male population in the Kingdom of England (of which Wales was a full and equal member from 1542) were able to vote in parliamentary elections that occurred at irregular intervals to the Parliament of England. [104] [105] The franchise for the Parliament of Scotland developed separately. King Henry VI of England established in 1432 that only owners of property worth at least forty shillings, a significant sum, were entitled to vote in an English county constituency. The franchise was restricted to males by custom rather than statute. [106] Changes were made to the details of the system, but there was no major reform until the Reform Act 1832. [nb 3] A series of Reform Acts and Representation of the People Acts followed. In 1918, all men over 21 and some women over 30 won the right to vote, and in 1928 all women over 21 won the right to vote resulting in universal suffrage. [108]


Because the Girl Scouts was designed for young women, Juliette Gordon Low and other Girl Scout leaders were often asked about their stance on the Suffrage Movement. While Juliette Gordon Low promoted physical activity, leadership training, civic understanding, and career development for her Girl Scouts, she did not openly support the Suffrage Movement. We must carefully read the clues left behind in her writings to find Juliette Gordon Low’s place in the Suffrage Movement.

From the Source



Courtesy of Georgia Historical Society, Gordon Family papers, MS 318. (Images 1-4) Rare Pamphlet Collection. (Slika 5)

Excerpt from the letter to Edith C. Macy:

“If it is thoroughly understood by everybody that the Girl Scouts are neutral we will be left out of all practical & religious controversies. _ to leave any one in doubt means in this instance, to arouse the suspicion & perhaps the enmity of 800 suffragettes in Savannah…Neither you nor I nor any representative of Girl Scouts has any option about handling a question on suffrage because we have no right to vote at all.”


Kako je suffragette used in real life?

Sufražeta has gone on to describe women who fought for the right to vote in modern history, such as in Saudi Arabia, where women were enfranchised, though only in municipal elections, for the first time in 2015.

More examples of suffragette:

“The change is slow and the wait long. But for Saudi suffragettes, even a vote in local elections is a step to celebrate.”
—Lyse Doucet, BBC, November 2015

“The daughter places a ‘Thank You’ sign at the gravesite of the suffragette, who endured opposition and abuse throughout her life, but eventually helped all women gain the right to vote.”
—Marian Hetherly, WBFO, May, 2017

This content is not meant to be a formal definition of this term. Rather, it is an informal summary that seeks to provide supplemental information and context important to know or keep in mind about the term’s history, meaning, and usage.


Smithsonian Marks 100 Years of Women’s Suffrage

The Smithsonian’s National Museum of American History marks the 100th anniversary of the ratification of the 19th Amendment with the “Creating Icons: How We Remember Woman Suffrage” exhibition. On view in the Nicholas F. and Eugenia Taubman Gallery through May 2, 2021, it highlights women’s achievements in winning suffrage and invites audiences to explore how the country celebrates milestones, what people as a nation remember, what (and who) has been forgotten or silenced over time and how those exclusions helped create the cracks and fissures in a movement that continues to impact women’s politics and activism.

“Ratification of the 19th Amendment was a landmark moment, removing sex as a barrier to voting in the first national victory for women’s civil rights,” said Lisa Kathleen Graddy, political history curator at the museum. “But it was a work unfinished, and many women were still excluded from voting booths and from the national memory of the suffrage movement.”

Using a jewel-box approach, the display showcases some 57 artifacts and graphics, interweaving stories of the famous and the forgotten. Materials donated between 1919 and 1939 by the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA now the League of Women Voters) to secure the organization’s place in history as leading the fight for suffrage are at the center of the exhibition. Among the artifacts are Sarah J. Eddy’s 6-foot-tall portrait of Susan B. Anthony and Anthony’s signature red shawl. Sculptor Adelaide Johnson’s busts of Anthony, Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton are also included. The continuing struggle for equality is reflected in two cases, one highlighting the National Women’s Conference of 1977, and the other, the 2017 National Women’s March. A case called “100 Years, 100 Women,” will highlight women serving in Congress in 2020 and includes House Speaker Nancy Pelosi’s gavel.

“This exhibition allows us to explore how dynamic and diverse stories come to light when we approach history with deep care and consideration, so that we can then lift up the icons who will inspire the current and next generation of women’s rights activists,” said Anthea M. Hartig, the Elizabeth MacMillan Director of the museum.

Following the passage of the 19th Amendment, NAWSA continued to add to the Smithsonian collection for the next 20 years. This included the writings of Anthony, Ida Husted Harper and Stanton. Contributions of African American, Native American, immigrant and working-class women were not preserved as thoroughly, and the exhibition will examine how some of these women were left out of the story. Visitors will be able to see African American educator Nannie Helen Burroughs’ bible and badge from the Women’s Convention Auxiliary to the National Baptist Convention.

In June 1919, Congress approved the 19th Amendment and sent it out to the states for ratification. When it became part of the Constitution in August of 1920, there were no women serving in the Congress. The first woman elected to the House was Jeannette Rankin, a Montana Republican, in 1916, but when she ran for the Senate in 1918, she lost the election. Today, there are 131 women members in the 116th Congress, which convened Jan. 3, 2019. The exhibition is aiming to represent each of them with a campaign pin or other election paraphernalia.

A torch, with a scroll containing a declaration composed by poet Maya Angelou, which was run from Seneca Falls to the Houston 1977 Women’s Conference, along with buttons, pamphlets and photos, represents women coming together more than 50 years after the 19th Amendment. Forty years later came the 2017 Women’s March. It is illustrated by protest signs and two knitted “pussy hats” worn by participants. An interactive will invite visitors to select icons of women’s history from a list of 36 women based on suggestion from visitors.

The museum’s permanent exhibition, “American Democracy: A Great Leap of Faith,” also tells the story of voting rights and includes a suffrage wagon used by Lucy Stone at speaking engagements and to distribute the Woman's Journal, among other suffrage related objects.

Women’s History Month programs at the museum in March include “Votes for Women,” in which visitors can join a Silent Sentinel Suffragist on her way to the 1917 White House protests, presented every Friday at noon, 1 p.m. and 2 p.m., and a March 27 “Cooking Up History” cooking demonstration based on cookbooks related to the suffrage movement, featuring Graddy and Bonnie Benwick, former deputy editor of the Washington Post’s Food section. The museum is planning to host monthly “Objects Out of Storage” events to further showcase the historic collections.

The exhibition is made possible by the generous support of Robert and Lynne Uhler Ted and Marian Craver Mrs. Kathleen Manatt and Michele A. Manatt Sandy, Cindy, Hayden, Thea, Sabrina and William Sigal the Smithsonian Women’s Committee Diane Spry Straker and Ambassador Nicholas F. Taubman and Mrs. Eugenia L. Taubman.

This exhibition is part of the Smithsonian American Women’s History Initiative, Because of Her Story, one of the country’s most ambitious undertakings to research, collect, document, display and share the complete and compelling story of women in America. Launched in 2018, the initiative seeks to create a more equitable and just American society by creating, educating, disseminating and amplifying the historical record of the accomplishments of American women. More information about the initiative, including exhibitions and public programs, is available online at womenshistory.si.edu. #BecauseOfHerStory

Through incomparable collections, rigorous research and dynamic public outreach, the National Museum of American History explores the infinite richness and complexity of American history. Located on Constitution Avenue N.W., between 12th and 14th streets, the museum is free and open daily from 10 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. (closed Dec. 25). For more information, visit http://americanhistory.si.edu. For Smithsonian information, the public may call (202) 633-1000. On social media, the museum can be found on Facebook at @americanhistory, and on Twitter and Instagram at @amhistorymuseum.

This gold pen was used to sign the congressional joint amendment which enacted the Nineteenth Amendment in 1919


What is Suffrage?

This year we mark the 100th anniversary of the woman suffrage amendment, and as it turns out, a lot of people don’t really know what “suffrage” means because it’s mostly fallen out of common usage. The term has nothing to do with suffering but instead derives from the Latin word “suffragium,” meaning the right or privilege to vote. In the United States, it is commonly associated with the 19th- and early 20th-century voting rights movements.

Petition for an amendment of the Constitution that prohibits the states from disfranchising any of citizens on the basis of sex, 1865. (National Archives Identifier 306684)

”Universal suffrage” was a term generally used to support the right to vote for all adults, regardless of race or gender. After 1870, when African American men secured the Federal right to vote with the 15th Amendment, the term “suffrage” became more commonly associated with the woman suffrage movement (ca. 1848–1920).

During the woman suffrage movement in the United States, “suffragists” were anyone—male or female—who supported extending the right to vote (suffrage) to women. Suffragists ran the gamut from those who simply advocated for women’s enfranchisement to those who actively engaged in efforts to convince state and Federal officials to give women the right to vote. In fact, many states allowed women to vote well before the Federal government did so in 1920.

Delegation of officers of the National American Woman Suffrage Association, 1917. (National Archives Identifier 533767)

There were also women who were called suffragettes. The term “suffragettes” originated in Great Britain to mock women fighting for the right to vote (women in Britain were struggling for the right to vote at the same time as those in the U.S.). Some women in Britain embraced the term as a way of appropriating it from its pejorative use.

This was less true in the United States, where the term suffragette was often seen offensive or derogatory. It was used to describe those who embraced more militant tactics rather than the more passive suffragists who relied on education and petitioning government officials.

Today, however, many use the term with pride to describe “unruly” women like National Women’s Party founders Alice Paul and Lucy Burns—who marched, picketed and protested, were arrested, and went on hunger strikes to fight for their right to vote.

Suffragettes bonfire and posters at the White House, Washington, DC, 1917. (National Archives Identifier 533773)

There were also “anti-suffragists” —those who opposed extending voting rights to women. Anti-suffragists were both men and women who put forth arguments against woman suffrage, such as that most women did not want to vote, or women didn’t have the time or the mental capacity to form political opinions, or that women voting would threaten the family institution or womanhood itself.

Passers-by looking at a window display at the headquarters of National Association Opposed to Woman Suffrage, ca. 1919. ( National Archives Identifier 7452466)

Ultimately, the pro-woman suffrage forces were successful when Congress passed the woman suffrage amendment on June 4, 1919, extending the vote to women in the U.S. It was ratified on August 18, 1920, becoming the 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.

The National Archives is celebrating the 100th anniversary of the 19th Amendment with the exhibit Rightfully Hers: American Women and the Vote , which runs in the Lawrence F. O’Brien Gallery of the National Archives in Washington, DC, from May 10, 2019, through January 3, 2021.


Izborno pravo za žene

"The new demand of women for political enfranchisement comes at a time when unsatisfactory and degraded social conditions are held responsible for so much wretchedness and when the fate of all the unfortunate, the suffering, and the criminal, is daily forced upon woman's attention in painful and intimate ways. At the same moment, governments all over the world are insisting that it is their function, and theirs alone, so to regulate social and industrial conditions that a desirable citizenship may be secured." Jane Addams, "The Larger Aspects of the Woman's Movement," November, 1914.

Suffrage was a battle for women long before Jane Addams, but Addams helped champion these efforts into the 20th century. While it took decades of struggle to achieve national suffrage, women were able to secure this right at local, county, and state levels across the country. In order to convince those who were against woman suffrage that it was necessary, one of the major arguments made by suffragists was how women could use the vote to help protect the private sphere. With the vote, women could influence politics in effort to protect children, health services, education, and other aspects related to what was considered a woman’s role in society.

In an effort to spread the spirit of civic duty and suffrage, Addams lectured at several colleges, including Mount Holyoke and Rockford College. College educated women were important to building the suffrage movement because their education gave them the respectability and authority to take a stance on topics like public service, education, and health services. College educated women were a voice of reason and respectability within their communities, so they had some power, even without the vote. In Addams’ opinion, it was especially important that working women gain the ballot because they lacked the power of college educated women. Working women deserved to have power over the conditions they lived in, the conditions they worked in, and the future that the country held for their children. Without the vote, working women lacked power in all of these areas.

Suffragists had different approaches to how they were going to get the vote, which lead to conflicts within the suffrage movement. The conflict would also affect Addams’ involvement with the Progressive Party. Some people, including NAWSA officers like Anna Howard Shaw, did not believe that Addams should support the Progressive Party because the suffrage plank was perceived as ingenuine. Within the press, Ida Hasted Harper was critical of the suffrage plank and believed that Addams and other Progressive supporters were “tricked into” supporting Roosevelt. Addams’ involvement with the Progressive Party was also an issue because she was breaking the long-standing tradition of non-partisan activism. As a supporter of the Progressive Party, Addams made campaign speeches, which often focused on the importance of the suffrage plank and the role women could play in the future. The Progressive Party claimed that it was the first party to include the suffrage plank, which the Socialist Party disputed. The Socialist Party had included a suffrage plank for several years and believed that reformers, like Addams, should support their party instead of the Progressive Party. By including suffrage in the Progressive Party platform, there was a national conservation on the topic and women hoped that a Progressive Party win would result in federal woman suffrage.


Civic Definitions- What is Suffrage - History

The Church of Universal Suffrage was founded in Nashville, Tennessee on June 1, 2020 during the COVID-19 Pandemic on the belief that all people are created equal and that they are all endowed by their Creator with the inalienable rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. The right to vote is a sacred extension of these rights, because voting is the primary right we use to protect all other rights. The violation of the right to vote through voter suppression is a sin, as is the violation of any sacred right. These beliefs have been around for centuries, but the idea to codify these beliefs into a religion was inspired by a discussion on Reddit about how Tennessee was one of several States forcing citizens to risk their health and lives in order to exercise their sacred right to vote by denying them the ability to safely vote by mail during the pandemic. Protecting the rights and well-being of our fellow people is essential to the pursuit of our own happiness.

We hold regular, weekly Sunday Service in meditation on the nature of voter suppression and we observe every voting day in the United States to be an official holiday reserved the celebration of our sacred right to vote. Providing assistance and resources to ease the suffering of anyone on the pilgrimage to perform the civic sacrament of voting is a holy ritual that we perform for people in need. Our Church also holds a religious objection against felony disenfranchisement and people having to being photographed in order to exercise their right to vote.

We never ask for or accept any donations, instead we ask that you donate to a local charity of your choice. The Church of Universal Suffrage is capable of existing and expanding simply through passionate members and ministers willing to volunteer.

The Church of Universal Suffrage practices freedom of conscience and belief among our members. Anyone of any other religion may join and all members are free to be members of other religions as well. Our Church also does not support any party or candidate and we do not have an official stance on any political issues or policies. We are a neutral institution and we ask all members to contact us immediately if a Minister ever tries to pressure them to vote a certain way. This is a form of voter suppression and we do not allow it, we only support everyone's freedom to make these decisions for themselves.

While many religions are concerned about the true nature of our Creator and what happens after we die, the Church of Universal Suffrage is solely dedicated to the promotion and protection of the sacred rights and equality all people are endowed with. It is useless for us to speculate about the true nature of our Creator and more sensible to confess our ignorance in a question that evidently exceeds human understanding.

The sacred rights we are all endowed with should never be used to violate the natural rights of others, to do so would be a sin. The right to freedom does not make one free to violate the freedom of others.

Voting should always be taken seriously, we consider the act of voting to be a civic sacrament and your first vote is a rite of passage. Your sacred rights should be celebrated and attempts to violate your rights should be studied and circumvented.

Natural human rights cannot be taken away, they can only be violated or suppressed. Governments do not grant Natural Rights to people, all people are naturally endowed with these rights, governments can only protect or violate these rights. Governments and politicians use voter suppression as a form of self-preservation. If voting didn't change anything, voter suppression wouldn't exist. When the people in power refuse this change, voter suppression occurs.

The Natural Human Rights of all people can be identified through natural human instinct and reason. Countless generations of people were told they didn’t deserve the rights to life, liberty, suffrage, or the pursuit of happiness, but natural instinct and reason compelled them to fight for these rights even in the face of imprisonment, torture, and death. No one should ever settle for anything less than the full equality and rights of all people.


Research Guides

Start your research on women's suffrage with this guide highlighting the Schlesinger Library's archival collections as well as periodicals, photographs, posters, and memorabilia. Some materials may also be available in digital format and links are included where available.

Use the navigation menu to view additional material related to this topic.

To learn more about suffrage at Radcliffe College, please see the Radcliffe College Suffrage research guide.

In the summer of 2020, supported by funding from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, the Schlesinger Library launched two new tools: the Long 19th Amendment Project Portal and the Suffrage School. The Portal is an open-access digital portal that facilitates interdisciplinary, transnational scholarship and innovative teaching around the history of gender and voting rights in the United States. The Suffrage School is a platform where a broad array of researchers, writers, and teachers have been invited to create a series of digital teaching modules. Each lesson in the Suffrage School connects in rich and unpredictable ways to the Library&rsquos Long 19th Amendment Project, which tackles the tangled history of gender and American citizenship.

Please Take Bilješka: Many of our collections are stored offsite and/or have access restrictions. Be sure to contact us in advance of your visit.


Pogledajte video: Издаване на български личен документ в чужбина