Taft i sjevernoamerička pitanja

Taft i sjevernoamerička pitanja


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

William Howard Taft suočio se s tri pitanja koja su se ticala Kanade i Sjedinjenih Država. Bio je uspešan u rešavanju dva od tri.

  • Kontroverza o pacifičkom foki. Konkurentni zahtjevi oko prava na lov na pelagične (morske) foke u Beringovom moru dugo su bili predmet spora između Kanade i SAD-a. Britanci su nastavili predstavljati Kanadu u vanjskim poslovima i riješili su to pitanje u razgovorima s Amerikancima, ali bezuspješno. James G. Blaine, državni sekretar pod vodstvom Benjamina Harrisona, bio je blizu postizanja rješenja, ali različite lovačke nacije nisu bile voljne ograničiti svoja prava na otvorenom moru. U vrijeme uprave Tafta postalo je očito da su stada u strmom opadanju, uglavnom zbog lova na sporije trudne ženke. Konferencija je sazvana u Washingtonu 1911. godine, okupivši predstavnike Rusije, Japana, Britanije i Sjedinjenih Država. Rani zastoj usporio je napredak, ali Taft se obratio direktno japanskom caru i vratio stvari na pravi put. Konvencijom o zaptivanju sjevernog Pacifika iz 1911. okončan je lov na pelagične foke. Sjedinjene Države su se složile nadoknaditi lovačkim nacijama dijeljenjem dijela svog prihoda od kontinuiranog ubijanja zemlje na ostrvima Pribilof. Zemlje sudionice poštovale su ovaj sporazum, a broj stada je u narednih 30 godina stalno rastao. Japan je odustao od konvencije 1941. godine, navodeći kao razlog veliku štetu nanesenu tuljanima ribolovu tog područja.
  • Sjevernoatlantsko pitanje ribarstva. Pravo na ribolov u vodama Grand Banka bio je još jedan stalni problem između Kanade i Sjedinjenih Država. Korijeni spora sežu u kolonijalna vremena, ali početkom 20. stoljeća novofandlandski ribari bili su duboko zabrinuti zbog sve veće veličine američke flote, posebno zbog masovnog prisustva Massachusettsa. Napori između britanskih i američkih diplomata u početku nisu dali ništa, osim Elihu Root, kao jedno od njegovih posljednjih djela prije nego što je napustio dužnost početkom 1909. godine, obećao je Sjedinjenim Državama da će stvar predati Haškom tribunalu. U jesen 1910. donesena je odluka koja je u osnovi podržala britanski stav. Kasnije, 1912. godine, Britanija i Sjedinjene Države potpisale su sporazum kojim je ozvaničena odluka Tribunala. Od veće važnosti u ovom sporazumu bila je zajednička odluka o održavanju stalnog vijeća koje će rješavati buduće sporove kako su nastali, a ne dopustiti da se pitanja gomilaju godinama.
  • Uzajamnost sa Kanadom. Donošenje Payne-Aldrich tarife 1909. povećalo je trvenja između Kanade i Sjedinjenih Država. Njih dvojica su u prošlosti uspješno pregovarali o recipročnim trgovinskim sporazumima, ali nijedan nije postojao u vrijeme administracije Tafta. Trgovinski razgovori dali su sporazum kojim su snižene carine na mnoge stavke, a ostale stavljene na slobodnu listu. Zapadni poljoprivrednici bili su zadovoljni sporazumom i očekivali su povećanje tržišta za svoje proizvode. Međutim, politička nesposobnost pokvarila je dan. Nekoliko američkih političara dalo je bezosjećajne primjedbe o odnosu SAD -a s Kanadom. Predsjedavajući Predstavničkog doma Champ Clark nije mudro izrazio nadu da će jednog dana američka zastava zavijoriti cijelu Sjevernu Ameriku. Kanađani su se širili; ugovor je čvrsto poražen, a pregovaračka strana, liberali, izglasana je s dužnosti na sljedećim izborima.

William Howard Taft

Nakon što je diplomirao (1878) na Yaleu, pohađao je Pravni fakultet u Cincinnatiju. Diplomirao je pravo 1880. godine. Postao je advokat u Cincinnatiju i ubrzo je dobio politička mjesta kao pomoćnik tužioca za Hamilton co. (1881 󈞿), pomoćnik okružnog advokata (1885 󈟃) i sudija višeg suda u Ohaju (1887 󈟆). Nacionalno se istaknuo kao ličnost u republikanskoj politici 1890. godine, kada je predsjednik Benjamin Harrison Harrison, Benjamin,
1833 �, 23. predsjednik Sjedinjenih Država (1889 󈟉), r. North Bend, Ohio, grad. Miami Univ. (Ohio), 1852 unuk Williama Henryja Harrisona.
. Kliknite na vezu za više informacija. izabrao ga za generalnog tužioca SAD -a.

Nakon što je služio kao savezni okružni sudija (1892 �) i kao dekan pravnog fakulteta u Cincinnatiju (1898 �), imenovan je (1900) na čelo komisije poslane za organizaciju civilne uprave na Filipinima, i imenovan je prvim civilni guverner Filipinskih ostrva učinio je mnogo na poboljšanju odnosa između Filipinaca i Amerikanaca. Njegov prijatelj predsjednik Theodore Roosevelt 1904. godine Roosevelt, Theodore,
1858 �, 26. predsjednik Sjedinjenih Država (1901 𔃇), rođ. New York City. Rani život i političke objave

Od prosperitetne i ugledne porodice, Theodore Roosevelt obrazovan je od privatnih učitelja i mnogo je putovao.
. Kliknite na vezu za više informacija. imenovan Taft -ovim ratnim sekretarom. Taft je postao bliski predsjednikov savjetnik i bio je istaknut u latinoameričkim poslovima, vodeći delikatne pregovore prisustvujući američkoj intervenciji na Kubi 1906.

Predsjedništvo

Roosevelt je izabrao Tafta za svog nasljednika, a Republikanska stranka ga je imenovala za predsjedničkog kandidata na izborima 1908., na kojima je pobijedio Williama Jenningsa Bryana Bryan, William Jennings
, 1860 �, američki politički lider, rođ. Salem, IL
. Kliknite na vezu za više informacija. . Očekivalo se da će nastaviti Rooseveltovu politiku, što je u velikoj mjeri i činio. Trustovi su energično procesuirani u skladu sa Shermanovim zakonom o zaštiti konkurencije Shermanov antimonopolski zakon,
1890, prva mjera koju je američki Kongres usvojio za zabranu trustova nazvana je po senatoru Johnu Shermanu. Prije donošenja, različite su države donijele slične zakone, ali su bile ograničene na unutardržavna preduzeća.
. Kliknite na vezu za više informacija. međudržavna trgovačka komisija ojačana je Mann-Elkinsovim aktom (1910), a Taftova latinoamerička politika, poznata kao "dolarska diplomatija", bila je u određenoj mjeri samo proširenje Rooseveltove panamske politike i Rooseveltove posljedice na Monroevu doktrinu Monroova doktrina,
princip američke vanjske politike izražen u poruci predsjednika Jamesa Monroea Kongresu, 2. prosinca 1823. U početku je tražio prekid europske intervencije u Americi, ali je kasnije proširen kako bi opravdao SAD
. Kliknite na vezu za više informacija. . Naglasak u svim tim politikama se, međutim, promijenio. U Latinskoj Americi, na primjer, naglasak je bio na zaštiti imovine i interesa Amerikanaca u inozemstvu, a ne na nacionalnom interesu. Pripadnici Republikanske stranke koji su zagovarali progresivnu politiku bili su sve uzdržaniji, a ustanici Ustanici,
u istoriji SAD-a, republikanski senatori i zastupnici koji su se 1909. 󈝶 ustali protiv republikanskih kandidata koji kontrolišu Kongres, da se usprotive tarifi Payne-Aldrich i diktatorskoj moći predsjednika parlamenta Josepha G. Cannona.
. Kliknite na vezu za više informacija. pokret je postao snažan.

Uprava je postigla pozitivne uspjehe u otvaranju poštanske štedionice (1910) i sistema paketa (1912), te stvaranju Odjela za rad (1911). Ipak, Taft je općenito bio u suprotnosti s progresivnim elementima u svojoj stranci: nije uspio podržati pokušaj pobunjenika da smijene diktatorskog predsjednika Zastupničkog doma Josepha Cannona Cannon, Joseph Gurney,
1836 �, predsjedavajući Predstavničkog doma SAD -a (1903 󈝷), b. Guilford co., N.C. Advokat u Illinoisu, Cannon je bio republikanac u Kongresu od 1873. do 1923. godine, osim 1891. 󈟉 i 1913 󈝻, kada je prvi put
. Kliknite na vezu za više informacija. on se zalagao za Payne-Aldrich tarifu Payne-Aldrich tarifni zakon,
1909. usvojio Kongres SAD -a. To je bila prva promjena tarifnih zakona od Dingley Act -a iz 1897. godine, predsjednik Theodore Roosevelt je ignorisao ovo pitanje.
. Kliknite na vezu za više informacija. , visoko tarifnu mjeru koju su progresivni republikanci osudili i podržao Richarda Ballingera Ballinger, Richard Achilles
, 1858 �, američki ministar unutrašnjih poslova (1909 󈝷), rođ. Boonesboro (sada u Booneu), Iowa. Bio je gradonačelnik Seattlea (1904 𔃄) i komesar Generalnog ureda za zemljište (1907 𔃇) 1909, Taft ga je imenovao sekretarom
. Kliknite na vezu za više informacija. protiv Gifforda Pinchota Pinchot, Gifford
, 1865 �, američki šumar i javni funkcioner, b. Simsbury, Conn. Studirao je šumarstvo u Europi, a zatim se (1892) uputio u sistematski rad u šumarstvu na imanju Vanderbilt u Sjevernoj Karolini.
. Kliknite na vezu za više informacija. u kontroverzi Ballinger-Pinchot.

U međuvremenu su se Taftovi odnosi s Rooseveltom pogoršali, a bivši predsjednik pridružio se opoziciji Taftu. Ruzvelt se 1912. energično borio za republikansku predsjedničku nominaciju. Kad nije uspio i Taft je dobio nominaciju, Roosevelt je bio na čelu stranke Progressive Progresivna stranka,
u istoriji SAD -a, naziv tri političke organizacije, aktivne na predsjedničkim izborima 1912, 1924 i 1948. Izbori 1912
. Kliknite na vezu za više informacija. i na izborima se kandidovao kao kandidat naprednjaka (popularno nazvan Bull Moose). Republikanski glasovi su podijeljeni, a demokratski kandidat Woodrow Wilson Wilson, Woodrow
(Thomas Woodrow Wilson), 1856 �, 28. predsjednik Sjedinjenih Država (1913 󈞁), rođ. Staunton, Va. Educator

Diplomirao je na Princetonu 1879. i studirao pravo na Univerzitetu. Virginia.
. Kliknite na vezu za više informacija. , osvojio.

Kasniji život

Taft se povukao iz javnog života i predavao pravo (1912 󈞁) na Yaleu. Bio je supredsjedavajući (1918. i#821119) Konferencije ratnih radnika u Prvom svjetskom ratu. Godine 1921. predsjednik Harding imenovao ga je vrhovnim sudijom. Njegov glavni doprinos Vrhovnom sudu bila je njegova administrativna efikasnost.

Bibliografija

Taftovi spisi uključuju Sjedinjene Države i mir (1914) i Naš glavni sudija i njegove ovlasti (1916). Vidi Taft i Roosevelt: Intimna pisma Archieja Butta (1930, repr. 1971) biografije H. F. Pringlea (1939, repr. 1964, 2 vol. 1986), J. I. Andersona (1981) i J. C. Casey (1989) A. T. Mason, William Howard Taft, glavni sudac (1965.) P. E. Coletta, Predsjedništvo Williama Howarda Tafta (1973) D. K. Goodwin, Nasilnička propovjedaonica: Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft i zlatno doba novinarstva (2013).


Robert A. Taft

Naši urednici će pregledati ono što ste podnijeli i odlučiti hoćete li izmijeniti članak.

Robert A. Taft, u cijelosti Robert Alphonso Taft, (rođen 8. septembra 1889, Cincinnati, Ohio, SAD - umro 31. jula 1953., New York, NY), republikanski vođa u američkom Senatu 14 godina (1939–53) čiji je zagovornik tradicionalnog konzervativizma osvojio trezvenost "Gospodin. Republikanac ”, njegov neuspjeh da dobije predsjedničku nominaciju 1948. i 1952. godine bio je pokazatelj poraza izolacionizma od strane internacionalističkog krila stranke.

Sin Williama Howarda Tafta, 27. predsjednika Sjedinjenih Država (1909-13), Taft je primljen u bar u Ohiju 1913. Specijaliziran za povjerenje i komunalne slučajeve, postao je i direktor nekoliko uspješnih preduzeća. Tokom Prvog svjetskog rata bio je pomoćnik savjetnika američke Uprave za hranu (1917–18) i savjetnik američke uprave za pomoć (1919). Zatim je služio u Predstavničkom domu Ohaja (1921–26) i u Senatu države (1931–32).

Izabran u američki Senat 1938. godine, Taft se ubrzo uspostavio kao snažan utjecaj u Washingtonu DC, osuđujući „socijalističke trendove“ New Deala i pozivajući na ekonomiju u vladi, uravnotežen budžet i manju centralizaciju moći u glavnom gradu zemlje . Prije japanskog napada na Pearl Harbor (prosinac 1941.), poslije je bio izraziti anti-intervencionist, bacio je svoju težinu na ratne napore, ali je često bio kritičan prema ratnoj politici predsjednika Franklina D. Roosevelta.

Izborom republikanske većine u Kongres 1946. godine, Taft je ušao u novu fazu moći i prestiža. Bio je neumoran kao predsjednik Odbora za politiku republičkog Senata i bio je dobro informiran o čitavom nizu zakona pred Kongresom. Njegovo najznačajnije postignuće bilo je donošenje Taft-Hartley Zakona o radnim odnosima (1947), koji je postavio ograničenja na organizirani rad i, prema mišljenju njegovih sponzora, nastojao uravnotežiti pregovaračka prava menadžmenta i rada. Iako je sponzorisao modifikovane mjere socijalne zaštite u stanovanju, zdravstvu i obrazovanju, nastavio se protiviti centralizaciji vlasti u saveznoj vladi.


William Taft: Kampanje i izbori

Nakon pobjede na izborima 1904. godine, Theodore Roosevelt je javno obećao da više neće tražiti mjesto predsjednika 1908. Iako je kasnije požalio zbog te odluke, osjećao se vezanim za nju i energično promovirao Williama Howarda Tafta kao svog nasljednika. I Nellie Taft i Roosevelt morali su nagovoriti Taft da se utrkuje. Čak i s predsjedništvom koje mu je bilo na raspolaganju, Taft je mnogo više volio imenovanje vrhovnog suda Vrhovnog suda SAD -a.

Općenito se očekivalo da će Taft biti Rooseveltov čovjek u Bijeloj kući, a sam Taft je obećao da će nastaviti Rooseveltovu progresivnu politiku. Ipak, do posljednje minute prije nominacije Taft na konvenciji Republikanske stranke u Chicagu, Nellie Taft se bojala da bi Roosevelt mogao objaviti svoju kandidaturu za drugi izabrani mandat. Skoro se to dogodilo drugog dana konvencije, kada su spontane i divlje demonstracije proizvele četrdesetdevetominutni stampedo za Roosevelta-najdugovječniju demonstraciju koja se ikada dogodila na nacionalnoj političkoj konvenciji. Tek kada je Roosevelt preko senatora Henryja Cabota Lodgea javio da nije dostupan, konvencija je nominirala Tafta na prvom glasanju. Konačno prebrojavanje dalo je Taftu 702 glasa (potreban je 491 glas za pobjedu) u polju od sedam nominovanih. Demokrate su još jednom nominirale Williama Jenningsa Bryana, dvostruko poraženog kandidata koji je i dalje personificirao populističku politiku Demokratske stranke i moralni žar njenog "srebrnog" krila.

Na Nelin nagovor, Taft je najavio da namjerava smršavjeti 30 funti sa svojih 300 funti plus težine za predstojeću borbu u kampanji. Povukao se na golf teren u odmaralištu u Hot Springsu u Virdžiniji, gde je boravio veći deo naredna tri meseca. Kada je započela njegova kampanja, u velikoj mjeri je ovisila o Rooseveltu u govoru, savjetima i energiji. Novinari su bombardovali javnost šalama o tome da je Taft zamjena za Roosevelta. Jedan kolumnista objasnio je da je T.A.F.T. označavalo je "Uzmi savjet od Teodora". Ništa nije moglo sakriti Taftovu nesklonost prema kampanji i politici. Njegovi voditelji pokušali su pretvoriti njegov trom stil u pozitivnu prednost opisujući Tafta kao novu vrstu političara - onoga koji odbija reći bilo šta negativno o svom protivniku. Za većinu birača, međutim, bilo je dovoljno što se Taft obavezao da će nastaviti s Ruzveltovom politikom. Njegova pobjeda bila je ogromna. Nosio je sve države osim tri izvan Demokratskog čvrstog juga i osvojio 321 izborni glas prema Bryanovih 162. U konačnom zbroju glasova za narod, Taft je osvojio 7.675.320 (51,6 posto) naspram Bryanovih 6.412.294 (43,1 posto). Kandidat socijalista Eugene V. Debs osvojio je samo 2,8 posto glasova, odnosno 420.793.

Kampanja i izbori 1912

Nakon četiri godine provedene u Bijeloj kući, Taft je pristao da se kandiduje za drugi mandat, prije svega zato što se osjećao primoranim da se brani od Rooseveltovih napada na njega kao izdajnika reformi. Bivši prijatelji i saveznici postali su ogorčeni protivnici. Roosevelt je Tafta smatrao iznevjerenim obećanja da će unaprijediti Rooseveltov plan. Bio je posebno ogorčen zbog Taftove antimonopolske politike koja je za cilj imala jedno od Rooseveltovih lično odobrenih "dobrih povjerenja", US Steel. Bivši predsjednik također se osjećao lično iznevjerenim zbog Taftovog otpuštanja Gifforda Pinchota, šefa američke šumske službe i Rooseveltovog starog prijatelja i saveznika u politici očuvanja. Siguran da će Taft 1912. sa sobom povući stranku, Roosevelt je bio odlučan u namjeri da ga zamijeni kao republikanskog kandidata 1912. godine.

Nakon povratka u Ameriku 1910. sa safarija za lov na divljač u Africi i europske turneje, Roosevelt je počeo kritički kritizirati Tafta u govorima koji su skicirali njegovu politiku "novog nacionalizma". Zalagao se za uklanjanje posebnih interesa iz politike, direktne izbore i diplomirao porez na prihod i nasljedstvo. Rooseveltova platforma također se zalagala za reviziju tarifnog rasporeda prema dolje, otvoreno objavljivanje korporativnih poslovnih praksi i odluka, te zakona koji zabranjuju korištenje korporativnih sredstava u politici. Osim toga, podržao je proces inicijative i referenduma, kao i očuvanje i korištenje nacionalnih resursa u korist svih ljudi. Za razliku od onoga što će postati politička agenda Woodrow Wilsona 1912. godine, Novi nacionalizam je obećavao aktivni nadzor vlade i regulaciju gigantskih korporacija umjesto njihovog raspada. Monopoli bi radili u javnom interesu, a ne samo u interesu svojih dioničara. Taft je smatrao Rooseveltove ideje beznadežno radikalnima i slušao je njegove konzervativne pristalice - a posebno njegovu suprugu - koji su ocrnjivali Roosevelta kao čovjeka koji želi uništiti naciju i predsjednika.

Godinu dana prije republikanske konvencije, Roosevelt je nemilosrdno i u svakoj prilici napao Tafta. Nekoliko država je uspostavilo direktne predizbore, što je omogućilo ljudima da glasaju o svom mišljenju na glasačkom listiću za kandidate stranke (iako će u većini tih država delegate konvencije i dalje birati vođe stranaka). Do 1912. godine trinaest država imalo je primarne zakone: Južna Dakota, Wisconsin, Maryland, Massachusetts, Nebraska, New Jersey, North Dakota, Oregon, Illinois, California, Pennsylvania, Illinois i Ohio. Rooseveltov napad bez zabrane na Tafta konačno je doživio bolnu tačku kada je bivši predsjednik govorio u prilog popularnog opoziva sudija i sudskih odluka o ustavnim pitanjima. Taft je odgovorio u govoru 25. aprila 1912, izjavljujući da će Ruzveltova pobjeda uvesti vladavinu terora sličnu onoj nakon Francuske revolucije. Nakon toga, borba je postala besplatna za sve, a Taft je stalno uzvraćao udarac Rooseveltu. Rezultirajuća kampanja za osvajanje republikanske nominacije bila je prva u kojoj je sadašnji predsjednik vodio kampanju na državnim izborima.

Primarni izbori pokazali su da je Roosevelt jasan izbor ljudi. Senator Robert LaFollette osvojio je Sjevernu Dakotu i Wisconsin, dok je Taft nosio New York. Roosevelt je, međutim, nosio sve ostale predizbore. Kada je konvencija otvorena u Čikagu 7. juna, Roosevelt je dao 271 delegata u zalog u odnosu na Taftovih 71 - samo 80 glasova manjka od većine. Tada je nastupila Taftova glavna prednost kao predsjednik: njegova kontrola saveznog pokroviteljstva. Zbog toga je uspio zadržati delegate iz južnih država. Osim toga, on je kontrolirao Republički nacionalni komitet, koji je odlučivao o svim izazovima delegata sa predizbora. Većina država poslala je dva skupa delegata na konvenciju, a Republički nacionalni komitet-u kojem dominiraju republikanci Taft-sjedio je sve osim nekoliko delegata obećanih Taftom. Slijedila su tri dana zabune na kongresu. Šefovi stranke predali su nominaciju Taftu sa 561 glasom prema Rooseveltovih 187. Četrdeset jedan glas delegata je dat za senatora LaFollettea.

Izgubivši nominaciju, Roosevelt je izveo svoje sljedbenike iz konvencije i osnovao naprednu stranku. Brzo je dobio nadimak Bull Moose Party, u čast Rooseveltovog poređenja sebe sa bijesnim bikom losom spremnim za borbu. Nova stranka nominirala je Roosevelta za svog predsjedničkog kandidata 6. augusta u čikaškom Koloseumu. Progresivni guverner Kalifornije, Hiram Johnson, izabran je za Rooseveltovog druga.

Osetivši pobedu zbog republikanskog bratoubistva, demokrate su, skoro u delirijumu od poverenja u nerede u Republikanskoj stranci, nominovale Woodrow Wilsona, progresivnog guvernera New Jerseya, na četrdeset trećem glasanju na njihovoj konvenciji u Baltimoru. Guvernera Indiane Thomasa Marshalla označili su za svog druga. U kampanji koja je uslijedila, Taft je postao konzervativniji boreći se protiv dva izazivača, oba identifikovana kao napredna. Suočen sa oštrim kritikama izazivača, Taft je imao tendenciju da se povuče do golf veza gdje se skrivao daleko od javnosti. Shvativši da je Taft u suštini odustao od borbe, Roosevelt i Wilson su to objavili u popularnim medijima. Wilson je predstavio svoje ideje "Nove slobode", koje su bile slične Rooseveltovom "Novom nacionalizmu", osim što se Wilson zalagao za uklanjanje svih divovskih monopola. Roosevelt je posjetio trideset četiri države i osvojio značajne simpatije javnosti bravuroznim činom nakon napada ubice u Milwaukeeju. Nakon što je pogođen u grudi, zdravi "bik los" preživio je kako bi nastupio zakazano za kampanju. Metak mu je ušao u grudi, ali ga je govor od pedeset stranica u Rooseveltovom džepu ogrtača odvratio od njegove pune snage.

Na dan izbora, Wilson je odlučno pobijedio podijeljene republikance na izbornom koledžu. Taft je nosio samo dvije manje države, Utah i Vermont. Wilson je prikupio 435 elektorskih glasova na 88 za Roosevelta i 8 za Tafta. Sudeći prema izbornim rezultatima, da su republikanci ujedinjeni iza Roosevelta, on bi vjerovatno pobijedio na izborima s obzirom na činjenicu da su Taft i Roosevelt osvojili veći zajednički glas od Wilsona. Štaviše, kada se glasovi Roosevelta, Wilsona i Debsa spoje, izbori 1912. predstavljaju zapanjujuću pobjedu progresivizma ili reformi na nacionalnom nivou. Taftova politika je odlučno odbačena do kraja njegovog mandata.


Sadržaj

Sporazum Taft – Katsura sastoji se od engleske i japanske verzije bilješki sa sastanka razgovora između japanskog premijera Katsure i američkog ratnog sekretara Tafta održanog u Tokiju ujutro 27. jula 1905. Memorandum koji detaljno opisuje ove razgovore datiran je 29. jula 1905.

Tokom sastanka razgovarano je o tri značajna pitanja:

  • Katsurini stavovi o miru u istočnoj Aziji formirali su, prema njegovim riječima, temeljni princip japanske vanjske politike i najbolje su postignuti dobrim razumijevanjem u Japanu, Sjedinjenim Državama i Velikoj Britaniji.
  • Na Filipinima, Taft je primijetio da je u najboljem interesu Japana da Filipinima upravlja jaka i prijateljska nacija poput Sjedinjenih Država. Katsura je tvrdila da Japan nije imao agresivan dizajn na Filipinima.
  • Što se tiče Koreje, Katsura je primijetio da je japanska kolonizacija Koreje pitanje od apsolutne važnosti, jer je smatrao da je Koreja direktni uzrok nedavno završenog rusko-japanskog rata. Katsura je izjavila da bi sveobuhvatno rješenje korejskog problema bio logičan ishod rata. Katsura je dalje izjavio da će Koreja, ako se ostavi na miru, nastaviti da se pridružuje neuobičajenim sporazumima i ugovorima sa drugim silama, za koje je rekao da su stvorili izvorni problem. Stoga je izjavio da Japan mora poduzeti korake kako bi spriječio Koreju da ponovo stvori uslove koji bi natjerali Japan da se bori protiv drugog stranog rata.

Taft se složio da bi uspostavljanje japanskog protektorata nad Korejom direktno doprinijelo stabilnosti u istočnoj Aziji. Taft je također izrazio uvjerenje da će se američki predsjednik Theodore Roosevelt složiti s njegovim stavovima u tom pogledu.

U razgovoru su postojala tri bitna područja razumijevanja. Prvo je Taft rekao Katsuri da neki pristalice Rusa u Americi javno tvrde da je nedavni rat uvod u izvjesnu agresiju Japana na Filipinska ostrva. Taft je izjavio da bi jedini interes Japana na Filipinima bio da ostrvima upravlja jaka i prijateljska nacija poput Sjedinjenih Država. Grof Katsura je snažno potvrdio da je to jedini interes Japana na Filipinima, a budući da je to već bio slučaj, Japan nije imao agresivan interes prema Filipinima. [3] Drugo, grof Katsura je izjavio da je japanska politika u istočnoj i jugoistočnoj Aziji održavanje općeg mira, što bi trebalo postići dobrim razumijevanjem između Japana, Sjedinjenih Država i Velike Britanije. [3]

Treće, grof Katsura je izjavio da je Korejska autonomija rezultirala neopisivim sklapanjem sporazuma i ugovora s drugim silama, što je bio uzrok međunarodnih komplikacija koje su dovele do rata između Japana i Rusije. Japan se, stoga, osjećao ograničenim da isključi svaku mogućnost korejske autonomije. Taft je izjavio da je uspostava suvereniteta Japana nad Korejom (manje moćna Koreja koja odaje počast moćnom Japanu ili je donekle kontrolira), s tim da japanske vojne trupe nameću Koreji zahtjev da ne sklapa strane ugovore bez pristanka Japan je bio logičan rezultat rata i doprinio bi trajnom miru na istoku. Taft je također izjavio da je njegovo mišljenje njegovo, ali da vjeruje da će se Roosevelt složiti s tim. [3]

Iako nikada nije postojao potpisan sporazum ili tajni ugovor, samo memorandum o razgovoru, a razgovori su držani u tajnosti 20 godina, Roosevelt je Taftu prokomentirao: "Vaš razgovor s grofom Kacurom (sic) apsolutno je ispravan u svakom pogledu. sic) da biste izjavili Katsuri da potvrđujem svaku vašu riječ. " [2] [3]

Međutim, među povjesničarima postoje kontroverze oko historijskog značaja razgovora i o tome da li je jezik razgovora predstavljao stvarni dogovor u Realpolitiku (stvarni dogovor podrazumijevao se upotrebom jezika diplomatije, iako nije eksplicitno eksplicitno izrečen) kao formalni sporazum). [1]

Bilješke iz razgovora otkrio je 1924. povjesničar Tyler Dennett [1], koji je smatrao da su bilješke od prvorazrednog značaja i zatražio dozvolu za objavljivanje od državnog sekretara Charlesa Evansa Hughesa. Dennett je bilješke nazvao "Tajnim paktom predsjednika Roosevelta s Japanom".

Japanci su upravo uništili dvije trećine ruske pomorske flote tokom njihovog rata nad Korejom 1905. Pobjeda Japana bila je očigledna. [1] Roosevelt je pokušavao dovesti Rusiju i Japan na mirovne pregovore. [1]

Sjedinjene Države su preuzele kontrolu nad Filipinima iz rata protiv Španije 1898. Ratni sekretar Taft svratio je u Japan na putu za Filipine. [1]

Korejski istoričari (kao što je Ki-baik Lee, autor knjige Nova istorija Koreje, (Harvard U. Press, 1984.) vjeruju da je Sporazum Taft – Katsura prekršio Korejsko -američki sporazum o prijateljstvu i trgovini potpisan u Incheonu 22. maja 1882. jer je Joseonova vlada smatrala da je ugovor de facto sporazum o međusobnoj odbrani, za razliku od Amerikanaca. Problem je bio član 1: "Postojat će vječni mir i prijateljstvo između predsjednika Sjedinjenih Država i kralja izabranog i građana i podanika njihovih vlada. Ako se druga ovlaštenja nepravedno ili ugnjetavaju sa bilo kojom vladom, druga će nastoje da budu dobro obaviješteni o slučaju kako bi postigli sporazumni sporazum, pokazujući tako svoja prijateljska osjećanja. "

Sporazum su u Koreji neki naveli kao primjer da se Sjedinjenim Državama ne može vjerovati u pogledu pitanja korejske sigurnosti i suvereniteta. [5]


Pitanja za pregled

Zašto su se neke centralnoameričke nacije protivile tome da Taft otplati svoj dug Evropi američkim dolarima?

  1. jer američka valuta nije vrijedila koliko lokalne valute
  2. jer su smatrali da to daje Sjedinjenim Državama previše utjecaja
  3. jer su bili primorani da zauzvrat daju zemljišne potpore Sjedinjenim Državama
  4. jer su htjeli da azijske zemlje umjesto toga otplate svoje dugove

Koje su dvije zemlje bile uključene u pregovore koje Lodge Corollary nije dopuštao?

  1. Meksiko i Japan
  2. Nikaragvi i Francuskoj
  3. Kolumbija i Japan
  4. Meksiko i Španija

Koje je probleme Taftova vanjska politika stvorila Sjedinjenim Državama?

Taftova politika stvorila je neke probleme koji su bili neposredni, i druge koji će uroditi plodom tek desetljećima kasnije. Ogromni dugovi u Centralnoj Americi stvorili su godine ekonomske nestabilnosti i potaknuli nacionalističke pokrete vođene ogorčenjem zbog američkog uplitanja u region. U Aziji su Taftovi napori u posredovanju Kine i Japana povećali tenzije između Japana i Sjedinjenih Država-tenzije koje će na kraju eksplodirati s izbijanjem Drugog svjetskog rata-i potaknule Japan da konsolidira svoju moć u cijeloj regiji.


Novi vođa: Paul Fessenden Cruikshank, 1936. i ndash1963

U februaru sljedeće godine, odbor za pretraživanje imenovao je Paul Fessenden Cruikshank za nasljednika gospodina Tafta. Cruikshank je izgledao savršeno u skladu: Blair akademija i diplomirani student Yalea koji je diplomirao pravo i historiju, bivši učitelj i trener u Hopkins gimnaziji u New Haven -u i na Topnici, te osnivač škole Romford u obližnjem Washingtonu, Connecticut. U ljeto 1936. Paul i Edith Fitch Cruikshank i njihovo četvero djece preselili su se u prostorije ravnatelja škole u Horace Dutton Taft Hall.

Horace Taft se ljupko & označio samim citatom i odveo u Kaliforniju tokom prve godine svog penzionisanja. Po povratku u Watertown, novi direktor škole Taft pozvao je Horacea da preuzme aktivnu ulogu u životu škole. Osim što je držao svoje omiljene časove civilne vlade, Horace Taft je tjedno govorio na Večernji i u svojoj kući priređivao nedjeljne večere za starije osobe. Cruikshank je kasnije napisao: & quotZakle god da je bio u školi i aktivan kakav je bio u njenom životu, nikada mi nije ponudio besplatan savjet. & Quot

Dok je bio strog i ozbiljan šef škole poznat po svom nemilosrdnom isticanju moralnih standarda, poštivanju autoriteta i svom poznatom insistiranju na sivim bočicama i vrhovima krila nad kakijima i mokasinama, Cruikshank je duboko vjerovao u sposobnost višeg razreda da se & quot; regulira & quot; kako bi pronašao vlastitu ravnotežu između posla i igre. Nove privilegije proširene su na starije osobe i one koji su bili srednji, čak i kad je život bio strogo regulisan, sa tri obavezna obroka svaki dan, svakodnevnom večernjom i crkvom nedjeljom.

Cruikshankovo ​​veliko naslijeđe bilo je proširenje nastavnog plana i programa i povećanje akademskih standarda na Taftu. Dok je upis studenata ostao stabilan na 345 dječaka između 1930. i 1960. godine, fakultet je porastao za 50 posto, a izbor predmeta za 200 posto, uključujući uvođenje kurseva za napredno zapošljavanje. Godine 1961. Cruikshank je zaposlio 20-godišnju učiteljicu po imenu Lance Odden. Tek što je došao sa Prinstona, Odden je počeo da nudi kurs istorije Dalekog istoka, a ubrzo su usledili i kursevi azijskih studija.

Tokom 1940 -ih i ranih 3950 -ih također se povećao broj studentskih klubova, djelomično zahvaljujući ratnom napretku tehnologije i vještina. Chemistry, navigation, radio, ski, and outing clubs were founded, while established clubs flourished, including the Triangular Cup debate competitions against arch-rivals Choate and Hotchkiss, as well as other New England Prep School teams.

One of the most exciting and enterprising events of the time took place during the 1949&ndash1950 school year, when hockey coach and math teacher Len Sargent decided to build an artificial ice rink for Taft. After traveling the country on a fundraising trip that summer, he returned to Watertown and mobilized students and faculty to construct the first such facility in the independent-school world, a project that took more than 3,000 hours. After the structure was given a roof, the resulting quantum leap in practice time helped to ensure Taft&rsquos dominance in the prep school ice hockey league for the next decade.

There were many other additions and improvements to the school during the Cruikshank years, including the purchase of faculty houses, construction of a then state-of-the-art science center in 1960, a language lab, the &ldquonew gym,&rdquo and the interior rehabilitation of several of the main buildings.

The boys universally regarded Edith Cruikshank as a gracious, maternal figure. She was known for her tea and cinnamon toast gatherings in the Head of School&rsquos quarters, and appreciated particularly for her special efforts to study the photo and file of each new boy before he arrived on campus in the fall, so she would know every student&rsquos name and something about their background. Her kindliness may have been most appreciated by the youngest members of the community, the eighth graders, until the level was phased out in 1958. As with all head of school&rsquo wives, Mrs. Cruikshank&rsquos job included hosting visiting parents, dignitaries, and athletic teams, and accompanying her husband on frequent school-related travels.


Taft and North American Affairs - History

Robert Taft: Preserving the United States’ Traditional Policy of Neutrality

The progressive threat of Soviet Communism struck fear into the hearts of many people and g overnments during the Cold War. In a collective effort to ensure the safety and security of their peoples, twelve nations from Europe and North America met in Washington, DC on April 4, 1949 to sign the North Atlantic Treaty, “the first peacetime military alliance ever concluded by the United States” (50th Anniversary of the North Atlantic Treaty). In keeping with his inherent moral and political beliefs, Robert Alphonso Taft cast his vote against the North Atlantic Treaty, reaffirming to many the perception that Taft should be identified as an isolationist and to others the notion that he should be revered as one of the most politically courageous politicians of his era.

Taft’s unprecedented vote against ratification appears inevitable when reviewing his past. The son of a president and a Supreme Court justice, Taft was born into politics. While working for the United States’ Food Administration during the First World War, he was sent to Paris to distribute aid to war-stricken Europe, unveiling the horrors of war to the aspiring politician and, perhaps, shaping his views on foreign intervention (Robert A. Taft: More than ‘Mr. Republican’). After his involvement in the War, Taft was elected to the Ohio state legislature where he made a name for himself by opposing Prohibition and denouncing the Ku Klux Klan. In 1938, Robert Taft defeated Robert Bulkley to earn his seat on the United States’ Senate. Taft, again, established himself as a staunch conservative, speaking vehemently against the foreign policy of the Roosevelt administration. By the time the North Atlantic Treaty passed through the Senate chamber, the discontent between the United States and the Soviet Union was enough of a reason to dissolve any party lines to allow universal approval of a treaty that was directly focused on the “development of peaceful and friendly international relations” (The North Atlantic Treaty). However, Robert Taft did not see the North Atlantic Treaty as an opportunity to protect the interests and people of the signatory nations. Instead, he saw it as a rostrum for proffering the need for an anti-interventionist foreign policy that would allow the United States to enter into military engagements only when the security of the nation was threatened, something the North Atlantic Treaty did not permit. While this decision may seem centered on an ulterior agenda, realistically, it demonstrated one of the highest levels of political courage during the Cold War.

One of only eleven Republican Senators to vote against ratification, Taft was at the head of a bold minority who aimed to prevent the tarnishing of the United States’ “traditional policy of neutrality and non-interference with other nations” (Taft 12). The intentions of this minority, however, were dashed on July 21, 1949, when the North Atlantic Treaty would pass through the Senate (NAP). The Treaty was seen as the appropriate response to the threat posed by Soviet Russia, effectively conveying the message that a militaristic advance against any one of the signatory nations “in Europe or North America shall be considered an attack against them all” (The North Atlantic Treaty). In spite of the world reveling in the passage of the Treaty, the Republican Senator from Ohio encountered major scrutiny for his controversial views on foreign intervention.

The negative repercussions of Taft’s adulation of anti-interventionist foreign policy, characterized by his vote against the ratification of the North Atlantic Treaty, were scattered across the remainder of his political career (Bresiger). In 1940, Taft set his sights on furthering his political resume to include not only legislative experience but also experience in the executive branch, specifically as president. Viewed as an irascible, isolationist by the majority of his constituents, he struggled to gain political supporters at the Republican National Convention. In the end, Taft would not gain enough support from the delegates to earn the nomination for the general election. Unwavered, Taft began rapt preparation for the 1948 election. As the National Convention approached, many considered Taft a favorite for receiving the nomination. However, the delegates of the convention passed him over, again, selecting a more liberal candidate in Thomas Dewey (Robert A. Taft: More than ‘Mr. Republican’). A lesser politician would have viewed this second failure as a nudge intended to alter the political beliefs that characterize his career. Taft, however, chose to disregard this sentiment, excepting the fact that he could’ve been adding his name to a list of Senators who would “endanger or end their careers by resisting the will of their constituents” (Kennedy 23). Taft continued his efforts to secure the Republican nomination in the 1952 election. Yet, matched against the internationalists of the Eisenhower campaign, Taft struggled, yet again, to gain traction and support for his exceedingly conservative, anti-interventionist platform. The Republican party would select Eisenhower as their candidate for the general election, furthering Taft’s drought to three years without a nomination (Robert A. Taft: American Politician).

Robert Taft’s effort in promoting rejection of the North Atlantic Treaty characterized him as a beatnik defiant to the political pressures “which drive a Senator to abandon or subdue his conscience” (Kennedy 4). A storied Senate career saw Taft develop into a courageous nonconformist, willing to risk the furtherance of his career by standing against traditional foreign policy. As a result of his vote against internationalists, Taft never achieved his ultimate goal in politics, the presidency. However, he also never had to experience the subsequent consequences of sacrificing his moral and political beliefs for the sake of satisfying other politicians. Instead, Taft reveled in his choice to unconditionally support the beliefs that he held close to his heart, something only a truly, politically courageous Senator is capable of doing.

Bresiger, Gregory. “Robert Taft and His Forgotten ‘Isolationism’.” Mises Daily Articles, Mises Institute, 8 March 2014, mises.org/library/robert-taft-and-his-forgotten-“isolationism”.

Kennedy, John F. Profiles in Courage. HarperCollins Publishers, 2003.

“NAP. Resolution of Ratification (⅔ Majority Required).” GovTrack, 21 July 1949, www.govtrack.us/congress/votes/80-1947/s40.

“Robert A. Taft: American Politician.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 24 October 2003, www.britannica.com/biography/Robert-A-Taft.

Taft, Senator Robert A. A Foreign Policy for Americans. Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1951.


AMERICAN INTERVENTION IN THE RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR

Although he supported the Open Door notes as an excellent economic policy in China, Roosevelt lamented the fact that the United States had no strong military presence in the region to enforce it. Clearly, without a military presence there, he could not as easily use his “big stick” threat credibly to achieve his foreign policy goals. As a result, when conflicts did arise on the other side of the Pacific, Roosevelt adopted a policy of maintaining a balance of power among the nations there. This was particularly evident when the Russo-Japanese War erupted in 1904.

In 1904, angered by the massing of Russian troops along the Manchurian border, and the threat it represented to the region, Japan launched a surprise naval attack upon the Russian fleet. Initially, Roosevelt supported the Japanese position. However, when the Japanese fleet quickly achieved victory after victory, Roosevelt grew concerned over the growth of Japanese influence in the region and the continued threat that it represented to China and American access to those markets ([link]). Wishing to maintain the aforementioned balance of power, in 1905, Roosevelt arranged for diplomats from both nations to attend a secret peace conference in Portsmouth, New Hampshire. The resultant negotiations secured peace in the region, with Japan gaining control over Korea, several former Russian bases in Manchuria, and the southern half of Sakhalin Island. These negotiations also garnered the Nobel Peace Prize for Roosevelt, the first American to receive the award.


When Japan later exercised its authority over its gains by forcing American business interests out of Manchuria in 1906–1907, Roosevelt felt he needed to invoke his “big stick” foreign policy, even though the distance was great. He did so by sending the U.S. Great White Fleet on maneuvers in the western Pacific Ocean as a show of force from December 1907 through February 1909. Publicly described as a goodwill tour, the message to the Japanese government regarding American interests was equally clear. Subsequent negotiations reinforced the Open Door policy throughout China and the rest of Asia. Roosevelt had, by both the judicious use of the “big stick” and his strategy of maintaining a balance of power, kept U.S. interests in Asia well protected.


Browse the Smithsonian National Portrait Gallery to follow Theodore Roosevelt from Rough Rider to president and beyond.


William Taft / William Taft - Key Events

William Howard Taft takes the oath of office, becoming the twenty-seventh President of the United States. Taft had been handpicked by his predecessor, Theodore Roosevelt, and trusted to carry through Theodore Roosevelt's progressivism. Not surprisingly, Taft makes many references to his “distinguished predecessor” in his inaugural address. Nevertheless, a newfound chill had arisen between the two men, mirroring the frigid temperatures in the capital that day.

A special session of the United States Congress convenes to consider revision of the tariff. On March 16, Taft sends a special message to Congress urging prompt revision of the tariff.

Robert E. Peary reaches the North Pole.

Helen “Nellie” Taft suffers a stroke, leaving her speech impaired. Her recovery lasts approximately one year.

Delivering a message to Congress, Taft proposes a two-percent tax on the net income of all corporations except banks, which he believes will make up for revenue lost by tariff reductions. He also proposes that Congress adopt a constitutional amendment that would permit the collection of personal federal income taxes.

The Senate passes a resolution calling for a Sixteenth Amendment to the Constitution, authorizing Congress to collect income taxes.

Taft cables the Chinese regent Prince Chun, requesting that China grant American investors a share of a loan that had been floated in Europe for the purposes of building a railroad in southern China. The Chinese reluctantly grant the United States investment privileges.

Taft signs the Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act, which establishes a Tariff Board and reduces the tariff.

President Taft begins a tour of the southern and western states of the United States.

While on a tour of the United States, Taft calls the Payne-Aldrich Act “the best” tariff bill ever passed by the Republican Party, leaving both Republican progressives and party regulars dismayed.

Taft visits Mexican dictator Porfirio DÌaz at El Paso, Texas, and at Juarez, Mexico.

Taft returns from his trip across the United States, having made 259 speeches. An observer in Winona, MN comments about Taft, “I knew he was good natured but I never dreamed he was so dull.”

Louis Glavis, chief of the Field Division of the Department of the Interior, charges in Collier's Weekly magazine that Secretary of the Interior Richard Ballinger conspired to defraud the public domain in the Alaskan coal fields and that the Taft administration was complicit in Ballinger's wrongdoing.

Taft orders two U.S. warships to Nicaragua in response to the deaths of 500 revolutionaries, and two of their American advisors, at the hands of Nicaragua dictator José Santos Zelaya. The further threat of American force convinces Zelaya to retire on December 16.

Special government prosecutor Frank Kellogg wins a Court of Appeals case against Standard Oil, which is ruled a monopoly and in violation of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act.

Taft appoints General Leonard Wood as Chief of Staff of the Army. He also elevates circuit judge Horace H. Lurton to the Supreme Court.

Taft fires Gifford Pinchot, head of the United States Forest Services, upon the release of a letter Pinchot had written to Senator Dolliver of Iowa on behalf of two of his employees implicated in the Glavis slučaj. Pinchot was a leading conservationist and one of the most recognizable officials in the federal government.

Secretary of State Philander Knox tours Central and South America on a good-will mission.

Representative George Norris, a progressive Republican from Nebraska, wins a major procedural victory in the House of Representatives when that body approves a plan by which the members of the House Rules Committee would be elected by the full House, rather than appointed by the Speaker of the House. This represented a major defeat for Speaker “Uncle Joe” Cannon (R-IL), a leading opponent of the progressives.

President Taft appoints Governor Charles E. Hughes of New York to the Supreme Court.

At a congressional investigation into the Glavis-Ballinger dispute, attorney Louis Brandeis, representing Glavis, reveals damaging information about the Taft administration. Congress clears Ballinger and the Taft administration of any wrongdoing, however.

Taft obtains an injunction to prevent western railroads from raising freight rates. Taft was a fervent anti-trust supporter whose unrelenting anti-trust crusade outmatched even that of Teddy Roosevelt.

Taft elects not to greet Theodore Roosevelt upon the latter's return from Africa, a move that widens the rift between the two men.

TR declines Taft's invitation to the White House but praises the President's progress on a number of fronts, including railroad legislation, a postal savings bill, and conservationism.

Congress passes the Mann Act, also known as the “white slave traffic act,” which prohibits the interstate or international transport of women for “immoral purposes.”

Taft signs the Postal Savings Bank Act, which allowed one bank in each state, under federal supervision, to give two percent interest on accounts under $500.

TR returns and delivers the most radical speech of his political career at Osawatomie, Kansas. In his “New Nationalism” speech, Roosevelt outlines a new role for the government in dealing with social issues. His program takes American progressivism in a new direction, endorsing conservation, control of trusts, labor protection, and a graduated income tax. It also embraces the growing conviction that the nation must address the plight of children, women, and the underprivileged.

Taft rejects a proposed dinner, given by the National Conservation Congress, that would honor both himself and TR.

The International Court of Arbitration at The Hague settles a dispute between Britain and the United States over the Newfoundland fisheries.

Taft, in a letter to his brother, comments that Roosevelt “has proposed a program ("New Nationalism") which it is absolutely impossible to carry out except by a revision of the federal Constitution. In most of these speeches he has utterly ignored me. His attitude toward me is one that I find difficult to understand and explain.”

At the New York State Republican Convention in Saratoga, New York, Taft supports Roosevelt's choice for governor of New York, Henry Stimson.

The National Urban League is formed in New York. Its mission is “to enable African Americans to secure economic self-reliance, parity and power and civil rights.”

Taft appoints Willis Van Devanter to the Supreme Court to replace Justice William Moody.

In congressional elections, Democrats win control of the House of Representatives for the first time since 1894, gaining a 228 to 162 to 1 majority. In the Senate, Republicans hold a 51 to 41 advantage.

Taft appoints Associate Justice Edward White as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court in January, Taft would also appoint Joseph R. Lamar to the Supreme Court.

Wisconsin Senator Robert LaFollette establishes The National Progressive Republican League in Washington, D.C.

The United States and Great Britain sign a treaty guaranteeing the preservation and protection of pelagic fur seals in Bering Sea waters.

Taft appoints a commission to investigate postal rates for newspapers and magazines its report helps to convince Congress that a recent rate increase was justified.

Taft orders the mobilization of 20,000 American soldiers along the Mexican border after American ambassador to Mexico Henry Lane Wilson reports that the safety of Americans residing in Mexico may be endangered.

Taft appoints Walter Fisher, an ally of Gifford Pinchot, as Secretary of the Interior to replace Richard Ballinger, who resigned.

Taft appoints Henry Stimson secretary of war to replace Jacob Dickinson.

The Triangle Shirtwaist Company bursts into flames in Manhattan. Women who worked in very cramped and unsafe conditions stampeded toward inadequate exits 146 women would die, some even leaping to the pavement hoping to survive. The tragedy highlights the need to provide social justice for immigrant sweatshop workers, and the New York legislature responds by undertaking remedial legislation to ensure better working conditions and provide fire safety measures.

The U.S. Supreme Court orders the dissolution of the Standard Oil Company.

Standard Oil Company Dissolved

On May 15, 1911, Chief Justice Edward White issued the Supreme Court's majority opinion upholding the dissolution of the Standard Oil Company. White agreed that the Standard Oil Company's business practices did violate the Sherman Antitrust Act because they were anticompetitive and abusive. However, he muted the circuit court's breakup plan for the company, allowing Standard Oil six months to spin off its subsidiaries instead of the initial three months mandated.

After the circuit court of St. Louis initially ruled against the Standard Oil Company, the company's lawyers prepared their appeal to the Supreme Court. With the support of President William Taft, Attorney General George Wickersham and prosecutor Frank Kellogg presented the government's case in January 1911. Mimicking Kellogg's successful argumentation in front of the St. Louis circuit court, they claimed that Standard Oil's consolidation of the petroleum industry through its trust company and its enormous size restricted interstate trade and produced a monopoly as outlawed in the Sherman Antitrust Act. Standard Oil lawyers countered that the circuit court's decree for the breakup of the company violated the due process clause of the Fifth Amendment that guaranteed freedom of contract and right to property. The company's lawyers also claimed that the oil trust was beyond the constitutional reach of the Sherman Act because the corporation engaged in production, not commerce.

The way Chief Justice White interpreted the Sherman Act altered the vague sweep of the legislation. The Sherman Act was worded to outlaw every single contract or arrangement that resulted in a restriction of trade. White added a rule of reason test-a centuries-old principle of common law-to his interpretation of the act. If the restrictions of trade produced by a trust were reasonable, that is, did not infringe on individual rights or the public good, then the judiciary need not dissolve the trust through the arbitrariness of the Sherman Act. Only if a trust unreasonably interfered with commerce in a way that damaged the American economy could it be dissolved. White's extraneous interpretation of the Standard Oil case considered the possibility of trusts to be socially beneficial. It also allowed the judiciary to be the ultimate arbitrator to what was a “reasonable” infringement of commerce by a corporation, a principle Justice Harlan claimed violated the intent of the Sherman Act's authors.

President Taft supported the decision, claiming it was not a dramatic departure from previous cases. The President had little ideologically invested in the Standard Oil case and actually supported industrial combinations. The case had been former President Theodore Roosevelt's idea and the centerpiece of his popular trust-busting campaign. Taft could not afford to break with Roosevelt on the case and so he supported the prosecution of Standard Oil for his own political gain. Taft praised the decision while progressives and Democrats attacked White's reason test.

President Porfirio DÌaz of Mexico resigns.

The Supreme Court finds the American Tobacco Company in violation of the Sherman Anti-trust Act and orders its dissolution.

The United States signs a treaty with Nicaragua which would have made that nation a U.S. protectorate. The Senate later rejects the treaty.

Senator Robert LaFollette, a progressive from Wisconsin, announces his candidacy for the Republican presidential nomination.

Taft signs the Canadian Tariff Reciprocity Agreement.

Taft signs general arbitration treaties with France and England. Roosevelt, along with his friend and ally Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, lead the campaign in opposition to the treaties.

Taft vetoes tariff reductions on wool and woolen goods, arguing that the Tariff Board had not completed its investigation.

In the Canadian parliamentary elections, reciprocity with the United States is defeated, killing the treaty signed earlier in the year by the United States and Canada.

Taft tours the western United States to drum up support for his arbitration treaties with England and France. In March 1912, the Senate will approve the treaties, which are rejected by Britain and France.

Taft files suit against U.S. Steel for violating the Sherman Act. In papers filed for the suit, Taft alleges that Roosevelt in 1907 had mistakenly let U.S. Steel purchase the Tennessee Coal and Iron Company. This action damages the Taft-TR relationship irreparably.

Francisco Madero, a wealthy landowner, assumes office after being elected President of Mexico.

Andrew Carnegie founds the Carnegie Corporation with an initial endowment of $125,000,000.

New Mexico is admitted as the forty-seventh state.

Taft urges the adoption of an annual federal budget.

American troops occupy Tientsin, China, to protect American interests from the Chinese Revolution.

Arizona is admitted as the forty-eighth state.

President Taft nominates Mahlon Pitney for a seat on the U.S. Supreme Court. Pitney is confirmed by the Senate and takes his oath on March 13.

Theodore Roosevelt announces that his “hat is in the ring” as a candidate for President. Taft and running mate James S. Sherman are re-nominated together, the first time that Republicans endorse a sitting President and vice president for the party ticket.

The Justice Department begins proceedings to halt the merger of the Southern Pacific and Union Pacific railroads.

Dr. Harvey Wiley, Head Chemist at the Department of Agriculture, resigns because of differences with Secretary of Agriculture James Wilson. Wiley was a chief proponent of safe food and drug laws.

Mrs. Taft plants the first of the cherry trees in Washington, D.C., given to the United States by Japan as a symbol of international friendship, along the Tidal Basin of Potomac Park.

Taft signs a bill authorizing the creation of the Children's Bureau in the Department of Commerce. The agency is charged with monitoring child welfare.

The British luxury liner Titanic sinks off the coast of Newfoundland. Taft's key aide, Archie Butt, perishes in the tragedy.

President Taft appoints Julia Lathrop head of the newly-created Children's Bureau. She is the highest ranking woman in the U.S. government.

American Marines land in Cuba to ensure order under the Platt Amendment.

Taft wins the Republican presidential nomination over Theodore Roosevelt. James Sherman is re-nominated for vice-president. The bitter primary campaign between TR and Taft featured a thorough discussion within the Republican Party on the issue of government regulation.

Congress passes a labor law authorizing an eight-hour working day for all workers with federal contracts.

The Democratic Party nominates Governor Woodrow Wilson of New Jersey as its candidate for President. Thomas Marshall of Indiana is nominated as vice president.

TR is nominated for President by the Progressive (Bull Moose) Party. Hiram Johnson of California is nominated for vice president on the ticket.

U.S. battleships are sent to Nicaragua to protect American economic interests and rail lines.

Taft signs the Panama Canal Act, which exempts American coastwise shipping from paying tolls when transiting the Panama Canal. Many Americans, as well as Britons, consider this a violation of the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty of 1901.

U.S. Marines are sent to restore order in Santo Domingo.

Vice President John Sherman dies, and Nicholas Butler, the president of Columbia University, replaces him on the Republican presidential ticket.

Democrat Woodrow Wilson defeats Taft and TR in the 1912 presidential election. Wilson wins the electoral college with 435 votes to TR's 88 and Taft's 8. In the popular vote, Wilson defeats TR by over 2 million votes, and Taft by almost 3 million, but TR musters the best third-party showing in history with 27 percent of the popular vote. In congressional elections, Democrats take a majority in the Senate, 51-44-1. In the House, Democrats enjoy a 291-127-17 lead.

On November 5, 1912, President William Taft was defeated by Democrat Woodrow Wilson in the presidential election of 1912. The three-way race between Taft, Wilson, and former President Theodore Roosevelt illustrated the rise of progressivism in presidential politics. Although Roosevelt's Progressive Party had one of the strongest third-party showings in American history, he and Taft divided the Republican Party vote, and Wilson easily won the election.

Before President Theodore Roosevelt left office in 1909, he hand-picked William Taft as his successor and worked to get him elected. But once Taft became President, Roosevelt became increasingly disenchanted with his successor. He felt Taft was not progressive enough, turning his back on environmental conservation and targeting so-called good trusts. Enraged by his protégée's tenure, Roosevelt decided to challenge him for the Republican nomination in 1912.

The Republicans met in Chicago in June 1912, hopelessly split between the Roosevelt progressives and the supporters of President Taft. Roosevelt came to the convention having won a series of preferential primaries that put him ahead of the President in the race for party delegates. Taft, however, controlled the convention floor, and his backers managed to exclude most of the Roosevelt delegates by not recognizing their credentials. These tactics enraged the former President, who then refused to allow himself to be nominated, paving the way for Taft to win on the first ballot.

Roosevelt and his supporters bolted the Republican Party and reconvened in Chicago two weeks later to form the Progressive Party. Roosevelt became the Progressive Party candidate for President, and Governor Hiram Johnson of California joined the ticket as Roosevelt's running mate. Roosevelt electrified the convention with a dramatic speech in which he announced that he would “stand at Armageddon and battle for the Lord” and declared that he felt “as strong as a Bull Moose,” thus giving the new party its popular name.

At the Democratic National Convention in Baltimore at the end of June, Speaker of the House James “Champ” Clark entered as the favorite to gain the party's nomination after a strong showing in the primaries against New Jersey governor Woodrow Wilson. Democrats engaged in an intense struggle over the nomination, however, prompted by William Jennings Bryan's criticism that Clark's machine base was too close to big business. Wilson secured the nomination on the forty-sixth ballot of the convention. His selection over the more moderate, less charismatic Clark ensured the Democrats a vibrant, progressive-minded candidate to challenge the vim of Roosevelt and overshadow Taft. Democrats nominated Thomas R. Marshall of Indiana for the vice presidency.

Unlike many proceeding campaigns, which boiled down to contests of personality or character, the election of 1912 remained essentially a campaign of ideas. Wilson and Roosevelt emphasized their progressive ideologies on the campaign trail. Wilson devised the “New Freedom” appellation for his campaign, emphasizing a return to individualism in industrial enterprise encouraged by the end of tariff protection, the breaking up of Wall Street's control of financial markets, and vigorous antitrust prosecution. Wilson believed federal power should be used to break up all concentrations of wealth and privilege, disagreeing with Roosevelt that monopolies could serve a common good through their efficiency.

Roosevelt built his “New Nationalism” campaign on the back of ideas he had been advocating since his return to public life in 1910, including strengthening federal regulatory control over interstate commerce, corporate conglomeration, and labor conditions. President Taft emphasized how his brand of conservatism offered practical solutions to tangible problems facing Americans. He chided the idealism of his opponents as dangerous to the constitutional system. Socialist Eugene V. Debs joined the triumvirate with his campaign more focused on socialist education for American voters than success. Debs urged the public ownership of transportation and communication networks, progressive income and corporate taxes, and a rigorous worker protection laws.

With the Republican Party badly split between its conservative and progressive wings, neither Taft nor Roosevelt rightfully expected victory in November. The election yielded the Democratic Party its greatest victory since before the Civil War as it gained both houses of Congress and the presidency. The popular vote was more an endorsement of progressivism than of Wilson as he and Roosevelt combined for nearly 70 percent of the ballots cast. Wilson failed to win a majority of the popular vote, earning 41 percent of the popular vote to Roosevelt's 27 percent. Taft finished with 23 percent of the vote, and Debs made a considerable showing with 6 percent. Taft won only two states in the Electoral College: Vermont and Utah. Roosevelt carried progressive strongholds California, South Dakota, Pennsylvania, Washington, and Michigan, but could not contend with Wilson's enormous success in his home region of the South and his wins in key Northern states such as New York and Wisconsin. Wilson carried 435 of 531 votes in the Electoral College to become the nation's twenty-eighth President.


Dalje čitanje

Studies of Taft are legion and include innumerable magazine and newspaper articles covering not only his own long career in Cincinnati and Washington but also much about his youth and family heritage. The student of Taft, however, should be directed to the large collection of his papers in the Manuscripts Division of the Library of Congress and to these studies: William S. White, The Taft Story (1954) Russell Kirk and James McClellan, The Political Principles of Robert A. Taft (1967) and particularly James T. Patterson, Mr. Republican: A Biography of Robert A. Taft (1972). Taft himself authored two books, A Foreign Policy for Americans (1951) and (with Congressman T. V. Smith of Illinois) Foundations of Democracy: A Series of Debates (1939), which provide insights into his thinking. □